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Published online by Cambridge University Press: 23 January 2023
Pandemics have a history of interrupting civilisations. From the Greeks and Romans to the British Empire, pandemics have eroded political authority and caused economic instability. The twenty-first century has been hailed as the ‘Asian century’, with China's ascent as central to a reconfiguration of global capital and power. The COVID-19 pandemic, that began in 2019 and still rages as of this writing, started in China and was exacerbated by initial repression by the local government authorities before the central government could implement appropriate disaster response. Since then, COVID-19 has been one of the most devastating pandemics in the history of globalisation. Its mortality has been coupled with regulatory responses which at times have been debilitating to national economies, no less is this true for China's own regulatory response which has been anomalous across the world. This Special Issue explores the impact the COVID-19 pandemic has had on Chinese overseas direct investment and the concomitant forms of capital (symbolic, social, and political). It features collaborative research and writing by early career experts from throughout the world, as part of the ‘China, Law and Development’ project, based at the University of Oxford. It examines how China, its trade partners, and transnational orders have responded to the pandemic through law and regulation across an array of fields: dispute resolution, legal services, immigration law and policy, digital surveillance, global health governance, and democratic fragility.
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28 See Ramraj & Little (n 18) 14.
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33 See deLisle & Kui (n 14) 70–118.
34 Compare the death tolls (as of 7 Dec 2022) in China (World Health Organisation, ‘WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard: China’ <https://covid19.who.int/region/wpro/country/cn> accessed 9 Mar 2022), with that of India (World Health Organisation, ‘WHO Coronavirus (COVID-19) Dashboard: India’ <https://covid19.who.int/region/searo/country/in> accessed 9 March 2022).
35 World Health Organisation, ‘WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic’ (12 Mar 2020) <https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid-19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic#:~:text=The%20meeting%20follows%20the%20announcement,a%20growing%20number%20of%20countries> accessed 1 Dec 2022.
36 World Bank, June 2020 Global Economic Prospects (2020) xv. See also United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Trade and Development: Transitioning to a New Normal (2020) 8.
37 See Tooze (n 20) 5.
38 For projected slower global growth rates, see International Monetary Fund, ‘World Economic Outlook Update: Rising Caseloads, a Disrupted Recovery, and Higher Inflation’ (Jan 2022) 3–4. For an assessment of Southeast Asian countries’ recovery as ‘mostly not promising’, see Roland Rajah, ‘Southeast Asia's Post-Pandemic Recovery Outlook’ (Brookings, 15 Mar 2021) <https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2021/03/15/southeast-asias-post-pandemic-recovery-outlook/> accessed 24 Nov 2022. For an in-depth analysis of African economies’ prospects, see UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa, ‘Analyzing Long-Term Socio-Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Across Diverse African Contexts’ (2021).
39 Matthew S Erie, ‘BRI v. COVID-19’ (China, Law and Development Research Brief No 5/2020, 24 Mar 2020) 3 <https://cld.web.ox.ac.uk/file/590881> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
42 Sumathi Bala,‘Disruptions in China can lead to ‘ripple-effects’ across global supply chain, says HSBC’ (CNBC, 31 Jan 2022) <https://www.cnbc.com/2022/01/31/china-covid-zero-disrupts-supply-chains-impacts-global-recovery-hsbc-.html> accessed 24 Nov 2022; Lauren Lewis, ‘China “is worsening global supply chain issues and inflation rises with its zero-Covid policy”’ (MailOnline, 9 Feb 2022) <https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-10494295/China-worsening-global-supply-chain-issues-inflation-rises-zero-Covid-policy.html> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
43 Zhongguo maoyi waijing tongji nianjian (中国贸易外经统计年鉴, 2019) [China Trade and Economic Statistics Statistical Yearbook, 2019] (China Statistics Publishers 2020) 659.
44 See Erie, ‘BRI v. COVID-19’ (n 39) 3–4.
46 Katherine Jones, Sanushka Mudaliar & Nicola Piper, Locked Down and in Limbo: The Global Impact of COVID-19 on Migrant Worker Rights and Recruitment (International Labour Organisation 2021) 6.
48 ‘Coronavirus: Ukraine protesters attack buses carrying China evacuees’ (BBC, 21 Feb 2020) <https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-51581805> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
49 Xiaoyuan Li, Alexander S English & Steve J Kulich, Anger Among Chinese Migrants Amid COVID-19 Discrimination: The Role of Host News Coverage, Cultural Distance, and National Identity’ (2021) 16 PLoS ONE 2.
50 Guido Alberto Casanova, ‘Weaponizing Commerce: Trump, China, and CFIUS’ (The Diplomat, 29 Mar 2018) <https://thediplomat.com/2018/03/weaponizing-commerce-trump-china-and-cfius/> accessed 24 Nov 2022; Harry G Broadman, ‘Trump's TikTok Tactics Provoke China's Countering CFIUS As New Data Portend Decoupling’ (Forbes, 31 Aug 2020) <https://www.forbes.com/sites/harrybroadman/2020/08/31/trumps-tiktok-tactics-provoke-chinas-countering-cfius-as-new-data-portend-decoupling/?sh=5b9dbf9667d8> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
51 Zhonghua renmin gongheguo shangwu bu (中华人民共和国商务部) [Ministry of Commerce of the PRC], Guojia tongjiju (国家统计局) [National Bureau of Statistics), Guojia waihui guanliju (国家外汇管理局) [State Adminitration of Foreign Exchange], 2019 niandu Zhongguo duiwai zhijie touzi tongji gongbao (2019 年度中国对外直接投资统计公报) [2019 Statistical Bulletin of China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment] (2020) 3.
52 Zhonghua renmin gongheguo shangwu bu (中华人民共和国商务部) [Ministry of Commerce of the PRC], Guojia tongjiju (国家统计局) [National Bureau of Statistics], Guojia waihui guanliju (国家外汇管理局) [State Adminitration of Foreign Exchange], 2020 niandu Zhongguo duiwai zhijie touzi tongji gongbao (2020 年度中国对外直接投资统计公报) [2020 Statistical Bulletin of China's Outward Foreign Direct Investment] (2021) 3, 6.
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54 Zhonghua renmin gongheguo shangwu bu (中华人民共和国商务部) [Ministry of Commerce of the PRC], ‘2021nian wo dui “yidaiyilu” yanxian guojia touzi hezuo qingkuang (2021 年我对“一带一路”沿线国家投资合作情况) [China's Investment and Cooperation with Countries Along the “Belt and Road” in 2021]’ (24 Jan 2022), <http://www.mofcom.gov.cn/article/tongjiziliao/dgzz/202201/20220103239000.shtml> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
55 Alicia García Herrero, ‘Will the Belt and Road Initiative Be Another Casualty of the Pandemic?’ (SFS Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 11 Nov 2022) https://gjia.georgetown.edu/2022/11/11/will-the-belt-and-road-initiative-be-another-casualty-of-the-pandemic/ accessed 7 Dec 2022.
56 Iris Jin & Valentine Ostaszewski, ‘Differing Methodologies Cause Stark Discrepancies in Chinese and Canadian Statistics’ (Asia Pacific Foundation of Canada, June 21, 2026) <https://www.asiapacific.ca/blog/differing-methodologies-causing-stark-discrepancies-chinese> accessed 7 Dec 2022; Arendse Huld, ‘Explainer: Why are MOFCOM's and the Exchange Bureau's China FDI Statistics Different?’ (China Briefing, 8 Apr 2022) <https://www.china-briefing.com/news/explainer-why-are-mofcoms-and-the-foreign-exchange-bureaus-china-fdi-statistics-different/> accessed 7 Dec 2022.
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58 Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 51) 17 and Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 52) 17.
59 Compare Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 57) 104 with Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 52) 111.
60 Compare Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 57) 98 with Ministry of Commerce of the PRC (n 52) 105.
61 Ralph Jennings, ‘China's COVID-19 Vaccine Diplomacy Reaches 100-Plus Countries’ (Voice of America, 18 Sep 2021) <https://www.voanews.com/a/china-s-covid-19-vaccine-diplomacy-reaches-100-plus-countries/6233766.html> accessed 24 Nov 2022.
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74 See eg, Rush Doshi, ‘The Long Game: China's Grand Strategy to Displace American Order’ (Brookings, 2 Aug 2021) 5.
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77 See Erie & Streinz (n 64).
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