Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 15
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Aceto, Paola and Lai, Carlo 2016. Comprehensive Guide to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders.


    Görg, Nora Priebe, Kathlen Deuschel, Tilman Schüller, Martin Schriner, Friederike Kleindienst, Nikolaus Ludäscher, Petra Schmahl, Christian and Bohus, Martin 2016. Computer-Assisted In Sensu Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Development and Evaluation. JMIR Mental Health, Vol. 3, Issue. 2, p. e27.


    Homer, Sophie R. Deeprose, Catherine and Andrade, Jackie 2016. Negative mental imagery in public speaking anxiety: Forming cognitive resistance by taxing visuospatial working memory. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 50, p. 77.


    Kersloot, Floris de Boer, Marc Hafkenscheid, Anton and Schut, Henk 2016. EMDR-behandeling bij oorlogsveteranen. Tijdschrift voor Psychotherapie, Vol. 42, Issue. 4, p. 242.


    Follette, William C. Papa, Anthony and Davis, Deborah 2015. The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology.


    Ford, Julian D. Grasso, Damion J. Elhai, Jon D. and Courtois, Christine A. 2015. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.


    Lake, James 2015. The integrative management of PTSD: A review of conventional and CAM approaches used to prevent and treat PTSD with emphasis on military personnel. Advances in Integrative Medicine, Vol. 2, Issue. 1, p. 13.


    Parcesepe, Angela M. Martin, Sandra L. Pollock, McLean D. and García-Moreno, Claudia 2015. The effectiveness of mental health interventions for adult female survivors of sexual assault: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, Vol. 25, p. 15.


    Costanzi, Marco Saraulli, Daniele Cannas, Sara D’Alessandro, Francesca Florenzano, Fulvio Rossi-Arnaud, Clelia and Cestari, Vincenzo 2014. Fear but not fright: re-evaluating traumatic experience attenuates anxiety-like behaviors after fear conditioning. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, Vol. 8,


    Lee, Na-Hyun Kim, Seung-Jun Kim, Ji-Woong Im, Woo-Young Kwon, Hyukchan Kim, Kiwoong Kim, Min-Young and Lim, Sanghyun 2014. The Effect of Bilateral Eye Movements on Emotional Face Recognition Memory Task. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, Vol. 53, Issue. 5, p. 293.


    Novo, Patricia Landin-Romero, Ramon Radua, Joaquim Vicens, Victor Fernandez, Isabel Garcia, Francisca Pomarol-Clotet, Edith McKenna, Peter J. Shapiro, Francine and Amann, Benedikt L. 2014. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy in subsyndromal bipolar patients with a history of traumatic events: A randomized, controlled pilot-study. Psychiatry Research, Vol. 219, Issue. 1, p. 122.


    Elman, Igor Borsook, David and Volkow, Nora D. 2013. Pain and suicidality: Insights from reward and addiction neuroscience. Progress in Neurobiology, Vol. 109, p. 1.


    Lee, Jae-Chang Kim, Ji-Woong Kwon, Hyuk-Chan Kim, Kiwoong Kim, Min-Young Lee, Yong-Ho Lim, Sanghyun and Kim, Seung-Jun 2013. The Effect of Bilaterally Alternating Auditory Stimulations on the Episodic Memory Retrieval. Journal of Korean Neuropsychiatric Association, Vol. 52, Issue. 5, p. 353.


    ten Hoor, Nina M. 2013. Treating Cognitive Distortions with EMDR: A Case Study of a Sex Offender. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 2, p. 139.


    Verstrael, Sietse van der Wurff, Peter and Vermetten, Eric 2013. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) as Treatment for Combat-Related PTSD: A Meta-Analysis. Military Behavioral Health, Vol. 1, Issue. 2, p. 68.


    ×

What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review

  • Fiona W. Jeffries (a1) and Paul Davis (a1)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1352465812000793
  • Published online: 29 October 2012
Abstract

Background: Controversy continues to exist regarding how EMDR works and whether its mechanisms differ from those at work in standard exposure techniques. Aims: To investigate first whether eye movement bilateral stimulation is an essential component of EMDR and, second, the current status of its theoretical basis. Method: A systematic search for relevant articles was conducted in databases using standard methodology. Results: Clinical research evidence is contradictory as to how essential EMs are in PTSD treatment. More positive support is provided by analogue studies. With regards to potential theoretical support, some evidence was found suggesting bilateral stimulation first increases access to episodic memories; and second that it could act on components of working memory which makes focusing on the traumatic memories less unpleasant and thereby improves access to these memories. Conclusions: The results suggest support for the contention that EMs are essential to this therapy and that a theoretical rationale exists for their use. Choice of EMDR over trauma-focused CBT should therefore remain a matter of patient choice and clinician expertise; it is suggested, however, that EMs may be more effective at reducing distress, and thereby allow other components of treatment to take place.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      What is the Role of Eye Movements in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? A Review
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Reprint requests to Paul Davis, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Human Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 5XH, UK. E-mail: p.e.davis@surrey.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Andrade , D. Kavanagh and A. Baddeley (1997). Eye-movements and visual imagery: a working memory approach to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 209223.

P. Bakan and D. Svorad (1969). Resting EEG alpha asymmetry of reflective lateral eye movements. Nature, 223, 975976.

A. L. Barrowcliff , N. S. Gray , S. MacCulloch , T. C. A. Freeman and M. J. MacCulloch (2003). Horizontal rhythmical eye movements consistently diminish the arousal provoked by auditory stimuli. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 289302.

P. A. Boudewyns and L. A. Hyer (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) as treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 3, 185195.

T. T. Brunyé , C. R. Mahoney , J. S. Augustyn and H. A. Taylor (2009). Horizontal saccadic eye movements enhance the retrieval of landmark shape and location information. Brain and Cognition, 70, 279288.

S. P. Cahill , M. H. Carrigan and B. C. Frueh (1999). Does EMDR work? And if so, why?: a critical review of controlled outcome and dismantling research. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 533.

S. D. Christman , K. J. Garvey , R. E. Propper and K. A. Phaneuf (2003). Bilateral eye movements enhance the retrieval of episodic memories. Neuropsychology, 17, 221229.

S. D. Christman and R. E. Propper (2001). Superior episodic memory is associated with interhemispheric processing. Neuropsychology, 15, 607616.

R. J. Compton and D. A. Mintzer (2001). Effects of worry and evaluation stress on interhemispheric interaction. Neuropsychology, 15, 427433.

P. R. Davidson and K. C. H. Parker (2001). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): a meta-analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 305316.

R. W. Gunter (2009). EMDR works. . . but how? Recent progress in the search for treatment mechanisms. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 161168.

R. W. Gunter and G. E. Bodner (2008). How eye movements affect unpleasant memories: support for a working memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913931.

K. M. Hertlein and R. J. Ricci (2004). A systematic research synthesis of EMDR studies: implementation of the platinum standard. Trauma, Violence and Abuse, 5, 285300.

G. Högberg , M. Pagani , O. Sundin , J. Soares , A. Aberg-Wistedt , B. Tärnell , et al. (2007). On treatment with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder in public transportation workers: a randomized controlled trial. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 61, 5461.

G. I. Ironson , B. Freund , J. L. Strauss and J. Williams (2002). Comparison of two treatments for traumatic stress: a community-based study of EMDR and prolonged exposure. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 113128.

D. J. Kavanagh , S. Freese , J. Andrade and J. May (2001). Effects of visuospatial tasks on desensitization to emotive memories. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 267280.

D. G. Kilpatrick and C. L. Best (1984). Some cautionary remarks on treating sexual assault victims with implosion. Behavior Therapy, 15, 421423.

C. W. Lee and P. D. Drummond (2008). Effects of eye movement versus therapist instructions on the process of distressing memories. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 22, 801808.

S. A. Lilley , J. Andrale , G. Turpin , R. Sabin-Farrell and E. Holmes (2009). Visuospatial working memory interference with recollections of trauma. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 309321.

J. M. Lohr , S. O. Lilienfeld , D. F. Tolin and J. D. Herbert (1999). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: an analysis of specific versus nonspecific treatment factors. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 185207.

M. J. MacCulloch and P. Feldman (1996). Eye movement desensitization treatment utilises the positive visceral element of the investigatory reflex to inhibit the memories of post-traumatic stress disorder: a theoretical analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 571579.

L. Maxfield , W. T. Melynk and C. A. G. Hayman (2008). A working memory explanation for the effects of eye movements in EMDR. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 247261.

K. Power , T. McGoldrick , K. Brown , R. Buchanan , D. Sharp , V. Swanson , et al. (2002). A controlled comparison of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing versus exposure plus cognitive restructuring versus waiting list in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 9, 299318.

R. E. Propper and S. D. Christman (2008). Interhemispheric interaction and saccadic horizontal eye movements: implications for episodic memory, EMDR and PTSD. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 269281.

S. Rogers and S. M. Silver (2002). Is EMDR an exposure therapy? A review of trauma protocols. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 4359.

Z. Samara , B. M. Elzinga , H. A. Slagter and S. Nieuwenhuis (2011). Do horizontal saccadic eye movements increase interhemispheric coherence? Investigation of a hypothesized neural mechanism underlying EMDR. Front Psychiatry, 2, 4.

S. Schubert and C. W. Lee (2009). Adult PTSD and its treatment with EMDR: a review of controversies, evidence, and theoretical knowledge. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 3, 117132.

S. Schubert , C. W. Lee and P. D. Drummond (2011). The efficacy and psychophysiological correlates of dual-attention tasks in eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25, 111.

F. Shapiro (1989a). Efficacy of the eye movement desensitization procedure in the treatment of traumatic memories. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 2, 199223.

F. Shapiro (1989b). Eye movement desensitization: a new treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 20, 211217.

F. Shapiro (2002). EMDR 12 years after its introduction: past and future research. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 122.

F. Shapiro and L. Maxfield (2002). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): information processing in the treatment of trauma. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 933946.

R. Stickgold (2002). EMDR: a putative neurobiological mechanism of action. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58, 6175.

R. Stickgold , J. A. Hobson , R. Fosse and M. Fosse (2001). Sleep, learning and dreams: off-line memory reprocessing. Science, 294, 10521057.

E. Tulving , S. Kapur , F. I. M. Craik , M. Moscovitch and S. Houle (1994). Hemispheric encoding/retrieval asymmetry in episodic memory: positron emission technology findings. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91, 20162020.

M. van den Hout , P. Muris , E. Salemink and M. Kindt (2001). Autobiographical memories become less vivid and emotional after eye movements. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 121130.

D. L. Wilson , S. M. Silver , W. G. Covi and S. Foster (1996). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing: effectiveness and autonomic correlates. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 27, 219229.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
  • ISSN: 1352-4658
  • EISSN: 1469-1833
  • URL: /core/journals/behavioural-and-cognitive-psychotherapy
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: