Skip to main content

The evolution and psychology of self-deception

  • William von Hippel (a1) and Robert Trivers (a2)

In this article we argue that self-deception evolved to facilitate interpersonal deception by allowing people to avoid the cues to conscious deception that might reveal deceptive intent. Self-deception has two additional advantages: It eliminates the costly cognitive load that is typically associated with deceiving, and it can minimize retribution if the deception is discovered. Beyond its role in specific acts of deception, self-deceptive self-enhancement also allows people to display more confidence than is warranted, which has a host of social advantages. The question then arises of how the self can be both deceiver and deceived. We propose that this is achieved through dissociations of mental processes, including conscious versus unconscious memories, conscious versus unconscious attitudes, and automatic versus controlled processes. Given the variety of methods for deceiving others, it should come as no surprise that self-deception manifests itself in a number of different psychological processes, and we discuss various types of self-deception. We then discuss the interpersonal versus intrapersonal nature of self-deception before considering the levels of consciousness at which the self can be deceived. Finally, we contrast our evolutionary approach to self-deception with current theories and debates in psychology and consider some of the costs associated with self-deception.

Hide All
Albarracín, D. & Mitchell, A. L. (2004) The role of defensive confidence in preference for proattitudinal information: How believing that one is strong can sometimes be a defensive weakness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30:1565–84.
Alicke, M. D. & Sedikides, C. (2009) Self-enhancement and self-protection: What they are and what they do. European Review of Social Psychology 20:148.
Anderson, D. E., DePaulo, B. M. & Ansfield, M. E. (2002) The development of deception detection skill: A longitudinal study of same-sex friends. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28:536–45.
Armitage, C. J., Harris, P. R., Hepton, G. & Napper, L. (2008) Self-affirmation increases acceptance of health-risk information among UK adult smokers with low socioeconomic status. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 22:8895.
Armor, D. A. & Taylor, S. E. (1998) Situated optimism: Specific outcome expectations and self-regulation. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 30, ed. Zanna, M. P., pp. 309–79. Academic Press.
Assad, K. K., Donnellan, M. B. & Conger, R. D. (2007) Optimism: An enduring resource for romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 93:285–97.
Baker, R. R. & Bellis, M. A. (1993) Human sperm competition: Ejaculate adjustment by males and the function of masturbation. Animal Behaviour 46861–85.
Bargh, J. A. (1994) The four horsemen of automaticity: Awareness, efficiency, intention, and control in social cognition. In: Handbook of social cognition, 2nd ed., ed. Wyer, R. S., Jr. & Srull, T. K., pp. 140. Erlbaum.
Boehm, J. K. & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008) Does happiness promote career success? Journal of Career Assessment 16:101–16.
Boles, T., Croson, R. & Murnighan, J. K. (2000) Deception and retribution in repeated ultimatum bargaining. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 83:235–59.
Bond, C. F. Jr. & DePaulo, B. M. (2006) Accuracy of deception judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10:214–34.
Bond, C. F. Jr. & Fahey, W. E. (1987) False suspicion and the misperception of deceit. British Journal of Social Psychology 26:4146.
Bower, G. H. (1991) Mood congruity of social judgments. In: Emotion and social judgments, ed. Forgas, J. P., pp. 3154. Pergamon.
Brissette, I., Scheier, M. F. & Carver, C. S. (2002) The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 82:102–11.
Brown, S. P., Cron, W. L. & Slocum, J. W. (1998) Effects of trait competitiveness and perceived intraorganizational competition on salesperson goal setting and performance. Journal of Marketing 62:8898.
Buss, D. M. (1988) The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54:616–28.
Buss, D. M. (2009) The great struggles of life: Darwin and the emergence of evolutionary psychology. American Psychologist 64:140–48.
Buss, D. M. & Dedden, L. A. (1990) Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 7:395422.
Carver, C. S., Kus, L. A. & Scheier, M. F. (1994) Effects of good versus bad mood and optimistic versus pessimistic outlook on social acceptance versus rejection. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 13:138–51.
Carver, C. S. & Scheier, M. F. (2002) Optimism. In: Handbook of positive psychology, ed. Snyder, C. R. & Lopez, S. J., pp. 231–43. Oxford University Press.
Ceci, S. J., Loftus, E. F., Leichtman, M. D. & Bruck, M. (1994) The possible role of source misattributions in the creation of false beliefs among preschoolers. The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis 42:304–20.
Chaiken, S. & Trope, Y. (1999) Dual-process theories in social psychology. Guilford Press.
Chambers, J. R. & Windschitl, P. D. (2004) Biases in social comparative judgments: The role of nonmotivated factors in above-average and comparative-optimism effects. Psychological Bulletin 130:813–38.
Chartrand, T. L., Dalton, A. N. & Fitzsimons, G. J. (2007) Nonconscious relationship reactance: When significant others prime opposing goals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 43:719–26.
Chartrand, T. L., Huber, J., Shiv, B. & Tanner, R. J. (2008) Nonconscious goals and consumer choice. Journal of Consumer Research 35:189201.
Chrobak, Q. & Zaragoza, M. S. (2008) Inventing stories: Forcing witnesses to fabricate entire fictitious events leads to freely reported false memories. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 15:1190–95.
Clancy, S. A., Schacter, D. L., McNally, R. J. & Pitman, R. K. (2000) False recognition in women reporting recovered memories of sexual abuse. Psychological Science 11:2631.
Coates, S. L., Butler, L. T. & Berry, D. C. (2006) Implicit memory and consumer choice: The mediating role of brand familiarity. Applied Cognitive Psychology 20:1101–16.
Cohen, G. L., Aronson, J. & Steele, C. M. (2000) When beliefs yield to evidence: Reducing biased evaluation by affirming the self. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 26:1151–64.
Cohen, S. (1986) Behavior, health, and environmental stress. Plenum Press.
Cohen, S., Alper, C. M., Doyle, W. J., Treanor, J. J. & Turner, R. B. (2006) Positive emotional style predicts resistance to illness after experimental exposure to rhinovirus or Influenza A virus. Psychosomatic Medicine 68:809–15.
Colvin, C. R. & Block, J. (1994) Do positive illusions foster mental health? An examination of the Taylor and Brown formulation. Psychological Bulletin 116:320.
Colvin, C. R., Block, J. & Funder, D. C. (1995) Overly positive self-evaluations and personality: Negative implications for mental health. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68:1152–62.
Coman, A., Manier, D. & Hirst, W. (2009) Forgetting the unforgettable through conversation: Socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting of September 11 memories. Psychological Science 20:627–33.
Conger, J. A. & Kanungo, R. N. (1987) Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review 12:637–47.
Conway, M. & Ross, M. (1984) Getting what you want by revising what you had. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 47:738–48.
Correll, J., Spencer, S. J. & Zanna, M. P. (2004) An affirmed self and an open mind: Self-affirmation and sensitivity to argument strength. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 40:350–56.
Croyle, R. T., Loftus, E. F., Barger, S. D., Sun, Y.-C., Hart, M. & Gettig, J. (2006) How well do people recall risk factor test results? Accuracy and bias among cholesterol screening participants. Health Psychology 25:425–32.
Cuc, A., Koppel, J. & Hirst, W. (2007) Silence is not golden: A case for socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting. Psychological Science 18:727–33.
D'Argembeau, A. & Van, der Linden, M. (2008) Remembering pride and shame: Self-enhancement and the phenomenology of autobiographical memory. Memory 16:538–47.
Dawson, E., Gilovich, T. & Regan, D. T. (2002) Motivated reasoning and performance on the Wason Selection Task. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 28:1379–87.
Dawson, E., Savitsky, K. & Dunning, D. (2006) “Don't tell me, I don't want to know”: Understanding people's reluctance to obtain medical diagnostic information. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 36:751–68.
de Jong, A., de Ruyter, K. & Wetzels, M. (2006) Linking employee confidence to performance: A study of self-managing service teams. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 34:576–87.
DePaulo, B. M. (1994) Spotting lies: Can humans learn to do better? Current Directions in Psychological Science 3:8386.
DePaulo, B. M. (2004) The many faces of lies. In: The social psychology of good and evil, ed. Miller, A. G., pp. 303–26. Guilford.
DePaulo, B. M. & Kashy, D. A. (1998) Everyday lies in close and casual relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:6379.
DePaulo, B. M., Kashy, D. A., Kirkendol, S. E., Wyer, M. M. & Epstein, J. A. (1996) Lying in everyday life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:979–95.
DePaulo, B. M., Lindsay, J. J., Malone, B. E., Muhlenbruck, L., Charlton, K. & Cooper, H. (2003) Cues to deception. Psychological Bulletin 129(1):74118.
Ditto, P. H. & Lopez, D. F. (1992) Motivated skepticism: Use of differential decision criteria for preferred and nonpreferred conclusions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 63:568–84.
Ditto, P. H., Munro, G. D., Apanovitch, A. M., Scepansky, J. A. & Lockhart, L. K. (2003) Spontaneous skepticism: The interplay of motivation and expectation in responses to favorable and unfavorable medical diagnosis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 29:1120–32.
Ditto, P. H., Scepansky, J. A., Munro, G. D., Apanovitch, A. M. & Lockhart, L. K. (1998) Motivated sensitivity to preference-inconsistent information. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:5369.
Drivdahl, S., Zaragoza, M. S. & Learned, D. (2009) The role of emotional elaboration in the creation of false memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology 23:1335.
Epley, N. & Whitchurch, E. (2008) Mirror, mirror on the wall: Enhancement in self recognition. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 34:1159–70.
Fazio, R. H. & Olson, M. A. (2003) Implicit measures in social cognition research: Their meaning and use. Annual Review of Psychology 54:297327.
Fehr, E. & Gächter, S. (2002) Altruistic punishment in humans. Nature 415:137–40.
Fein, S. & Spencer, S. J. (1997) Prejudice as self-image maintenance: Affirming the self through derogating others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 73:3144.
Festinger, L. (1954) A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations 7:117–40.
Festinger, L. & Carlsmith, J. M. (1959) Cognitive consequences of forced compliance. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 58:203–11.
Fisher, M. L. (2004) Female intrasexual competition decreases female facial attractiveness. Biology Letters 271:283–85.
Fitzsimmons, G. & Anderson, J. (in press) Interdependent goals and relationship conflict. Chapter to appear In: Social conflict and aggression, ed. Forgas, J. P., Kruglanski, A. & Williams, K.. Psychology Press.
Fredrickson, B. L. (1998) What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology 2: 300–19.
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001) The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist 56:218–26.
Fredrickson, B. L., Cohn, M. A., Coffey, K. A., Pek, J. & Finkel, S. M. (2008) Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95:1045–62.
Frey, D. (1986) Recent research on selective exposure to information. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 19, ed. Berkowitz, L., pp. 4180. Academic Press.
Frijda, N. H. & Mesquita, B. (1994) The social roles and functions of emotions. In: Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence, ed. Kitayama, S. & Markus, H. R., pp. 5187. APA.
Gaertner, L., Sedikides, C. & Chang, K. (2008) On pancultural self-enhancement: Well-adjusted Taiwanese self-enhance on personally valued traits. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 39:463–77.
Gazzaniga, M. S. (1997) Why can't I control my brain? Aspects of conscious experience. In Cognition, computation, and consciousness, ed. Ito, M., Miyashita, Y. & Rolls, E. T., pp. 6979. Oxford University Press.
Gilbert, D. T., Pinel, E. C., Wilson, T. D., Blumberg, S. J. & Wheatley, T. (1998) Immune neglect: A source of durability bias in affective forecasting. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:617–38.
Gilovich, T., Savitsky, K. & Medvec, V. H. (1998) The illusion of transparency: Biased assessments of others' ability to read one's emotional states. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 75:332–46.
Glass, D. C. & Singer, J. E. (1972) Behavioral after effects of unpredictable and uncontrollable events. American Scientist 60:457–65.
Gonsalves, B., Reber, P. J., Gitelman, D. R., Parrish, T. B., Mesulman, M. M. & Paller, K. A. (2004) Neural evidence that vivid imaging can lead to false remembering. Psychological Science 15:655–60.
Green, J. D., Sedikides, C. & Gregg, A. P. (2008) Forgotten but not gone: The recall and recognition of self-threatening memories. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44:547–61.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E. & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998) Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1464–80.
Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. & Banaji, M. R. (2009) Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97:1741.
Gur, R. C. & Sackeim, H. A. (1979) Self-deception: A concept in search of a phenomenon. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:147–69.
Harker, L. & Keltner, D. (2001) Expressions of positive emotion in women's college yearbook pictures and their relationship to personality and life outcomes across adulthood. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80:112–24.
Harris, P. R., Mayle, K., Mabbott, L. & Napper, L. (2007) Self-affirmation reduces smokers' defensiveness to graphic on-pack cigarette warning labels. Health Psychology 26:437–46.
Haselton, M. G., Buss, D. M., Oubaid, V. & Angleitner, A. (2005) Sex, lies, and strategic interference: The psychology of deception between the sexes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:323.
Heine, S. J., Lehman, D. R., Markus, H. R. & Kitayama, S. (1999) Is there a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychological Review 106:766–94.
Hertenstein, M. J., Hansel, C. A., Butts, A. M. & Hile, S. N. (2009) Smile intensity in photographs predicts divorce later in life. Motivation and Emotion 33:99105.
Hofmann, W., Gawronski, B., Gschwendner, T., Le, H. & Schmitt, M. (2005) A meta-analysis on the correlation between the implicit association test and explicit self-report measures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:1369–85.
Isaacowitz, D. M. (2006) Motivated gaze: The view from the gazer. Current Directions in Psychological Science 15:6872.
Isaacowitz, D. M., Toner, K., Goren, D. & Wilson, H. R. (2008) Looking while unhappy mood-congruent gaze in young adults, positive gaze in older adults. Psychological Science 19:848–53.
Jang, S. A., Smith, S. W., Levine, T. R. (2002) To stay or to leave? The role of attachment styles in communication patterns and potential termination of romantic relationships following discovery of deception. Communication Monographs 69:236–52.
Jordan, C., Spencer, S. J., Zanna, M. P., Hoshino-Browne, E. & Correll, J. (2003) Implicit self-esteem, explicit self-esteem and defensiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:969–78.
Josephs, R. A., Larrick, R. P., Steele, C. M. & Nisbett, R. E. (1992) Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 62:2637.
Jost, J. T., Banaji, M. R. & Nosek, B. A. (2004) A decade of system justification theory: Accumulated evidence of conscious and unconscious bolstering of the status quo. Political Psychology 25:881919.
Jost, J. T. & Hunyady, O. (2005) Antecedents and consequences of system-justifying ideologies. Current Directions in Psychological Science 14:260–65.
Kay, A. C., Gaucher, D., Napier, J. L., Callan, M. J. & Laurin, K. (2008) God and government: Testing a compensatory control explanation for the support of external systems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 95:1835.
Keltner, D. & Kring, A. (1998) Emotion, social function, and psychopathology. Review of General Psychology 2:320–42.
Kenny, D. A. & Kashy, D. A. (1994) Enhanced co-orientation in the perception of friends: A social relations analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67:1024–33.
Klein, D. C., Fencil-Morse, E. & Seligman, M. E. P. (1976) Learned helplessness, depression, and the attribution of failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 33:508–16.
Kolers, P. A. (1976) Pattern-analyzing memory. Science 191:1280–81.
Kumashiro, M. & Sedikides, C. (2005) Taking on board liability-focused feedback: Close positive relationships as a self-bolstering resource. Psychological Science 16:732–39.
Kunda, Z. (1990) The case for motivated reasoning. Psychological Bulletin 108:480–98.
Lahdenperä, M., Lummaa, V., Helle, S., Tremblay, M. & Russell, A. F. (2004) Fitness benefits of prolonged post-reproductive lifespan in women. Nature 428:178–81.
Lakin, J., Chartrand, T. L. & Arkin, R. (2008) I am too just like you: Nonconscious mimicry as an automatic behavioral response to social exclusion. Psychological Science 19:816–22.
Lee, A. Y. (2002) Effects of implicit memory on memory-based versus stimulus-based brand choice. Journal of Marketing Research 39:440–54.
Lerman, C., Croyle, R. T., Tercyak, K. P. & Hamann, H. (2002) Genetic testing: Psychological aspects and implications. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 70:784–97.
Levine, T. R. & McCornack, S. A. (2001) Behavioral adaptation, confidence, and heuristic-based explanations of the probing effect. Human Communication Research 27:471502.
Lord, C. G., Ross, L. & Lepper, M. R. (1979) Biased assimilation and attitude polarization: The effects of prior theories on subsequently considered evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37: 2098–109.
Lyubomirsky, S., King, L. & Diener, E. (2005) The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin 131:803–55.
MacLeod, M. D. & Saunders, J. (2008) Retrieval inhibition and memory distortion: Negative consequences of an adaptive process. Current Directions in Psychological Science 17:2630.
Mann, S. & Vrij, A. (2006) Police officers' judgements of veracity, tenseness, cognitive load and attempted behavioural control in real life police interviews. Psychology, Crime, & Law 12:307–19.
Marsland, A. L., Pressman, S. & Cohen, S. (2007) Positive affect and immune function. In: Psychoneuroimmunology, ed. Ader, R., pp. 261–79. Elsevier.
Mather, M., Canli, T., English, T., Whitfield, S., Wais, P., Ochsner, K., Gabrieli, J. D. E. & Carstensen, L. L. (2004) Amygdala responses to emotionally valenced stimuli in older and younger adults. Psychological Science 15:259–63.
Mather, M. & Carstensen, L. L. (2005) Aging and motivated cognition: The positivity effect in attention and memory. Trends in Cognitive Science 9:496502.
McCloskey, M. & Zaragoza, M. (1985) Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114:116. Available at:
Mele, A. R. (1997) Real self-deception. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20(1):91136.
Miller, G. (2000) The mating mind. Penguin.
Nardone, I. B., Ward, R., Fotopoulou, A. & Turnbull, O. H. (2007) Attention and emotion in anosognosia: Evidence of implicit awareness and repression? Neurocase 13:438–45.
Neely, J. H. (1977) Semantic priming and retrieval from lexical memory: Roles of inhibitionless spreading activation and limited-capacity attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 106:226–54.
Nisbett, R. E. & Wilson, T. D. (1977) Telling more than we can know: Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review 84:231–59.
Nock, M. K., Park, J. L., Finn, C. T., Deliberto, T. L., Dour, H. J. & Banaji, M. R. (2010) Measuring the “suicidal mind:” Implicit cognition predicts suicidal behavior. Psychological Science 21:511–17.
Norris, P. & Inglehart, R. (2004) Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide. Cambridge University Press.
Nosek, B. A., Smyth, F. L., Hansen, J. J., Devos, T., Lindner, N. M., Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., Olson, K. R., Chugh, D., Greenwald, A. G. & Banaji, M. R. (2007) Pervasiveness and correlates of implicit attitudes and stereotypes. European Review of Social Psychology 18:3688.
Nuttin, J. M. (1985) Narcissism beyond Gestalt and awareness: The name letter effect. European Journal of Social Psychology 15:353–61.
Olson, J. M. & Zanna, M. P. (1979) A new look at selective exposure. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 15:115.
Paulhus, D. L. (1998) Interpersonal and intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement: A mixed blessing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 74:1197–208.
Penrod, S. D. & Cutler, B. L. (1995) Witness confidence and witness accuracy: Assessing their forensic relation. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law 1:817–45.
Petty, R. E. & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986) The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 19, ed. Berkowitz, L., pp. 123205. Academic Press.
Price, P. C. & Stone, E. R. (2004) Intuitive evaluation of likelihood judgment producers. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 17:3957.
Pyszczynski, T. & Greenberg, J. (1987) Toward an integration of cognitive and motivational perspectives on social inference: A biased hypothesis- testing model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 20:297340.
Ramachandran, V. S. (2009) Self-awareness: The last frontier. Available at:
Reed, M. B. & Aspinwall, L. G. (1998) Self-affirmation reduces biased processing of health-risk information. Motivation and Emotion 22:99132.
Rosenkranz, M. A., Jackson, D. C., Dalton, K. M., Dolski, I., Ryff, C. D., Singer, B. H., Muller, D., Kalin, N. H. & Davidson, R. J. (2003) Affective style and in vivo response: Neurobehavioral mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 100:11148–52.
Sackeim, H. A. & Gur, R. C. (1979) Self-deception, other deception, and self-reported psychopathology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 47:213–15.
Saucier, D. A., Miller, C. T. & Doucet, N. (2005) Differences in helping whites and blacks: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review 9:216.
Schmader, T. & Johns, M. (2003) Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 85:440–52.
Schmitt, D. P. & Buss, D. M. (1996) Mate attraction and competitor derogation: Context effects on perceived effectiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:1185–204.
Schmitt, D. P. & Buss, D. M. (2001) Human mate poaching: Tactics and temptations for infiltrating existing relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 80:894917.
Schweitzer, M. E., Hershey, J. & Bradlow, E. (2006) Promises and lies: Restoring violated trust. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 101:119.
Seamon, J. G., Williams, P. C., Crowley, M. J., Kim, I. J., Langer, S. A., Orne, P. J. & Wishengrad, D. L. (1995) The mere exposure effect is based on implicit memory: Effects of stimulus type, encoding conditions, and number of exposures on recognition and affect judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21:711–21.
Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L. & Toguchi, Y. (2003) Pancultural self-enhancement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 84:6070.
Sedikides, C., Gaertner, L. & Vevea, J. L. (2005) Pancultural self-enhancement reloaded: A meta-analytic reply to Heine (2005). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 89:539–51.
Segerstrom, S. C. (2007) Optimism and resources: Effects on each other and on health over 10 years. Journal of Research in Personality 41:772–86.
Segerstrom, S. C. & Sephton, S. E. (2010) Optimistic expectancies and cell-mediated immunity: The role of positive affect. Psychological Science 21:448–55.
Shamir, B., House, R. J. & Arthur, M. B. (1993) The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: A self-concept based concept. Organizational Science 4:577–94.
Sherman, D. K. & Cohen, G. L. (2006) The psychology of self-defense: Self-affirmation theory. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 38, ed. Zanna, M. P., pp. 183242. Elsevier Academic Press.
Sherman, D. K., Cohen, G. L., Nelson, L. D., Nussbaum, A. D., Bunyan, D. P. & Garcia, J. (2009) Affirmed yet unaware: Exploring the role of awareness in the process of self-affirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 97:745–64.
Slovenko, R. (1999) Testifying with confidence. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 27:127–31.
Slusher, M. P. & Anderson, C. A. (1987) When reality monitoring fails: The role of imagination in stereotype maintenance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 52:653–62.
Snyder, M. L., Kleck, R. E., Strenta, A. & Mentzer, S. J. (1979) Avoidance of the handicapped: An attributional ambiguity analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 37:2297–306.
Solberg Nes, L.S. & Segerstrom, S. C. (2006) Dispositional optimism and coping: A meta-analytic review. Personality and Social Psychology Review 10:235–51.
Son Hing, L.S., Chung-Yan, G. A., Hamilton, L. K. & Zanna, M. P. (2008) A two-dimensional model that employs explicit and implicit attitudes to characterize prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 94:971–87.
Spalding, L. R. & Hardin, C. D. (1999) Unconscious unease and self-handicapping: Behavioral consequences of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem. Psychological Science 10:535–39.
Spencer, S. J., Fein, S., Wolfe, C. T., Fong, C. & Dunn, M. A. (1998) Automatic activation of stereotypes: The role of self-image threat. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 24:1139–52.
Steele, C. M. (1988) The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In: Advances in experimental social psychology, vol. 21, ed. Berkowitz, L., pp. 261302. Academic Press.
Steele, C. M. & Liu, T. J. (1983) Dissonance processes as self-affirmation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 45:519.
Steinel, W. & De Dreu, C. K. W. (2004) Social motives and strategic misrepresentation in social decision making. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 86:419–34.
Stouten, J., De Cremer, D. & van Dijk, E. (2006) Violating equality in social dilemmas: Emotional and retributive reactions as a function of trust, attribution, and honesty. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 32:894906.
Swann, W. B. Jr. (in press) Self-verification theory. In: Handbook of theories of social psychology, ed. Van Lang, P., Kruglanski, A. & Higgins, E. T.. Sage.
Taylor, S. E. & Brown, J. D. (1988) Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin 103:193210.
Taylor, S. E. & Brown, J. D. (1994) Positive illusions and well being revisited: Separating fact from fiction. Psychological Bulletin 116:2127.
Thornhill, R. & Gangestad, S. W. (2009) The evolutionary biology of human female sexuality. Oxford University Press.
Tomaka, J., Blascovich, J. & Kelsey, R. M. (1992) Effects of self-deception, social desirability, and repressive coping on psychophysiological reactivity to stress. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 18:616–24.
Trivers, R. (1976/2006) Foreword. In: The selfish gene, Dawkins, R., pp. 1920. Oxford University Press. (Original work published in 1976).
Trivers, R. (1985) Deceit and self-deception. In: Social evolution, pp. 395420. Benjamin/Cummings.
Trivers, R. (2000) The elements of a scientific theory of self-deception. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 907:114–31.
Trivers, R. (2009) Deceit and self-deception. In: Mind the gap, ed. Kappeler, P. & Silk, J., pp. 373–93. Springer-Verlag.
Trope, Y. & Neter, E. (1994) Reconciling competing motives in self-evaluation: The role of self-control in feedback seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 66:646–57.
Valdesolo, P. & DeSteno, D. A. (2008) The duality of virtue: Deconstructing the moral hypocrite. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 44:1334–38.
Vohs, K. D. & Schooler, J. W. (2007) The value of believing in free will: Encouraging a belief in determinism increases cheating. Psychological Science 19:4954.
von Hippel, W. & Gonsalkorale, K. (2005) “That is bloody revolting!” Inhibitory control of thoughts better left unsaid. Psychological Science 16:497500.
von Hippel, W., Lakin, J. L. & Shakarchi, R. J. (2005) Individual differences in motivated social cognition: The case of self-serving information processing. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 31:1347–57.
Vrij, A. (2000) Detecting lies and deceit. Wiley.
Vrij, A. (2004) Why professionals fail to catch liars and how they can improve. Legal Criminology Psychology 9:159–81.
Vrij, A., Fisher, R., Mann, S. & Leal, S. (2006) Detecting deception by manipulating cognitive load. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10:141–42.
Vrij, A. & Mann, S. (2005) Police use of nonverbal behavior as indicators of deception. In: Applications of nonverbal communication, ed. Riggio, R. E. & Feldman, R. S., pp. 6394. Erlbaum.
Weinstein, N. D. (1980) Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 39:806–20.
Westbrook, R. A. (1980) Consumer satisfaction as a function of personal competence/efficacy. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 8:427–37.
Westen, D., Blagov, P. S., Harenski, K., Kilts, C. & Hamann, S. (2006) Neural bases of motivated reasoning: An fMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U.S. presidential election. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 18:1947–58.
Whitson, J. A. & Galinsky, A. D. (2008) Lacking control increases illusory pattern perception. Science 322:115.
Wills, T. A. (1981) Downward comparison principles in social psychology. Psychological Bulletin 90:245–71.
Wilson, T. D. & Gilbert, D. (2003) Affective forecasting. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 35:345411.
Wilson, T. D., Lindsey, S. & Schooler, T. (2000) A model of dual attitudes. Psychological Review 107:101–26.
Wilson, T. D., Wheatley, T. P., Kurtz, J. L., Dunn, E. W. & Gilbert, D. T. (2004) When to fire: Anticipatory versus post-event reconstrual of uncontrollable events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 30:340–51.
World Health Organization (2009) WHO Statistical Information System (WHOSIS). Available at:
Zaragoza, M. S. & Mitchell, J. (1996) Repeated exposure to suggestion and the creation of false memories. Psychological Science 7:294300.
Zaragoza, M. S., Payment, K. E., Ackil, J. K., Drivdahl, S. B. & Beck, M. (2001) Interviewing witnesses: Forced confabulation and confirmatory feedback increase false memories. Psychological Science 12:473–77.
Zarnoth, P. & Sniezek, J. A. (1997) The social influence of confidence in group decision making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 33:345–66.
Zuckerman, M., Koestner, R. & Alton, A. O. (1984) Learning to detect deception. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 46:519–28.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 190
Total number of PDF views: 923 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 5079 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th March 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.