Skip to main content

Additive trilingualism: Evidence from the Basque Country

  • Jasone Cenoz (a1) and Jose F. Valencia (a1)

This research examines the influence of bilingualism on third language learning in a bilingual community, the Basque Country. The English-language achievement of students instructed through the majority (Spanish) and the minority (Basque) languages in the Basque Country was measured. In addition, other cognitive, sociostructural, social psychological, and educational variables were also included in the study. Several sets of regression analyses were carried out to analyze the role of bilingual education. The results indicated that bilingualism and several other variables (intelligence, motivation, age, and exposure) were good predictors of English-language achievement. This research suggests, then, that immersion in the minority language for Spanish-speaking students and school reinforcement of the native language for Basque-speaking students have positive linguistic outcomes.

Corresponding author
Dr. Jasone Cenoz, Ingles eta Alemaniar Filologi Saila, Filologia eta Geografi-Historia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Marques de Urquijo s/n Apt. 2111, 01006 Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain
Hide All
Adiv, E. (1984). An example of double immersion. Language and Society, 12, 3032.
Aierbe, P., Arregi, P., Etxeberria, Balerdi F., & Etxeberria, Sagastume F. (1989). Urretxu-Legazpi-Zumarraga eskoletako euskararen egoera. Donostia: Kilometroak 85.
Aierbe, P., Etxezarreta, J., & Satrustegi, L. M. (1974). Ikastoletako aurren jakite mailaren azterketa konparatiboa. Zeruko Argia, 603, 1.
Artigal, J. M. (1993). Catalan and Basque immersion programmes. In Beardsmore, H. Baetens (Ed.), European models of bilingual education (pp. 3053). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bain, B. (1975). Toward an integration of Piaget and Vygotsky: Bilingual considerations. Linguistics, 16, 520.
Bain, B., & Yu, A. (1978). Toward an integration of Piaget and Vygotsky: A crosscultural replication concerning cognitive consequences of bilinguality. In Paradis, M. (Ed.), Aspects of bilingualism (pp. 113126). Columbia, SC: Hornbeam.
Baker, C. (1993). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Balkan, L. (1979). Los efectos del bilingüismo en las aptitudes intelectuales. Madrid: Marova.
Ben-Zeev, S. (1977). Mechanisms by which childhood bilingualism affects understanding of language and cognitive structures. In Hornby, P. A. (Ed.), Bilingualism: Psychological, social and educational implications. New York: Academic.
Bialystok, E. (1987). Words as things: Development of word concept by bilingual children. Studies in second language learning, 9, 133140.
Bialystok, E. (1990). Communication strategies. Oxford: Blackwell.
Burstall, C. (1978). Factors affecting foreign language learning: A consideration of some recent research findings. In Kinsella, V. (Ed.), Language teaching and linguistics: Surveys (pp. 121). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Cummins, J. (1976). The influence of bilingualism on cognitive growth: a synthesis of research findings and explanatory hypotheses. Working Papers on Bilingualism, 9, 143.
Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Review of Educational Research, 49, 222251.
Cummins, J. (1981). Age of arrival and immigrant second language learning in Canada: A reassessment. Applied Linguistics, 2, 132149.
Cummins, J. (1988). Research and theory in bilingual education: The Basque situation in international perspective. II Euskal Mundu Biltzarra. Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
Cummins, J. (1989). Foreword. In Olaziregi, I. & Sierra, J., E.I.F.E. 2 Euskararen irakaskuntza: Faktoreen eragina. Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
Galambos, S. J., & Hakuta, K. (1988). Subject-specific and task-specific characteristics of metalinguistic awareness in bilingual children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 9, 141162.
Gardner, R. C. (1985). Social psychology and second language learning. London: Arnold.
Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages. Cambridge: Newbury.
Genesee, F. (1992). Second/foreign language immersion and at-risk English-speaking children. Foreign Language Annals, 25(3), 199213.
Genesee, F., Holobow, N., Lambert, W. E., & Chartrand, L. (1989). Three elementary school alternatives for learning through a second language. Modern Language Journal, 73, 250263.
Genesee, F., Lambert, W. E., & Tucker, G. R. (1978). An experiment in trilingual education: Report 4. Language Learning, 28(2), 343365.
Genesee, F., Sheiner, E., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. (1976). An experiment in trilingual education: Report 1. Canadian Modern Language Review, 32, 115128.
Genesee, F., Tucker, G. R., & Lambert, W. E. (1975). Communication skills of bilingual children. Child Development, 46, 10101014.
Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In Giles, H. (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 307348). New York: Academic.
Giles, H., & Coupland, N. (1991). Language: Contexts and consequences. Buckingham: Open University.
Holobow, N. E., Genesee, F., & Lambert, W. (1991). The effectiveness of a foreign language immersion for children from different ethnic and social class backgrounds: Report 2. Applied Psycholinguistics, 12, 179198.
Ianco-Worrall, A. D. (1972). Bilingualism and cognitive development. Child Development, 43, 13901400.
Jacobs, H. L., Zinkgraf, S. A., Wormuth, D. R., Hartfiel, V. F., & Hughey, J. B. (1981). Testing ESL composition. Newbury: Rowley.
Lambert, W. E. (1981). Bilingualism and language acquisition. In Winitz, J. (Ed.), Native language and foreign language acquisition (pp. 922). New York: The New York Academy of Sciences.
Lemmon, C., & Goggin, J. (1989). The measurement of bilingualism and its relationship to cognitive ability. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 133155.
Nation, R., & McLaughlin, B. (1986). Novices and experts: An information processing approach to the “good language learner” problem. Applied Psycholinguistics, 7, 4156.
Olaziregi, & Sierra, (1989). E.I.F.E. 2 Euskararen irakaskuntza: Faktoreen eragina. Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
Olaziregi, & Sierra, (1990). E.I.F.E. 3 Euskararen irakaskuntza: Faktoreen eragina. Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
Otis, A. S., & Lennon, R. T. (1967). Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World.
Peal, E., & Lambert, W. E. (1962). The relation of bilingualism to intelligence. Psychological Monographs, 76, 123.
Ringbom, H. (1985). Foreign language learning and bilingualism. Turku: Abo Akademi.
Ros, M., Cano, J. I., & Huici, C. (1987). Language and intergroup perception in Spain. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 6(3–4), 243259.
Saif, P. S., & Sheldon, M. E. (1969). An investigation of the experimental French programme at Bedford Park and Allenby public schools. Toronto: Toronto Board of Education.
Sierra, J., & Olaziregi, J.HINE: Hizkuntza idatziaren neurketa eskolan. (1991). Gasteiz: Eusko Jaurlaritza.
Snow, M. A., Met, M., & Genesee, F. (1989). A conceptual framework for the integration of language and content in second/foreign language instruction. TESOL Quarterly, 23(2), 201217.
Swain, M., & Lapkin, S. (1982). Evaluating bilingual education: A Canadian case study. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Swain, M., Lapkin, S., Rowen, N., & Hart, D. (1990). The role of mother tongue literacy in third language learning. Language, Culture and Curriculum, 3, 1.
Thomas, J. (1988). The role played by metalinguistic awareness in second and third language learning. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 9, 235247.
Wagner, D. A., Spratt, J. E., & Ezzaki, A. (1989). Does learning to read in a second language always put the child at a disadvantage? Some counterevidence from Morocco. Applied Psycholinguistics, 10, 3148.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Applied Psycholinguistics
  • ISSN: 0142-7164
  • EISSN: 1469-1817
  • URL: /core/journals/applied-psycholinguistics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 94 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 873 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.