Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-747cfc64b6-5dv6l Total loading time: 0.284 Render date: 2021-06-17T03:43:28.445Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": true, "newCiteModal": false, "newCitedByModal": true, "newEcommerce": true }

Acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child bilinguals: Overregularization by heritage speakers and second language learners

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 June 2020

Ana Fernández-Dobao
Affiliation:
Department of Spanish and Portuguese Studies, University of Washington, Box 354360, Seattle, WA 98195, United States of America
Julia Herschensohn
Affiliation:
Department of Linguistics, University of Washington, Box 352425, Seattle, WA, 98195, United States of America
Corresponding
E-mail address:

Abstract

The current study analyzes Spanish present tense morphology with a focus on overregularization. It examines written production from two groups of English/Spanish bilingual children in a dual immersion setting, Spanish heritage language (SHL) speakers (n = 21) and Spanish second language (SL2) learners (n = 41), comparing them to age-matched (nine to ten years old) Spanish majority language children (n = 15). Spanish majority children show full mastery of present tense regular, stem-changing and irregular morphology. SHL children seem to have acquired mastery of regular inflectional morphology, but not of stem-changing morphology. SL2 children are significantly less accurate than both majority Spanish and SHL children in terms of both regular and irregular morphology. Evidence of overregularization, but not of irregularization, is provided for both SHL and SL2 children. The analysis of overregularization errors supports a variational approach (Yang, 2016) to acquisition, storage and access of morphology.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2020. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

ACTFL. (2012). ACTFL proficiency guidelines. Retrieved August, 2019 from https://www.actfl.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/public/ACTFLProficiencyGuidelines2012_FINAL.pdfGoogle Scholar
Aguirre, C (2006). What do overregularizations tell us about morphological knowledge? Círculo de Lingüística Aplicada a la Comunicación, 26, 311.Google Scholar
Avant Assessment. (2017). Avant STAMP 4Se benchmarks and rubric guide. Retrieved August, 2019 from https://avantassessment.com/stamp4se/benchmarks-rubric-guide.Google Scholar
Barr, D, Levy, R, Scheepers, C and Tily, H (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68, 255278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bayram, F, Kupisch, T, Pascual y Cabo, D and Rothman, J (2019). Terminology matters on theoretical grounds too! Coherent grammars cannot be incomplete. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41, 257264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Benmamoun, E, Montrul, S and Polinsky, M (2013). Heritage languages and their speakers: Opportunities and challenges for linguistics. Theoretical Linguistics, 39, 129181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bermúdez-Otero, R (2013). The Spanish lexicon stores stems with theme vowels, not roots with inflectional class features. Probus: International Journal of Latin and Romance Linguistics, 25, 3103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bowden, HW, Gelfand, MP, Sanz, C and Ullman, MT (2010). Verbal inflectional morphology in L1 and L2 Spanish: A frequency effects study examining storage versus composition. Language Learning, 60, 4487.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Carroll, S (2017). Exposure and input in bilingual development. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 20, 316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clahsen, H, Aveledo, F and Roca, I (2002). The development of regular and irregular verb inflection in Spanish child language. Journal of Child Language, 29, 591622.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clahsen, H, Felser, C, Neubauer, K, Sato, M and Silva, R (2010). Morphological structure in native and nonnative language processing. Language Learning, 60, 2143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Collier, VP and Thomas, WP (2004). The astounding effectiveness of dual language education for all. NABE Journal of Research and practice, 2, 120.Google Scholar
Collier, VP and Thomas, WP (2017). Validating the power of bilingual schooling: Thirty-two years of large-scale, longitudinal research. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuza, A (2016). The status of interrogative subject-verb inversion in Spanish–English bilingual children. Lingua, 180, 124138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cuza, A and Pérez-Tattam, R (2016). Grammatical gender selection and phrasal word order in child heritage Spanish: A feature-reassembly approach. Bilingualism, Language and Cognition, 19, 5068.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
De Jong, EJ (2014). Program design and two-way immersion programs. Journal of Immersion and Content-Based Language Education, 2, 241256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Domínguez, L, Hicks, G and Slabakova, R (2019). Terminology choice in generative acquisition research: The case of “incomplete acquisition” in heritage language grammars. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41, 241255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eddington, D (2009). Spanish verbal inflection: a single or dual route system? Linguistics, 47, 173199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fernández-Dobao, A and Herschensohn, J (2019). Present tense verb morphology of Spanish HL and L2 children in dual immersion: Feature Reassembly revisited. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism. DOI 10.1075/lab.18026.ferCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grinstead, J (2000). Case, inflection and subject licensing in child Catalan and Spanish. Journal of Child Language, 27, 119155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Guasti, MT (2002). Language acquisition: The growth of grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Harris, J (1987). The accentual patterns of verb paradigms in Spanish. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 5, 6190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Herschensohn, J, Stevenson, J and Waltmunson, J (2005). Children's acquisition of L2 Spanish morphosyntax in an immersion setting. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 43, 193217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howard, ER, Christian, D and Genesee, F (2004). The development of bilingualism and biliteracy from grade 3 to 5: A summary of findings from the CAL/CREDE study of two-way immersion education. Santa Cruz, CA: Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence.Google Scholar
Kupisch, T and Rothman, J (2018). Terminology matters! Why difference is not incompleteness and how early child bilinguals are heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22(5), 564582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Langacker, R (2000). Grammar and conceptualization. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
Matuschek, H, Kliegl, R, Vasishth, S, Baayen, H and Bates, D (2017). Balancing Type I error and power in linear mixed models. Journal of Memory and Language, 94, 305315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mayol, L (2003). Acquisition of irregular patterns in Spanish verbal morphology. In Nurmi, V & Sustretov, D (eds.), Proceedings of the Twelfth ESSLLI Student Session, Chapter 1.Google Scholar
Meisel, J (2013). Heritage language learners: Unprecedented opportunities for the study of grammars and their development? Theoretical Linguistics, 39, 225236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, K and Schmitt, C (2009). Syllable-final /s/ lenition and the acquisition of plural morphology in Spanish-speaking children. In Grinstead, J (ed.), Hispanic child languages: Typical and impaired development, pp. 327. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Miller, K and Schmitt, C (2012). Variable input and the acquisition of plural morphology. Language Acquisition, 19, 223261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2002). Incomplete acquisition and attrition of Spanish tense/aspect distinctions in adult bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 3968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2004a). The acquisition of Spanish: Morphosyntactic development in monolingual and bilingual L1 acquisition and adult L2 acquisition. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2004b). Subject and object expression in Spanish heritage speakers: a case of morpho-syntactic convergence. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 7, 125142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2008). Incomplete acquisition in bilingualism. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2010). Dominant language transfer in adult second language learners and heritage speakers. Second Language Research, 26, 293327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2011). Morphological errors in Spanish second language learners and heritage speakers. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 163192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2016). The acquisition of heritage languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S (2018). Heritage language development: Connecting the dots. International Journal of Bilingualism, 22, 530546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S, Foote, R and Perpiñán, S (2008). Gender agreement in adult second language learners and Spanish heritage speakers: The effects of age and context of acquisition. Language Learning, 58, 503553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S and Potowski, K (2007). Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish–English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11, 301328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Montrul, S and Silva-Corvalán, C (2019). The social context contributes to the incomplete acquisition of aspects of heritage languages. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41, 269273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Otheguy, R (2019). A commentary on terminology choice in generative acquisition research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 41, 265268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pascual y Cabo, D and Rothman, J (2012). The (il)logical problem of heritage speaker bilingualism and incomplete acquisition. Applied Linguistics, 33, 450455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pinker, S (1999). Words and rules: The ingredients of language. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
Pinker, S and Prince, A (1988). On language and connectionism: analysis of a parallel distributed model of language acquisition. Cognition, 28, 73193.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Polinsky, M (2006). Incomplete acquisition: American Russian. Journal of Slavic Linguistics, 14, 191262.Google Scholar
Polinsky, M (2011). Reanalysis in adult heritage language: New evidence in support of attrition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 305328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Polinsky, M (2018). Heritage languages and their speakers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Potowski, K (2007). Characteristics of the Spanish grammar and sociolinguistic proficiency of dual immersion graduates. Spanish in Context, 4, 187216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rumelhart, D and McClelland, J (1986). On learning the past tenses of English verbs: Implicit rules or parallel distributed processing? In McClelland, J, Rumelhart, D & PDP Research Group (eds.), Parallel distributed processing: Explorations in the microstructure of cognition, pp. 216271. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Silva-Corvalán, C (2014). Bilingual language acquisition: Spanish and English in the first six years. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tedick, DJ and Young, AI (2014). Fifth grade two-way immersion students’ responses to form-focused instruction. Applied Linguistics, 37, 784807.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Valdés, G (2001). Heritage language students: Profiles and possibilities. In Peyton, J, Renard, D & McGinnis, S (eds.), Heritage languages in America: Preserving a national resource. Washington, D.C.: Center for Applied Linguistics, pp. 3777.Google Scholar
Yaden, B (2007). The processing and representation of verbal inflection: Data from L1 and L2 Spanish. Hispania, 90, 795808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, C (2002). Knowledge and learning in natural language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Yang, C (2016). The price of linguistic productivity: How children learn to break the rules of language. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yang, C & Montrul, S (2017). Learning datives: The Tolerance Principle in monolingual and bilingual acquisition. Second Language Research, 33(1), 119144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
2
Cited by

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child bilinguals: Overregularization by heritage speakers and second language learners
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child bilinguals: Overregularization by heritage speakers and second language learners
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Acquisition of Spanish verbal morphology by child bilinguals: Overregularization by heritage speakers and second language learners
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *