Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Cortical thickness and sulcal depth: insights on development and psychopathology in paediatric epilepsy

  • Duygu Tosun (a1), Prabha Siddarth (a2), Jennifer Levitt (a2) and Rochelle Caplan (a2)
Abstract
Background

The relationship between cortical thickness (CThick) and sulcal depth (SDepth) changes across brain regions during development. Epilepsy youth have CThick and SDepth abnormalities and prevalent psychiatric disorders.

Aims

This study compared the CThick–SDepth relationship in children with focal epilepsy with typically developing children (TDC) and the role played by seizure and psychopathology variables.

Method

A surface-based, computational high-resolution three-dimesional (3D) magnetic resonance image analytic technique compared regional CThick–SDepth relationships in 42 participants with focal epilepsy and 46 TDC (6–16 years) imaged in a 1.5 Tesla scanner. Psychiatric interviews administered to each participant yielded psychiatric diagnoses. Parents provided seizure-related information.

Results

The TDC group alone demonstrated a significant negative medial fronto-orbital CThick–SDepth correlation. Focal epilepsy participants with but not without psychiatric diagnoses showed significant positive pre-central and post-central CThick–SDepth associations not found in TDC. Although the history of prolonged seizures was significantly associated with the postcentral CThick–SDepth correlation, it was unrelated to the presence/absence of psychiatric diagnoses.

Conclusions

Abnormal CThick–SDepth pre-central and post-central associations might be a psychopathology biomarker in paediatric focal epilepsy.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Cortical thickness and sulcal depth: insights on development and psychopathology in paediatric epilepsy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Cortical thickness and sulcal depth: insights on development and psychopathology in paediatric epilepsy
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Cortical thickness and sulcal depth: insights on development and psychopathology in paediatric epilepsy
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Corresponding author
Duygu Tosun, Centre for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Medical Center, Bldg 13, 114M, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA. Email: duygu.tosun@ucsf.edu
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Raznahan, A, Shaw, P, Lalonde, F, Stockman, M, Wallace, GL, Greenstein, D, et al. How does your cortex grow? J Neurosci 2011; 31: 7174–7.
2 Shaw, P, Kabani, NJ, Lerch, JP, Eckstrand, K, Lenroot, R, Gogtay, N, et al. Neurodevelopmental trajectories of the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 2008; 28: 3586–94.
3 Alemán-Gómez, Y, Janssen, J, Schnack, H, Balaban, E, Pina-Camacho, L, Alfaro-Almagro, F, et al. The human cerebral cortex flattens during adolescence. J Neurosci 2013; 33: 15004–10.
4 Vandekar, SN, Shinohara, RT, Raznahan, A, Roalf, DR, Ross, M, DeLeo, N, et al. Topologically dissociable patterns of development of the human cerebral cortex. J Neurosci 2015; 35: 599609.
5 Tosun, D, Caplan, R, Siddarth, P, Seidenberg, M, Gurbani, S, Toga, AW, et al. Intelligence and cortical thickness in children with complex partial seizures. Neuroimage 2011; 15: 337–46.
6 Tosun, D, Siddarth, P, Toga, AW, Hermann, B, Caplan, R. Effects of childhood absence epilepsy on associations between regional cortical morphometry and aging and cognitive abilities. Hum Brain Mapp 2010; 32: 580–91.
7 Lin, JJ, Dabbs, K, Riley, JD, Jones, JE, Jackson, DC, Hsu, DA, et al. Neurodevelopment in new-onset juvenile myoclonic epilepsy over the first 2 years. Ann Neurol 2014; 76: 660–8.
8 Widjaja, E, Mahmoodabadi, SZ, Snead, OC, Almehdar, A, Smith, ML. Widespread cortical thinning in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2011; 52: 1685–91.
9 Duerden, EG, Tannock, R, Dockstader, C. Altered cortical morphology in sensorimotor processing regions in adolescents and adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Brain Res 2012; 1445:8291.
10 Reynolds, S, Carrey, N, Jaworska, N, Langevin, LM, Yang, XR, Macmaster, FP. Cortical thickness in youth with major depressive disorder. BMC Psychiatry 2014; 14: 83.
11 Strawn, JR, Wegman, CJ, Dominick, KC, Swartz, MS, Wehry, AM, Patino, LR, et al. Cortical surface anatomy in pediatric patients with generalized anxiety disorder. J Anxiety Disord 2014; 28: 717–23.
12 Ducharme, S, Hudziak, JJ, Botteron, KN, Albaugh, MD, Nguyen, TV, Karama, S, et al. Decreased regional cortical thickness and thinning rate are associated with inattention symptoms in healthy children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2012; 51: 18–27.e2.
13 Ducharme, S, Albaugh, MD, Hudziak, JJ, Botteron, KN, Nguyen, TV, Truong, C, et al. Anxious/depressed symptoms are linked to right ventromedial prefrontal cortical thickness maturation in healthy children and young adults. Cereb Cortex 2014; 24: 2941–50.
14 Levan, A, Baxter, L, Kirwan, CB, Black, G, Gale, SD. Right frontal pole cortical thickness and social competence in children with chronic traumatic brain injury: Cognitive proficiency as a mediator. J Head Trauma Rehabil 2015; 30: E2431.
15 Hesdorffer, DC, Lúdvígsson, P, Hauser, WA, Olafsson, E, Kjartansson, O. Cooccurrence of major depression or suicide attempt with migraine with aura and risk for unprovoked seizure. Epilepsy Res 2007; 75: 220–3.
16 Hesdorffer, DC, Ludvigsson, P, Olafsson, E, Gudmundsson, G, Kjartansson, O, Hauser, WA. ADHD as a risk factor for incident unprovoked seizures and epilepsy in children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 731–6.
17 Austin, JK, Perkins, SM, Johnson, CS, Fastenau, PS, Byars, AW, desGrauw, TJ, et al. Behavior problems in children at time of first recognized seizure and changes over the following 3 years. Epilepsy Behav 2011; 21: 373–81.
18 Caplan, R, Siddarth, P, Gurbani, S, Ott, D, Sankar, R, Shields, WD. Psychopathology and pediatric complex partial seizures: seizure-related, cognitive, and linguistic variables. Epilepsia 2004; 45: 1273–81.
19 Jones, JE, Watson, R, Sheth, R, Caplan, R, Koehn, M, Seidenberg, M, et al. Psychiatric comorbidity in children with new onset epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2007; 49: 493–7.
20 Dabbs, K, Jones, JE, Jackson, DC, Seidenberg, M, Hermann, BP. Patterns of cortical thickness and the child behavior checklist in childhood epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2013; 29: 198204.
21 Saute, R, Dabbs, K, Jones, JE, Jackson, DC, Seidenberg, M, Hermann, BP. Brain morphology in children with epilepsy and ADHD. PLoS One 2014; 9: e95269.
22 Jones, JE, Jackson, DC, Chambers, KL, Dabbs, K, Hsu, DA, Stafstrom, CE, et al. Children with epilepsy and anxiety: subcortical and cortical differences. Epilepsia 2015; 56: 283–90.
23 Engel, J Jr, International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 2001; 42: 796803.
24 Hollingshead, AB. Medical sociology: a brief review. Milbank Mem Fund Q Health Soc 1973; 51: 531–42.
25 Kaufman, J, Birmaher, B, Brent, D, Rao, U, Flynn, C, Moreci, P, et al. Schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school age children present and lifetime version (K SADS PL): initial reliability and validity data. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1997; 36: 980–8.
26 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th edn (DMS-IV) ed. APA, 1994.
27 Wechsler, D. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. The Psychological Corporation, 1991.
28 Shattuck, DW, Leahy, RM. BrainSuite: an automated cortical surface identification tool. Med Image Anal 2002; 6: 129–42.
29 Sled, JG, Pike, GB. Standing-wave and RF penetration artifacts caused by elliptic geometry: an electrodynamic analysis of MRI. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 1998; 17: 653–62.
30 Han, X, Pham, DL, Tosun, D, Rettmann, ME, Xu, C, Prince, JL. Cruise: cortical reconstruction using implicit surface evolution. Neuroimage 2004; 23: 9971012.
31 Tosun, D, Rettmann, ME, Naiman, DQ, Resnick, SM, Kraut, MA, Prince, JL. Cortical reconstruction using implicit surface evolution: accuracy and precision analysis. Neuroimage 2006; 29: 838–52.
32 Tosun, D, Duchesne, S, Rolland, Y, Toga, AW, Vérin, M, Barillot, C. 3-D analysis of cortical morphometry in differential diagnosis of Parkinson's plus syndromes: mapping frontal lobe cortical atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy patients. Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2007; 10: 891–9.
33 Yezzi, AJ Jr, Prince, JL. An Eulerian PDE approach for computing tissue thickness. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2003; 22: 1332–9.
34 Tosun, D, Prince, JL. A geometry-driven optical flow warping for spatial normalization of cortical surfaces. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2008; 27: 1739–53.
35 Holmes, CJ, Hoge, R, Collins, L, Woods, R, Toga, AW, Evans, AC. Enhancement of MR images using registration for signal averaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr 1998; 22: 324–33.
36 Tosun, D, Dabbs, K, Caplan, R, Siddarth, P, Toga, A, Seidenberg, M, et al. Deformation-based morphometry of prospective neurodevelopmental changes in new onset paediatric epilepsy. Brain 2011; 134: 1003–14.
37 Ciumas, C, Saignavongs, M, Ilski, F, Herbillon, V, Laurent, A, Lothe, A, et al. White matter development in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. Brain 2014; 137: 1095–106.
38 Amft, M, Bzdok, D, Laird, AR, Fox, PT, Schilbach, L, Eickhoff, SB. Definition and characterization of an extended social-affective default network. Brain Struct Funct 2015; 220: 1031–49.
39 Powell, JL, Lewis, PA, Dunbar, RI, García-Fiñana, M, Roberts, N. Orbital prefrontal cortex volume correlates with social cognitive competence. Neuropsychologia 2010; 48: 3554–62.
40 Lewis, PA, Rezaie, R, Brown, R, Roberts, N, Dunbar, RI. Ventromedial prefrontal volume predicts understanding of others and social network size. Neuroimage 2011; 57: 1624–9.
41 McNamee, D, Rangel, A, O'Doherty, JP. Category-dependent and category-independent goal-value codes in human ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 2013; 16: 479–85.
42 Happaney, K, Zelazo, PD, Stuss, DT. Development of orbitofrontal function: current themes and future directions. Brain Cogn 2004; 55:110.
43 Gansler, DA, McLaughlin, NCR, Iguchi, L, Jerram, M, Moore, DW, Bhadelia, R, et al. A multivariate approach to aggression and the orbital frontal cortex in psychiatric patients. Psychiatry Res 2009; 171: 145–54.
44 Hoptman, MJ, D'Angelo, D, Catalano, D, Mauro, CJ, Shehzad, ZE, Kelly, AM, et al. Amygdalofrontal functional disconnectivity and aggression in schizophrenia. Schizophr Bull 2010; 36: 1020–8.
45 Caplan, R, Siddarth, P, Levitt, J, Gurbani, S, Shields, WD, Sankar, R. Suicidality and brain volumes in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2010; 18: 286–90.
46 Mak, A, Wong, MM, Han, SH, Lee, TM. Gray matter reduction associated with emotion regulation in female outpatients with major depressive disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study. Progr Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2009; 33: 1184–90.
47 Najt, P, Nicoletti, M, Chen, HH, Hatch, JP, Caetano, SC, Sassi, RB, et al. Anatomical measurements of the orbitofrontal cortex in child and adolescent patients with bipolar disorder. Neurosci Lett 2007; 413: 183–6.
48 Hoptman, MJ, Volavka, J, Weiss, EM, Czobor, P, Szeszko, PR, Gerig, G, et al. Quantitative MRI measures of orbitofrontal cortex in patients with chronic schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatry Res 2005; 140: 133–45.
49 Verdejo-García, A, Bechara, A. A somatic marker theory of addiction. Neuropharmacology 2009; 56: 4862.
50 Ko, CH, Liu, G-C, Hsiao, S, Yen, JY, Yang, MJ, Lin, WC, et al. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction. J Psychiatr Res 2009; 43: 739–47.
51 Caplan, R, Levitt, J, Siddarth, P, Taylor, J, Daley, M, Wu, KN, et al. Thought disorder and frontotemporal volumes in pediatric epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2008; 13: 593–9.
52 Daley, M, Levitt, J, Siddarth, P, Mormino, E, Hojatkashani, C, Gurbani, S, et al. Frontal and temporal volumes in children with epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav 2007; 10: 470–6.
53 Hamiwka, L, Jones, JE, Salpekar, J, Caplan, R. Child psychiatry: special edition on the future of clinical epilepsy research. Epilepsy Behav 2011; 22: 3846.
54 Khundrakpam, BS, Tohka, J, Evans, AC. Prediction of brain maturity based on cortical thickness at different spatial resolutions. Neuroimage 2015; 111: 350–9.
55 Mankinen, K, Jalovaara, P, Paakki, JJ, Harila, M, Rytky, S, Tervonen, O, et al. Connectivity disruptions in resting-state functional brain networks in children with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res 2012; 100: 168–78.
56 Widjaja, E, Zamyadi, M, Raybaud, C, Snead, OC, Smith, ML. Abnormal functional network connectivity among resting-state networks in children with frontal lobe epilepsy. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 2013; 34: 2386–92.
57 Haneef, Z, Lenartowicz, A, Yeh, HJ, Levin, HS, Engel, J Jr, Stern, JM. Functional connectivity of hippocampal networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2014; 55: 137–45.
58 Voets, NL, Beckmann, CF, Cole, DM, Hong, S, Bernasconi, A, Bernasconi, N, et al. Structural substrates for resting network disruption in temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 2012; 135: 2350–7.
59 McDonald, CR, Hagler, DJ, Ahmadi, ME, Tecoma, E, Iragui, V, Gharapetian, L, et al. Regional neocortical thinning in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsia 2008; 49: 794803.
60 Lin, JJ, Salamon, N, Lee, AD, Dutton, RA, Geaga, JA, Hayashi, KM, et al. Reduced neocortical thickness and complexity mapped in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. Cereb Cortex 2007; 17: 2007–18.
61 Lin, JJ, Mula, M, Hermann, BP. Uncovering the neurobehavioural comorbidities of epilepsy over the lifespan. Lancet 2012; 380: 1180–92.
62 Shaw, P, Malek, M, Watson, B, Sharp, W, Evans, A, Greenstein, D. Development of of cortical surface area and gyrification in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2012; 72: 191–7.
63 Caplan, R, Siddarth, P, Stahl, L, Lanphier, E, Vona, P, Gurbani, S, et al. Childhood absence epilepsy: behavioral, cognitive, and linguistic comorbidities. Epilepsia 2008; 49: 1838–46.
64 Austin, JK, Dunn, DW, Caffrey, HM, Perkins, SM, Harezlak, J, Rose, DF. Recurrent seizures and behavior problems in children with first recognized seizures: a prospective study. Epilepsia 2002; 43: 1564–73.
65 Hermann, BP, Jones, JE, Sheth, R, Koehn, M, Becker, T, Fine, J, et al. Growing up with epilepsy: a two-year investigation of cognitive development in children with new onset epilepsy. Epilepsia 2008; 49: 1847–58.
66 Noble, KG, Houston, SM, Kan, E, Sowell, ER. Neural correlates of socioeconomic status in the developing human brain. Dev Sci 2012; 15: 516–27.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 67 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 17th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Cortical thickness and sulcal depth: insights on development and psychopathology in paediatric epilepsy

  • Duygu Tosun (a1), Prabha Siddarth (a2), Jennifer Levitt (a2) and Rochelle Caplan (a2)
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *