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Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

  • Helen Barry (a1), Susan Byrne (a2), Elizabeth Barrett (a3), Kieran C. Murphy (a1) and David R. Cotter (a1)...
Summary

Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is a form of encephalitis occurring primarily in women and associated with antibodies against NR1 or NR2 subunits of the NMDA receptor. As a potentially treatable differential for symptoms and signs seen in neurology and psychiatric clinics, clinicians practising across the lifespan should be aware of this form of encephalitis. Common clinical features include auditory and visual hallucinations, delusions, behavioural change (frequently with agitation), impaired consciousness, motor disturbance (ranging from dyskinesia to catatonia), seizures, and autonomic dysfunction. We present a review of the literature on the disorder, including its clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment and prognosis.

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Copyright
This is an open-access article published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence to Helen Barry (helenbarry@rcsi.ie)
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Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
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Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: review of clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment

  • Helen Barry (a1), Susan Byrne (a2), Elizabeth Barrett (a3), Kieran C. Murphy (a1) and David R. Cotter (a1)...
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