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The Circulation of Scientific Knowledge in the Late Habsburg Monarchy: Multicultural Perspectives on Imperial Scholarship

  • Jan Surman
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The question of how to categorize and study science in multicultural empires has in recent years increasingly occupied historians of science and of empires. Issues of intercultural mediation, brokerage, or cultural translation have been particularly influential in the study of science in colonial empires. However, the question for continental empires was about science as a reaction to pluricultural reality. Ernest Gellner, Deborah Coen, and Johannes Feichtinger, among others, have taken a similar approach to the Habsburg monarchy, which notwithstanding its legal status as a monarchy shared several characteristics of an empire. These reactions to empire also included nationalisms, which, as recent publications have shown, largely defined the shape of the late-nineteenth-century scientific landscape in Central Europe. In this article, I want to look at the imperial scientific landscape from yet another perspective, concentrating on itinerant scholars and the circulation of knowledge in the Habsburg Empire. In my view, this constitutes an imperial culture of its own that has not yet been thoroughly analyzed.

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jan.surman@univie.ac.at
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1 Research done for this article was part of my PhD project, “Habsburg University 1848–1918: Biography of a Space,” completed at the Vienna University under the supervision of Mitchell G. Ash. For comments on earlier versions of this draft, I want to thank Klemens Kaps and an anonymous AHY reviewer. I am also indebted to Mollie Madden and Sharon Park for their editorial help.

2 Gellner, Ernest, Language and Solitude: Wittgenstein, Malinowski, and the Habsburg Dilemma (Cambridge, UK, 1998); Feichtinger, Johannes, Wissenschaft als reflexives Projekt. Von Bolzano über Freud zu Kelsen: Österreichische Wissenschaftsgeschichte 1848–1938 (Bielefeld, 2010). See also: Stachel, Peter, “Die Anfänge der österreichischen Soziologie als Ausdruck der Multikulturalität Zentraleuropas,” in Geschichte der österreichischen Humanwissenschaften. Vol. 3.1: Menschliches Verhalten und gesellschaftliche Institutionen: Einstellung, Sozialverhalten, Verhaltensorientierung, ed. Acham, Karl (Vienna, 2001), 509–46; Coen, Deborah R., “Rise, Grubenhund: On Provincializing Kuhn,” Modern Intellectual History 9, vol. 1 (2012): 109–26.

3 For the discussion, see : Judson, Pieter, “L'Autriche-Hongrie était-elle un empire?,” Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales 63 (2008): 563–96; and Prutsch, Ursula and Feichtinger, Johannes, eds., Habsburg postcolonial. Machtstrukturen und kollektives Gedächtnis (Innsbruck etc., 2003).

4 Buklijas, Tatjana and Lafferton, Emese, “Science, Medicine and Nationalism in the Habsburg Empire from the 1840s to 1918,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 38 (2007): 679–86; Ash, Mitchell G. and Surman, Jan, eds., The Nationalization of Scientific Knowledge in the Habsburg Empire, 1848–1918 (Basingstoke, 2012); Seebacher, Felicitas, Das Fremde im ”deutschen“ Tempel der Wissenschaften (Vienna, 2011).

5 Frémont, Armand, La région espace vécu (Paris, 1999).

6 On cultures of knowledge, cf.: Fried, Johannes and Stolleis, Michael, eds., Wissenskulturen: Über die Erzeugung und Weitergabe von Wissen (Frankfurt, 2009); the change from plurilingual to monolingual networks was illustrated, e.g., in: Franc, Martin, Kostlán, Antonín and Míšková, Alena, eds., Bohemia docta. K historickým kořenům vědy v českých zemích [On the Historic Roots of Knowledge in the Czech Lands] (Prague, 2010).

7 Cf., e.g., Knorr-Cetina, Karin, Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge (Harvard, 1999); Harwood, Jonathan, “National Styles in Science: Genetics in Germany and the United States between the World Wars,” Isis 78, no. 3 (1987): 390414 .

8 Hock, Klaus and Mackenthun, Gesa, eds., Entangled Knowledge: Scientific Discourses and Cultural Difference (Münster, 2012).

9 Cf. criticism of categories shaped by methodological nationalism” in introduction to Understanding Multiculturalism: The Habsburg Central European Experience, ed. Feichtinger, Johannes and Cohen, Gary B. (New York, Oxford, 2014), 114 .

10 Tatjana Buklijas, Dissection, Discipline and Urban Transformation: Anatomy at the University of Vienna, 1845–1914 (PhD diss., University of Cambridge, 2005); Coen, Deborah R., Vienna in the Age of Uncertainty: Science, Liberalism, and Private Life (Chicago, 2007); Feichtinger, Wissenschaft als reflexives Projekt; Smith, Barry, Austrian Philosophy. The Legacy of Franz Brentano (Chicago, 1994)

11 Дашкевич, Ярослав, “Хто такий Михайло Грушевський? Розмова з Ярославом Дашкевичем [Who is Mykhailo Hrushevsky? Discussion with Yaroslav Dashkevych],” in Постаті Нариси про діячів історії, політики, культури [Short Biographies about Personalities from History, Politics and Culture], 2nd ed., ed. idem. (L‘viv, 2007 [1989]), 374–82, here 375; on the conflict leading to Hrushevsky's defeat in Galicia, see: Винар, Любомир, and Пшеничний, Євген, eds., Наша політика: матеріяли до історії конфлікту в НТШ 1913 р., [Our Politics: Materials to the History of Conflict in NTSh in 1913] (New York, Drohobych, 2003)

12 See for the latter: Brzęk, Gabriel, “Recepcja darwinizmu w Polsce” [Darwinism's Reception in Poland], in Recepcja w Polsce nowych kierunków i teorii naukowych [Reception of New Scientific Approaches and Theories in Poland], ed. Strzałkowski, Adam (Kraków, 2001), 273–91.

13 Prokopovych, Markian, Habsburg Lemberg: Architecture, Public Space, and Politics in the Galician Capital, 1772–1914 (West Lafayette, 2008).

14 See: Buklijas, Dissection.

15 This part is based on Jan Surman, “Habsburg University 1848–1918: Biography of a Space,” (PhD diss., Vienna University, 2012).

16 On the reforms of Thun-Hohenstein, see: Lentze, Hans, Die Universitätsreform des Ministers Graf Leo Thun-Hohenstein (Vienna, 1962).

17 See: Arneth, Alfred, Aus meinem Leben, 1, 1819–1849 (Vienna, 1891), 200.

18 Otruba, Gustav, “Die Nationalitäten- und Sprachenfrage des höheren Schulwesens und der Universitäten als Integrationsprobleme der Donaumonarchie (1863–1910),” in Wegenetz europäischen Geistes. Wissenschaftszentren und geistige Wechselbeziehungen zwischen Mittel- und Südeuropa vom Ende des 18. Jahrhunderts bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg, ed. Plaschka, Georg Richard and Mack, Karlheinz (Vienna, 1983), 88106 , here table 4, 100.

19 See on this topic most recently: Wolf, Michaela, Die vielsprachige Seele Kakaniens. Übersetzen und Dolmetschen in der Habsburgermonarchie 1848 bis 1918 (Vienna, 2012).

20 See exemplary: Lukan, Walter, ed., Franz Miklosich (Miklošič): neue Studien und Materialien anläßlich seines 100. Todestages (Vienna, 1991).

21 Otruba, Die Nationalitäten- und Sprachenfrage, 100.

22 See: Surman, Jan, “Die Figurationen der Akademia. Galizische Universitäten zwischen Imperialismus und multiplen Nationalismus,” in (De-) Konstruktionen Galiziens, ed. Galizien, Doktoratskolleg (Innsbruck, Vienna, Bozen, 2009), 1740 .

23 Petráň, Josef, Nástin dějin filozofické fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Praze (do roku 1948) [History of Philosophical Faculty of Charles University in Prague (until 1848)] (Prague, 1984), 151–52.

24 See for Karl Benoni: State Archive of L'viv Oblast (further DALO), fond 26, opis 7, sprava 178, records covering 1874–1878; for Franciszek Czerny-Schwarzenberg: Archive of Jagiellonian University (further AUJ), WF II 180 Geografia, 28.6.1874.

25 Józef Dietl, “O instytucji docentów w ogóle, a szczególnie na Uniwersytecie Jagiellońskim” [About the Institution of Privatdozenten, especially at the Jagiellonian University], Czas, no. 251 (31 Oct. 1861): 1–2.

26 See: Bałłaban, Teodor, Michał Borysiekiewicz, wspomnienie pośmiertne [Posthumous Recollections on Michał Borysiekiewicz] (Kraków, 1899); Томашевский, Ярема, “110 діяльності лікарської комісії НТШ [110 Years of Medical Comission of NTSh],” Праці наукового товариства імені Шевченка—Том XXIV, Лікарський збірник, Медицина і біологія, Нова серія [Works of Scientific Shevchenko Society—vol. 24, Physicians Collection, Medicine and Biology. New Series] 16 (2009): 912 , here 10.

27 Central Archives of Historical Records in Warsaw, fond Ministry of Religion and Education (further AGAD, MWiO), fasz. 51u, PA Kader; fasz. 50u, PA Chlumsky (esp. Z.144, 1.6.1901,); AUJ, WL II 168, 27.1.1899.

28 See: Brentano, Franz Clemens, Meine letzten Wünsche für Oesterreich (Stuttgart, 1895) (published first in Neue Freie Presse, 2./5./8.12.1894)

29 Austrian State Archives, General Archive of Administration, fond Ministry of Religion and Education (further ÖStA, AVA, MCU), fasc. 896, PA Cornu, Z. 3365, 4.4.1901

30 National Archives (Prague), fond Ministry of Religion and Education 1882–1918(1923) (further NA, MKV/R), inv.č. 2, fasc. 97, PA Kukula.

31 See: Zakłady uniwersyteckie w Krakowie. Przyczynek do dziejów oświaty krajowej podany w pamięci pięćset-letniego istnienia Uniwersytetu Krakowskiego [University Institutions in Cracow: Contribution to the History of Provincial Education, for the Memory of the 500th Anniversary of Cracow University] (Kraków, 1864).

32 Schneider, Alfred, “Briefe österreichischer Gelehrter aus den Jahren 1849–1862. Beiträge zur Geschichte der österreichischen Unterrichtsreform,” Archiv für österreichischen Geschichte [Archive for Austrian History] 113 (1936): 171304 .

33 AGAD, MWiO, fasz. 122u, PA Werner, Z. 458, 26.6.1882; Z. 18879, 3.6.1882; Z. 2591, 13.4.1883.

34 Pánek, Augustin, “O životě a působení Dr. Emila Weyra [About Life and Work of Dr. Emil Weyr],” Časopis pro pěstování matematiky a fysiky [Journal for Mathematics and Physics] 24, no. 3 (1895): 163224 ; Bečvář, Jindřich, “Rodina Weyrů [Weyr Family],” in idem (ed.), Eduard Weyr (1852–1903) (Praha, 1995), 734 , here 13–20.

35 Surman, Jan, “Imperiale ‘go betweeners’: Józef Dietl und Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk,” in Imperiale Biographien: Elitekarrieren in den Vielvölkerreichen der Romanows, Habsburger und Osmanen (1850–1918), ed. Buchen, Tim, Rolf, Malte (Berlin, forthcoming).

36 Höhne, Steffen, ed., August Sauer—ein Intellektueller in Prag im Spannungsfeld von Kultur- und Wissenschaftspolitik (Cologne, Weimar, Vienna, 2011).

37 Buklijas, Tatjana, “Surgery and National Identity in Late-Nineteenth-Century Vienna,” Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 38, no. 4 (2007): 756–74.

38 Ibid., Seebacher, Das Fremde, 143–54.

39 ÖStA, AVA, MCU, fasz. 1121, PA Gussenbauer, Z. 21118, 15.4.1878.

40 ÖStA, AVA, MCU, fasz. 1123, PA Weiss, Z. 17116, 4.11.1881.

41 In 1862–1874, Hofmann published thirteen original articles in Časopis lékařův českych [Journal of Czech Physicians], and after his appointment in Vienna, published several articles in Czech. On the probable influence of Josef Skoda/Škoda on Albert's appointment, see: Jirásek, Arnold, Eduard Albert: Pokus o kroniku a rozbor života, práce i vyznamu E. Alberta, učiněny ke stému vyročí jeho narození (20. ledna 1941) [Eduard Albert: Essay on Chronicle and Analysis of His Life, Work and Importance] (Prague, 1946), 8284 . For the appointment, see ÖStA, AVA, MCU, fasz. 596, PA Albert, Z. 92, 25.1.1881.

42 Schönbauer, Leopold, “Albert, Eduard,” in Neue Deutsche Biographie, vol. 1 (Berlin, 1953) 137–38. Albert was also one of the founders of Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie.

43 AGAD, MWiO, fasz. 117u, PA Liske, Z. 460, 24.6.1869; DALO, fond 26, opis 7, sprava 148, Z. 50, 20.1.1871; 11.2.1871; On the scholarly level of Zakrzewski's work, DALO, fond 26, opis 7, sprava 142, N. 245, 19.1.1871; DALO, fond 26, opis 7, sprava 148, Z. 1544, 17.3.1871.

44 See the appointment records of his successor Euzebiusz Czerkawski: AGAD, MWiO, fasz. 118u, PA Czerkawski, Z. 8147, 19.6.1871.

45 More on Zeissberg in L'viv can be found in: Козловський, С. О., “Медієвістичні студії Генріха фон Цайссберга у Львівському університеті [Medieval Studies of Heinrich von Zeissberg at the L'viv University],” Гілея: науковий вісник [Gileya: Scientific Journal] 55, no 12 (2011): 2329 .

46 Pawiński, Adolf, “Wstęp do przekładu [Introduction to Translation],” in Zeissberg, Heinrich, Dziejopisarstwo polskie wieków średnich [Polish Historiography in Middle Ages] (Warsaw, 1877), IX–XIII, here X; Pawiński also mentioned a positive review of Cracow star-historian Stanisław Smolka from 1873.

47 Nieciowa, Helena, Członkowie Akademii Umiejętności oraz Polskiej Akademii Umiejętności 1872–1952 [Members of Academy of Sciences and Arts and of Polish Academy of Sciences and Arts 1872–1952] (Wrocław etc., 1973).

48 Franić, Mirosław, “Österreichisch-Polnische Begegnungen der Historiker,” in Österreich–Polen: 1000 Jahre Beziehungen, ed. Buszko, Józef and Leitsch, Walter (Cracow, 1996), 509–25.

49 See the appointment acts for Lewicki, AUJ, WF II 136, Katedra historii Austrii, 26.6.1883. On Zeissberg's influence on Lewicki, cf.: Papée, Fryderyk, “Anatol Lewicki,” Kwartalnik Historyczny [Historical Quarterly] 13 (1899): 426–33. On Ruthenian scholars, see: Wöller, Burkhard, “Heinrich Zeissberg (1839-1899),” in Złota księga historiografii lwowskiej XIX i XX wieku [Golden Book of L'viv Historiography of the 19th and 20th Centuries], vol. II, ed. Maternicki, Jerzy, Sierżęga, Paweł, and Zaszkilniak, Leonid (Rzeszów, 2014), 93105 .

50 ÖStA, AVA, MCU, fasz. 1122, PA Pawlik, Z. 9411, 17.5.1887; see also: Kotasék, Karel Pawlík.

51 Vlček, Jaroslav, “K historii trvání I. české chirurgické kliniky [History of Development of the First Czech Chirurgical Clinic],” in 120 let 1. české chirurgické kliniky 1. lékařské fakulty Univerzity Karlovy v Praze [120 Years of First Czech Chirurgical Clinic at the Charles University in Prague] (Prague, 2002), 4764 , here 53–54.

52 NA, MKV/R, inv.č 2, fasc. 100, attachment no. 3 to Z. 12714, 24.7.1895 from 6.12.1894 (Minoritätsvotum of Tomsa, Hlava and Janosik); Svojtka, Matthias, Seidl, Johannes, and Steininger, Barbara, “Von Neuroanatomie, Paläontologie und slawischem Patriotismus: Leben und Werk des Josef Victor Rohon (1845–1923) [On Neuroanatomy, Paleontology and Slavic Patriotism: Life and Work of Josef Victor Rohon (1845–1923)],” Mensch - Wissenschaft - Magie (Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte) 26 (2009): 123–59; on Albert's financial aid for Rohon, see ibid., 149–152.

53 NA, MKV/R, inv.č 2, fasc. 100, attachment no. 3 to Z. 12714, 24.7.1895 from 6.12.1894 (Minoritätsvotum of Tomsa, Hlava and Janosik).

54 The most recent biography of Gumplowicz can be found in: Surman, Jan and Mozetič, Gerald, eds., Dwa życia Ludwika Gumplowicza: Wybór Tekstów [Two Lives of Ludwik Gumplowicz: Chosen Texts] (Warsaw, 2010); for his theory, see Adamek, Wojciech and Radwan-Pragłowski, Janusz, “Ludwik Gumplowicz: A Forgotten Classic of European Sociology,” Journal of Classical Sociology November 6, no. 3 (2006): 381–98.

55 Michalak, Henryk, Józef Szujski, 1835–1883: światopogląd i działanie [Józef Szujski, 1835–1883: Ideology and Work] (Łódź, 1987), 213.

56 Surman and Mozetič, Dwa życia Ludwika Gumplowicza, 39.

57 Weiler, Bernd, “Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838–1909) e il suo allievo triestino Franco Savorgnan (1879–1963): analisi del rapporto fra la sociologia austriaca e quella italiana [Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838–1909) and His Triestine Ally Franco Savorgnan (1879–1963): An Analysis of Contacts between Austrian and Italian Sociology],” Sociologia: Rivista Quadrimestrale di Scienze Storiche e Sociali [Sociology: Quarterly Review of Historical and Social Sciences] 37, no. 1 (2003): 934 ; Jan Surman, “Ludwik Gumplowicz i konteksty jego recepcji [Ludwik Gumplowicz and Contexts of his Reception],” in Surman and Mozetič, Dwa życia Ludwika Gumplowicza, 443–55.

58 For biography and different views on Gartner, see: Plangg, Guntram A. and Iliescu, Maria, eds., Akten der Theodor Gartner- Tagung [Proceedings of Theodor-Gartner Conference] (Innsbruck, 1987).

59 Gartner, Theodor and Smal-Stocki, Stephan, Minoritätsvotum in der vom k.k. Bukowiner Landesschulrathe behufs Regelung der ruthenischen Schulortographie eingesetzten Commission abgegeben im November 1887 [Minority Vote Given in November 1887 to the Commission on Ruthenian Orthography in the k.k. Bokovina Educational Board] (Chernivtsi, 1888), Смаль-Стоцкий, Степан, Гартнер, Федір, Руска граматика [Ruthenian Grammar] (L'viv, 1893).

60 Смаль-Стоцький, Степан, “Федір Ґартнер [Theodor Gartner],” Записки Наукового товариства імені Шевченка. Праці Філологічної секції [Reports of Scientific Shevchenko Society. Works of the Philological Section] 86–87 (1925): 239–48.

61 For the most clear and up-to-date dealing with this issue, see: Zayarnyuk, Andriy, “Mapping Identities: The Popular Base of Galician Russophilism in the 1890s,” Austrian History Yearbook 41, no. 1 (2010): 117–42, esp. 121–26.

62 Bifrun, Jakob, Das Neue Testament : erste rätoromanische Übersetzung. Neudruck mit einem Vorwort, einer Formenlehre und einem Wörterverzeichnis versehen (Dresden, 1913). For the change between dialects and language, cf.: Gartner, Theodor, “[Review of:] Die Ladinischen Idiome in Ladinien. Gröden, Fassa, Buchenstein, Ampezzo, von Dr. Johann Alton (Innsbruck, Wagner, 1879; 375 Seiten 8.),” Romanische Studien [Romance Studies] 16, no. 4 (1880): 638–48, esp. 648, and Gartner, Theodor, Handbuch der rätoromanischen Sprache und Literatur [Handbook of Rhaeto-Romance Language and Literature] (Halle, 1910), VII.

63 Gartner, Handbuch der rätoromanischen Sprache und Literatur, 3.

64 See esp. passages from the promotional leaflet for Ladin Song project, distributed in 1906, quoted in: Chiocchetti, Fabio and Starec, Roberto, “In Search of the ‘Ladin Song’: The Project Das Volkslied in Österreich in the Ladin Areas of Tyrol and East Friuli (1904–1914)Traditiones 34, no. 1 (2005): 6177 , here 66.

65 See, from the position of linguistics: Hans Goebl, “Theodor Gartner und das typologische Denken seiner Zeit [Theodor Gartner and the Typological Thought of His Times],” in Plangg and Iliescu, eds., Akten, 13–23.

66 Szumera, Grażyna, “Filozofia dziejów według Jana Karola Kochanowskiego [Philosophy of History According to Jan Karol Kochanowski],” Folia Philosophica 24 (2006): 298314 .

67 Bruckmüller, Ernst, “Was There a ‘Habsburg Society’ in Austria-Hungary?Austrian History Yearbook 37 (2006), 116 , here 15–16.

68 Biographical data in Staliński, Zbigniew, “Leopold Adametz (1861–1941),” in Złota Księga Akademii Rolniczej [Golden Book of the Academy of Agriculture], Staliński, Zbigniew, ed. (Cracow, 2000), 6267 .

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