Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

What Do People with Psychosis Think Caused their Psychosis? A Q Methodology Study

  • Robert Dudley (a1), Jonna Siitarinen (a2), Ian James (a2) and Guy Dodgson (a2)
Abstract

Background: A key component of cognitive therapy for psychosis is the development of a meaningful and shared formulation of the onset of the psychosis. Therapists bring an understanding of the development of psychotic symptoms based on theoretical models and try to marry these with the person's own experience and explanations. However, an important question is whether this understanding is compatible with the explanations held by the client. Aims: This study investigated what factors people believed led to the onset of their psychosis. Method: A Q set of potential causes for psychosis was identified from a literature search and interviews with people with differing experiences of psychosis. From this, 58 potential causes of psychosis were identified. Twenty-one people who had experienced a psychotic breakdown then ranked these explanations as possible causes. Results: Using Principle Components Analysis four main factors were identified as perceived causal factors for the onset of psychosis. These factors were described as: a) drug usage; b) traumatic experiences in adulthood; c) personal sensitivity; and d) developmental vulnerabilities. Conclusions: This study revealed that people with psychosis have different explanatory frameworks for the onset of their difficulties. This work is helpful as this effort to understand the person's own understanding of their problems is a first stepping stone towards a collaboratively generated formulation that may be helpful in building a therapeutic alliance, engagement in treatment, and ultimately in improved outcome. It is likely that these different explanatory frameworks could lend themselves to different treatment approaches.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Robert Dudley, Doctorate of Clinical Psychology, Ridley Building, Newcastle University, Newcastle NE1 7RU, UK. E-mail: r.e.j.dudley@ncl.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

P. Chadwick , C. Williams and J. Mackenzie (2003). Impact of case formulation in cognitive behavioural therapy for psychosis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 671680.

P. W. Corrigan (2002). Adherence to anti-psychotic medications and health behaviour theories. Journal of Mental Health, 11, 243254.

A. Ehlers and D. M. Clark (2000). A cognitive model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 319345.

C. J. Haley , R. J. Drake , R. P. Bentall and S. W. Lewis (2003). Health beliefs link to duration of untreated psychosis and attitudes to later treatment in early psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 311316.

P. Hammersley , A. Dias , G. Todd , K. Bowen-Jones , B. Reilly and R. P. Bentall (2003). Childhood trauma and hallucinations in bipolar affective disorder: preliminary investigation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 543547.

M. G. Harris , L. P. Henry , S. M. Harrigan , R. Purcell , O. S. Schwartz , S. E. Farrelly , A. L. Prosser , H. J. Jackson and P. D. McGorry (2005). The relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome: an eight-year prospective study. Schizophrenia Research, 79, 8593.

C. Henquet , L. Krabbendam , J. Spauwen , C. Kaplan , R. Lieb , H. Wittchen and J. Van Os (2005). Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis and psychotic symptoms in young people. British Medical Journal, 330, 1116.

R. Hirschfeld , J. Smith , P. Trower and C. Griffin (2005). What do psychotic experiences mean for young men? A qualitative investigation. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 78, 249270.

M. James and S. Warner (2005). Coping with their lives – women, learning disabilities, self-harm and the secure unit: a Q-methodological study. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 120127.

I. Janssen , M. Hanssen , M. Bak , R. V. Bijl , R. De Graaf , W. Vollebergh , K. McKenzie and J. Van Os (2003). Discrimination and delusional ideation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 7176.

J. O. Johannssen , T. K. Larsen , I. Joa , I. Melle , S. Friis , S. Opjordsmoen , B. Rund , E. Simonsen , P. Vaglum and T. McGlashan (2005). Pathways to care for first-episode psychosis in an early detection healthcare sector: part of the Scandinavian TIPS study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 2428.

S. Jones , A. Guy and J. A. Ormrod (2003). A Q-methodological study of hearing voices: a preliminary exploration of voice hearers’ understanding of their experiences. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 76, 189209.

P. Kinderman and F. Lobban (2001). Evolving formulation. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 28, 307310.

P. Kinderman , E. Setzu , F. Lobban and P. Salmon (2006). Illness beliefs in schizophrenia. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 19001911.

F. Lobban , C. Barrowclough and S. Jones (2003). A review of the role of illness models in severe mental illness. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 171196.

S. Marzillier and C. Steel (2007). Positive schizotypy and trauma-related intrusions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 195, 6064.

R. McCabe and S. Priebe (2004). Assessing the stability of schizophrenia patients’ explanatory models of illness over time. Journal of Mental Health, 13, 163169.

H. Merckelbach and T. Giesbrecht (2006). Subclinical dissociation, schizotypy, and traumatic distress. Personality and Individual Differences, 40, 365374.

A. P. Morrison , L. Frame and W. Larkin (2003). Relationships between trauma and psychosis: a review and integration. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 331353.

K. H. Nuechterlein and M. E. Dawson (1984). Vulnerability and stress factors in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 158159.

J. Read , J. Van Os , A. P. Morrison and C. A. Ross (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia: a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112, 330350.

J. Sayer , S. Ritter and K. Gournay (2000). Beliefs about voices and their effects on coping strategies. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 11991205.

D. Sit , A. Rothschild , M. Creinin , B. Hanusa and K. Wisner (2007). Psychiatric outcomes following medical and surgical abortion. Human Reproduction, 22, 878884.

L. Tait , M. Birchwood and P. Trower (2003). Predicting engagement with services for psychosis: insight, symptoms and recovery style. British Journal of Psychiatry, 182, 123128.

S. Watts and P. Stenner (2005). Doing Q-methodology: theory, method and interpretation. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 2, 6791.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 32 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 137 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.