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XIII.—Notes on the Armour worn in Spain from the tenth to the fifteenth century

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  19 July 2011

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The Royal Armoury at Madrid is justly famous. But it is predominantly a Renaissance armoury, and for range and variety must yield the first place in Europe to the other Habsburg armoury at Vienna. If one wishes to trace the history of defensive armour in Spain prior to the sixteenth century one must look farther afield. Actual specimens of medieval armour are to-day as rare in Spain as in other countries, and knowledge of the earlier periods must, as elsewhere, be supplemented by the evidence of contemporary sculpture, painting, and literature.

Research Article
Copyright © The Society of Antiquaries of London 1933

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page 286 note 1 J. Dominguez-Bordona, Spanish Illumination, 1930, pl. 18.

page 287 note 1 Dominguez-Bordona, op. cit., pl. 68.

page 287 note 2 For the contemporary terminology of Spanish arms and armour, see Wilhelm Giese: Waffen nach der Spanischen Literatur des 12 und 13 Jahrhunderts, in vol. vi of Mitteilungen und Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiet der romanischen Philologie, Hamburg, 1925, and much information is to be found in Leguina's, E.Glosario de Voces de Armeria, Madrid, 1912Google Scholar.

page 287 note 3 Kingsley-Porter, Pilgrimage Churches, 670.

page 289 note 1 Bordona, op. cit., pl. 95; and cf. also pls. 100 and 136. There are frequent references in contemporary texts to Yelmos de Zaragoza (Giese, op. cit., p. 113).

page 290 note 1 Defences for the limbs consisting of narrow strips of plate sufficient to guard against a sword-cut, and dating from the fifteenth century, are to be seen in the collection of M. Pauilhac.

page 290 note 2 Carderera, pl. xxxiii.

page 291 note 1 Carderera, pl. xxv.

page 291 note 2 Ibid., pl. xxxiv.

page 292 note 1 The actual crest is of parchment, and only the base, which was added for carrying it in processions, is of wood.

page 292 note 2 Carderera, op. cit., pl. xvii, variously attributed to Ramon Folch †1320 and Rodrigo de Rebolledo †1479.

page 293 note 1 Connoisseur, lxxxvi, 151–4, Sept. 1930.

page 293 note 2 The name Milan is here used generically to cover the whole armour-producing district of Lombardy, part of which, in the Alpine valleys between Bergamo and Brescia, was outside the duchy of Milan.

page 294 note 1 Oswald Graf Trapp and J. G. Mann, Armoury of the Castle of Churburg, 1929, no. 19.

page 294 note 2 Archaeologia, lxxx, 136, pl. xxvii.

page 294 note 3 Sir Guy Laking, Record of European Armour and Arms, ii, fig. 307.

page 294 note 4 Reynaldo dos Santos, As Tapeçarias da Tomada da Arzila, 1925.

page 295 note 1 Motta, E., ‘Armaiuoli milanesi’, in Archivio Storico Lombardo. Anno xli, 1914, p. 200Google Scholar.

page 295 note 2 Ricardo de Orueta, La Escultura funeraria en España (provincias de Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara), 1919, fig. 16.

page 296 note 1 Documentos ineditos para la Historia de España, tomo lxxix, Madrid, 1882, 479541Google Scholar.

page 296 note 2 Fifth Ser. vol. xiii, 79–88.

page 297 note 1 Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, Loan Exhibition of Arms and Armor, 1911, pls. i, ii, iii, iv, vi, and vii.

page 299 note 1 Catalogo de la Real Armeria, Madrid, 1849.

page 299 note 2 New York, Loan Exhibition, 1911, No. 9.

page 300 note 1 Valencia, Cataloga, D 12 and 13.

page 300 note 2 Compare a chamfron at Dresden published by Herr Uhlemann in Z. H. W. K., N.S., vol. iv, pp. 80–7, and the engraved sword-blade in the Instituto Valencia, no. 60.

page 301 note 1 Sir G. F. Laking, Record of European Armour, ii, 15–18.

page 302 note 1 Baron Davillier, Recherches sur l'Orfèvrerie en Espagne, 24, and cf. ibid., pl. viii.

page 302 note 2 Record, ii, 281–7. See also Leguina, Espadas historicas, 1898, 1–48.

page 302 note 3 There was an adarga made of plates of iron in the Pitt-Rivers collection at Farnham, and another is in the Bashford Dean collection in the Metropolitan Museum, New York (Cat. Kienbusch and Granesan, no. 95, pl. xlv).

page 303 note 1 C. S. ffoulkes, Inventory of the Armouries of the Tower of London i, 30.

page 303 note 2 See Lequina, op. cit., 75–117.

page 303 note 3 Barón de los Cuatros Torres, La Espada llamada de Alfonso VI—Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Excursiones, March 1897 (Anno V, 49, 2–12). I am indebted to Mr. C. R. Beard for this reference.

page 305 note 1 e.g. Carderera, op. cit., pl. xxi and xxiii.