World Health Organization. WHO Mortality Database Documentation: 1 May 2013 Update.
World Health Organization. Prevention of Suicide: Guidelines for the Formulation and Implementation of National Strategies.
Vijayakumar, L, Nagaraj, K, Pirkis, J, Whiteford, H. Suicide in developing countries 1: frequency, distribution, and association with socioeconomic indicators. Crisis
2005; 26: 104–11.
World Health Organization. mhGAP Intervention Guide for Mental, Neurological Mand Substance Use Disorders in Non-specialized Health Settings.
World Health Organization. Mental Health Action Plan 2013–2020.
Robins, LN, Regier, DA (eds). Psychiatric Disorders in America: The Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study.
The Free Press, 1991.
Kessler, RC, McGonagle, KA, Zhao, S, Nelson, CB, Hughes, M, Eshleman, S, et al. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1994; 51: 8–19.
Nock, MK, Borges, G, Bromet, EJ, Alonso, J, Angermeyer, M, Beautrais, A, et al. Cross-national prevalence and risk factors for suicidal ideation, plans and attempts. Br J Psychiatry
2008; 192: 98–105.
Lagos State Government. Population Census of Lagos State.
LASG Press, 2016.
Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Int Med
2001; 16: 606–13.
Adewuya, AO, Ola, BA, Afolabi, OO. Validity of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) as a screening tool for depression amongst Nigerian university students. J Affect Disord
2006; 96: 89–93.
Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JBW, Löwe, B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med
2006; 166: 1092–7.
Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JBW. The PHQ-15: validity of a new measure for evaluating somatic symptom severity. Psychosom Med
2002; 64: 258–66.
Bush, K, Kivlahan, DR, McDonell, MB, Fihn, SD, Bradley, KA. The AUDIT alcohol consumption questions (AUDIT-C): an effective brief screening test for problem drinking. Ambulatory Care Quality Improvement Project (ACQUIP). Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Arch Intern Med
1998; 158: 1789–95.
Sheehan, D, Lecruiber, Y, Sheehan, KH, Amorim, P, Janavs, J, Weiller, E, et al. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.): The development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview. J Clin Psychiatry
1998; 59: 22–33.
Üstün, TB, Kostanjsek, N, Chatterji, S, Rehm, J. Measuring Health and Disability: Manual for WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0). WHO, 2010.
IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version W22.0.
IBM Corp, 2013.