Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 168
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Ardila, Alfredo 2015. A Proposed Neurological Interpretation of Language Evolution. Behavioural Neurology, Vol. 2015, p. 1.

    Leiken, Kimberly McElree, Brian and Pylkkänen, Liina 2015. Filling Predictable and Unpredictable Gaps, with and without Similarity-Based Interference: Evidence for LIFG Effects of Dependency Processing. Frontiers in Psychology, Vol. 6,

    Schröder, Astrid Burchert, Frank and Stadie, Nicole 2015. Training-induced improvement of noncanonical sentence production does not generalize to comprehension: evidence for modality-specific processes. Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 32, Issue. 3-4, p. 195.

    Leiken, Kimberly and Pylkkänen, Liina 2014. MEG evidence that the LIFG effect of object extraction requires similarity-based interference. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, Vol. 29, Issue. 3, p. 381.

    McCloskey, Michael and Schubert, Teresa 2014. Shared versus separate processes for letter and digit identification. Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 31, Issue. 5-6, p. 437.

    Wang, Honglei Yoshida, Masaya and Thompson, Cynthia K. 2014. Parallel functional category deficits in clauses and nominal phrases: The case of English agrammatism. Journal of Neurolinguistics, Vol. 27, Issue. 1, p. 75.

    Franco, Ludovico Zampieri, Elisa and Meneghello, Francesca 2013. Prepositions inside (and at the edge) of words: a view from agrammatism. Language Sciences, Vol. 40, p. 95.

    Ardila, Alfredo 2012. Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders.

    Biran, Michal and Friedmann, Naama 2012. The representation of lexical-syntactic information: Evidence from syntactic and lexical retrieval impairments in aphasia. Cortex, Vol. 48, Issue. 9, p. 1103.

    Leikin, Mark Ibrahim, Raphiq and Aharon-Peretz, Judith 2012. Sentence comprehension following moderate closed head injury in adults. Journal of Integrative Neuroscience, Vol. 11, Issue. 03, p. 225.

    Love, Tracy and Brumm, Kathleen 2012. Cognition and Acquired Language Disorders.

    Nass, Ruth D. and Gazzaniga, Michael S. 2011. Comprehensive Physiology.

    Shallice, Tim and Buiatti, Tania 2011. Types of case series—the anatomically based approach: Commentary on M. F. Schwartz & G. S. Dell: Case series investigations in cognitive neuropsychology. Cognitive Neuropsychology, Vol. 28, Issue. 7, p. 500.

    Ardila, Alfredo 2010. A proposed reinterpretation and reclassification of aphasic syndromes. Aphasiology, Vol. 24, Issue. 3, p. 363.

    Friedmann, Naama Reznick, Julia Dolinski-Nuger, Dina and Soboleva, Katya 2010. Comprehension and production of movement-derived sentences by Russian speakers with agrammatic aphasia. Journal of Neurolinguistics, Vol. 23, Issue. 1, p. 44.

    Grodzinsky, Yosef 2010. The Picture of the Linguistic Brain: How Sharp Can It Be? Reply to Fedorenko & Kanwisher. Language and Linguistics Compass, Vol. 4, Issue. 8, p. 605.

    Mätzig, Simone Druks, Judit Neeleman, Ad and Craig, Gordon 2010. Spared syntax and impaired spell-out: The case of prepositions. Journal of Neurolinguistics, Vol. 23, Issue. 4, p. 354.

    Sidtis, Diana Van Lancker Kempler, Daniel Jackson, Catherine and Metter, E. Jeffrey 2010. Prosodic changes in aphasic speech: timing. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 155.

    Shetreet, Einat Friedmann, Naama and Hadar, Uri 2009. An fMRI study of syntactic layers: Sentential and lexical aspects of embedding. NeuroImage, Vol. 48, Issue. 4, p. 707.

    Dickey, Michael Walsh Milman, Lisa H. and Thompson, Cynthia K. 2008. Judgment of functional morphology in agrammatic aphasia. Journal of Neurolinguistics, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 35.


A redefinition of the syndrome of Broca's aphasia: Implications for a neuropsychological model of language

  • Rita Sloan Berndt (a1) and Alfonso Caramazza (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 28 November 2008

A neuropsychological theory is offered to account for the syndrome of Broca's aphasia. A critical review of the literature, with emphasis on recent research, provides the basis for a redefinition of the syndrome that considerably broadens its classical description. The argument is advanced that the focus of neuropsychological explanation should be on theoretically separable psychological mechanisms that might be disrupted in relative isolation from other components in conditions of focal brain damage, rather than on isolated units of aphasic performance. The symptoms that characterize Broca's aphasia are explained as predictable behavioral manifestations of a central disruption of the syntactic parsing component of the language System, coupled with a (theoretically independent) articulatory deficit that affects only the speech output System. The neuroanatomical implications of this argument are considered within the framework of the classical “strong localizationist” hypothesis.

Corresponding author
Rita Sloan Berndt, Department of Psychology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

E. Andreewsky , & X. Seron Implicit processing of grammatical rules in a classical case of agrammatism. Cortex, 1975, 11, 379–90.

D. F. Benson The third alexia. Archives of Neurology, 1977, 34, 327–31.

D. F. Benson , J. Brown , & E. B. Tomlinson Varieties of alexia: Word and letter blindness. Neurology, 1971, 21, 951–57.

L. S. Bliss , R. S. Tikofsky , & A. M. Guilford Aphasies' sentence repetition behavior as a function of grammaticality. Cortex, 1976, 12, 113–21.

S. Blumstein , E. Baker , & H. Goodglass Phonological factors in auditory comprehension in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 1977, 15, 1930.

S. Blumstein , W. Cooper , E. B. Zurif , & A. Caramazza The perception and production of VOT in aphasia. Neuropsychologia. 1976, 15, 371–83.

S. Blumstein , & H. Goodglass The perception of stress as a semantic cue in aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1972, 15, 800806.

R. Brown A first language: The early stages. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1973.

A. Caramazza , & R. S. Berndt Semantic and syntactic processes in aphasia: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 1978, 85(4), 898918.

A. Caramazza , & E. B. Zurif Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language, 1976, 3, 572–82.

A. Caramazza , E. B. Zurif , & H. Gardner Sentence memory in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 1978, 16, 661–69.

M. Dennis , & B. Kohn Comprehension of syntax in infantile hemiplegies after cerebral hemidecortication: Left-hemisphere superiority. Brain and Language, 1975, 2, 472–82.

M. Dennis , & H. H. Whitaker Language acquisition following hemidecortication. Brain and Language, 1976, 3, 404–33.

E. DeRenzi , & L. A. Vignolo The Token Test: A sensitive test to detect receptive disturbances in aphasics. Brain, 1962, 85, 665–78.

J. G. de Villiers Quantitative aspects of agrammatism in aphasia. Cortex, 1974, 10, 3654.

J. A. Fodor , & M. F. Garrett Some syntactic determinants of sentential complexity. Perception and Psychophysics, 1967, 2, 289–96.

H. Gardner , G. Denes , & E. Zurif Critical reading at the sentence level in aphasia. Cortex, 1975, 11, 6072.

H. Gardner , & E. Zurif “Bee” but not “be”: Oral reading of single words in aphasia and alexia. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 181–90.

H. Gardner , & E. Zurif Critical reading of words and phrases in aphasia. Brain and Language, 1976, 3, 173–90.

J. B. Gleason , H. Goodglass , E. Green , N. Ackerman , & M. R. Hyde The retrieval of syntax in Broca's aphasia. Brain and Language, 1975, 2, 451–71.

H. Goodglass , & J. Berko Agrammatism and inflectional morphology in English. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1960, 3, 257–67.

H. Goodglass , S. E. Blumstein , J. B. Gleason , M. R. Hyde , E. Green , & S. Statlender The effect of syntactic encoding on sentence comprehension in aphasia. Brain and Language, 1979, 7, 201–9.

H. Goodglass , I. G. Fodor , & C. Schulhoff Prosodic factors in grammar – Evidence from aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1967, 10, (1), 520.

H. Goodglass , J. B. Gleason , N. A. Bernholtz , & M. R. Hyde Some linguistic structures in the speech of a Broca's aphasic. Cortex, 1972, 8, 191212.

H. Goodglass , J. B. Gleason , & M. R. Hyde Some dimensions of auditory language comprehension in aphasia. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 1970, 13, 595606.

H. Goodglass , & J. Hunt Grammatical complexity and aphasic speech. Word, 1958, 14, 197207.

H. Goodglass , & M. Hunter A linguistic comparison of speech and writ ing in two types of aphasia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 1970, 3, 2835.

H. Goodglass , F. A. Quadfasel , & W. H. Timberlake Phrase length and the type and severity of aphasia. Cortex, 1964, 1, 133–53.

K. M. Heilman , & R. J. Scholes The nature of comprehension errors in Broca's, conduction, and Wernicke's aphasics. Cortex, 1976, 12(3), 258–65.

D. Howes Hypotheses concerning the functions of the language mechanism. In S. Salzinger and K. Salzinger (Eds.) Research in verbal behavior and some neurophysiological implications. New York: Academic Press: 1967.

M. Isserlin Uber Agrammatismus. Zeitschrift für die Gesante Neurologie and Psychiatrie, 1922, 75, 332416.

S. C. Johnson Hierarchical clustering schemes. Psychometrika, 1967, 32, 241–54.

M. L. Kean The linguistic interpretation of aphasic syndromes: Agrammatism in Broca's aphasia, an example. Cognition, 1977, 5, 946.

A. Kertesz , D. Lesk , & P. McCabe Isotope localization of infarcts in aphasia. Archives of Neurology, 1977, 34, 590601.

J. Kimball Seven principles of surface structure parsing in natural language. Cognition, 1973, 2, 1547.

H. H. J. Kolk The linguistic interpretation of Broca's aphasia: A reply to M. L. Kean. Cognition, 1978, 6, 353–61. (a)

H. H. J. Kolk Judgment of sentence structure in Broca's aphasia. Neuropsychologia. 1978, 16, 617–25. (b)

R. Lesser Verbal comprehension in aphasia: An English version of three Italian tests. Cortex, 1974, 10, 247–63.

A. R. Luria Traumatic aphasia. The Hague: Mouton, 1970.

A. R. Luria Basic problems of neurolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 1976.

O. S. M. Marin , E. M. Saffran , & M. F. Schwartz Dissociations of language in aphasia: Implications for normal functions. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1976, 280, 868–84.

J. C. Marshall & F. Newcombe Syntactic and semantic errors in paralexia. Neuropsychologia, 1966, 4, 169–76.

J. C. Marshall & F. Newcombe Patterns of paralexia: A psycholinguistic approach, Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 1973, 2, 175–99.

E. Martin Toward an analysis of subjective phrase structure. Psychological Bulletin, 1970, 74, 153–66.

D. Olson Language and thought: Aspects of a cognitive theory of semantics. Psychological Review, 1970, 77, 257.

D. Parisi , & L. Pizzamiglio Syntactic comprehension in aphasia. Cortex, 1970, 6, 204–15.

K. E. Patterson , & A. J. Marcel Aphasia, dyslexia, and the phonological coding of written words. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. 1977, 29, 307–18.

A. Pick Die Agrammatischer Sprachstonngen. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1913.

K. Poeck , M. Kerschensteiner , & W. Hartje A quantitative study of language understanding in fluent and nonfluent aphasia. Cortex, 1972, 8, 299304.

J. T. E. Richardson The effect of word imageability in acquired dyslexia. Neuropsychologia, 1975, 13, 281–88.

E. M. Saffran , & O. S. M. Marin Reading without phonology: Evidence from aphasia. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1977, 29, 515525.

J. A. Samuels , & D. F. Benson Some aspects of language comprehension in anterior aphasia. Brain and Language, 1979, 8, 275–86.

M. L. Schnitzer Aphasiological evidence for five linguistic hypotheses. Language, 1974, 50, 300–15.

T. Shallice , & E. K. Warrington Word recognition in a phonemic dyslexie patient. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1975, 27, 187–99.

C. M. Shewan Error pattern in auditory comprehension of adult aphasics. Cortex, 1976, 12, 325–36.

C. M. Shewan , & C. J. Canter Effects of vocabulary, syntax, and sentence length on auditory comprehension in aphasic patients. Cortex, 1971, 7, 209–26.

M. D. Smith On the understanding of some relational words in aphasia. Neuropsychologia, 1974, 12, 377–84.

T. R. vonStockert Recognition of syntactic structure in aphasic patients. Cortex, 1972, 8, 323–34.

T. R. vonStockert , & L. Bader Some relations of grammar and lexicon in aphasia. Cortex, 1976, 12, 4960.

E. B. Zurif , A. Caramazza , & R. Myerson Grammatical judgments of agrammatic aphasics. Neuropsychologia, 1972, 10, 405–17.

E. B. Zurif , E. Green , A. Caramazza , & C. Goodenough Grammatical intuitions of aphasic patients: Sensitivity to functors. Cortex, 1976, 12, 183–6.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *