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    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Sannen, Adinda Van Elsacker, Linda Heistermann, Michael and Eens, Marcel 2004. Urinary testosterone metabolite levels and aggressive behaviors in male and female bonobos(Pan paniscus). Aggressive Behavior, Vol. 30, Issue. 5, p. 425.


The nurture of nature: Social, developmental, and environmental controls of aggression

  • Charles T. Snowdon (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 June 1998

Evidence from many species suggests that social, developmental, and cognitive variables are important influences on aggression. Few direct activational or organizational effects of hormones on aggression and dominance are found in nonhuman primates. Female aggression and dominance are relatively frequent and occur with low testosterone levels. Social, cultural, and developmental mechanisms have more important influences on dominance and aggression than hormones.

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Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • ISSN: 0140-525X
  • EISSN: 1469-1825
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioral-and-brain-sciences
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