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Grace Kennedy’s anti-Catholic novel Father Clement: A Roman Catholic Story (1823) stands almost alone in the nineteenth century when it comes to evidence not only for its reception, but also its use and success, or lack thereof, as a proselytization and devotional tool. The novel’s form and polemical strategies exerted a powerful influence on both Catholic and Protestant writers, popularizing the controversial novel across denominations. In particular, Father Clement’s celebration of prooftexting rooted in sola scriptura as the best method of religious disputation helped end the earlier nineteenth-century “polite” novel’s emphasis on non-confrontational, genteel sociability. But as its Protestant and Catholic reception histories suggest, the novel’s ambivalent treatment of its title character, along with its overt didacticism, led to appropriations that Kennedy could not have predicted. Father Clement catalyzed resistance amongst Catholic readers and novelists, some of whom were inspired by the title character to creatively reinterpret the novel as a brief for Catholicism, others of whom turned to Biblical quotation as a means of undoing sola scriptura altogether. Thus, if the novel predictably generated Protestant imitations, it also led Catholics to new experiments in controversial rhetoric and fiction.
I am grateful to Monika Brown for allowing me to cite her unpublished work on Catherine Englefield. Some of the research for this article was funded by a Provost’s Post-Tenure Fellowship from the College at Brockport, State University of New York.
1 Gladstone, William E., The Gladstone Diaries: Volume One: 1825-1832, ed. M. R. D. Foot (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), 24 .
2 Robert Lee Wolff, Gains and Losses: Novels of Faith and Doubt in Victorian England (New York: Garland Publishing, 1977), 31.
3 The Young Lady’s Own Book: A Manual of Intellectual Improvement and Moral Deportment (Philadelphia: Key, Mielke, and Biddle, 1832), 38; Ward, F. De W., A Christian Gift; Or, Pastoral Letters (Rochester, NY: E. Darrow and Brother, 1854), 148 . See also, Rachel Howard on the response to the posthumous Philip Colville, ‘Domesticating the Novel: Moral-Domestic Fiction, 1820-1834,’ Ph.D. diss., Cardiff University, 2007, 186.
4 E.g., John Taylor, Autobiography of a Lancashire Lawyer, Being the Life and Recollections of John Taylor, Attorney-at-Law, and First Coroner of the Borough of Bolton; With Notice of Many Persons and Things Met with During a Life of Seventy-Two Years Lived in and about Bolton, ed. James Clegg (Bolton: Daily Chronicle Office, 1883), 182; Edward J. Nygren, ‘James Ward’s Papers: An 1826 Diary in Context,’ Getty Research Journal no. 3 (2011): 186n12; Caroline Fry, An Autobiography and Letters (Philadelphia: J. W. Moore, 1849), 236.
5 Baptist: Catalogue of the Library of Emmanuel Sunday School, Albany (Albany: Riggs, 1889):19; Dutch Reformed: Catalogue of Books Belonging to the Reformed Church Sunday School, Catskill, NY (n.p., 1878), 3; Catalogue of the Library of the Third R. P. D. Church S. School (Albany: C. Van Benthuysen’s Steam Printing House, 1864), 14; Anglican recommendation: Benjamin Richings, A Short Protestant Catechism for the Use of Schools, Especially Sunday Schools (London: L. and G. Seeley, 1842), 35. On the ecumenism of Anglo-American religious book-buying, see Gunther Brown, Candy, The Word in the World: Evangelical Writing, Publishing, and Reading in America, 1789-1880 (Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), 133–137 ; Grenby, M. O., The Child Reader 1700-1840 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 88 .
6 Wolff, Gains and Losses, 31 ; Bostrom, Irene, ‘The Novel and Catholic Emancipation,’ Studies in Romanticism 2 (Spring 1963): 167 . Ironically, Wolff finds a later response to Father Clement, Father Oswald, ‘seething with anger’: Wolff, Gains and Losses, 34.
7 Griffiths, Richard, The Pen and the Cross: Catholicism and English Literature 1850-2000 (London: Continuum 2010), 25 ; Maison, Margaret M., The Victorian Vision: Studies in the Religious Novel (New York: Sheed and Ward, 1961), 149 ; Morris, Kevin L., ‘Rescuing the Scarlet Woman: The Promotion of Catholicism in English Literature, 1829-1850,’ Recusant History 22 (May 1994): 85 ; cf. Woodman, Thomas, Faithful Fictions: The Catholic Novel in British Literature (Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1991), 9 .
8 ‘Controversial Novels—Geraldine,’ Dublin Review 5 (October 1838): 533.
9 [Agnes Repplier], ‘The Birth of the Controversial Novel,’ Catholic World 87 (April 1908): 38.
10 Repplier, ‘Birth of the Controversial Novel’, 35.
11 More, Hannah, Coelebs in Search of a Wife. Comprehending Observations on Domestic Habits and Manners, Religion and Morals 11th ed., 2 vols (London: T. Cadell and W. Davies, 1809) .
12 Eliot, George, Scenes of Clerical Life, ed. Thomas A. Noble (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985), 187 .
13 The Catholic convert Mary Elisabeth à Court Herbert, Baroness Herbert, singled out Father Clement as one of the ‘popular storybooks’ that concretized Protestant beliefs about Catholic Bible ownership: Anglican Prejudices against the Catholic Church (London: Burns, Lambert, and Oates, ), 5.
14 Perry, Seth, Bible Culture and Authority in the Early United States (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018), 23 .
15 Mandal, Anthony, Jane Austen and the Popular Novel: The Determined Author (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), 28 .
16 See, e.g., ‘Affairs Abroad,’ The Covenanter 16 (April 1861), 253-54; advertisement for London Bible & Book Saloon, Railway Signal 8 (June 1890), 140. William Oliphant still retailed it at 4s. 6d. thirteen years later; as of 1867, George Selkirk was marketing it for 1 s. as ‘Cheap Reading.’ See The Scotsman 19 March 1836: 1; Southern Reporter, 21 November 1867: 1.
17 Mandal, Jane Austen and the Popular Novel, 93.
18 Cragwall, Jasper, Lake Methodism: Polite Literature and Popular Religion in England, 1780-1830 (Columbus, OH: Ohio State University Press, 2013), 55 .
19 Prince, Michael, Philosophical Dialogue in the British Enlightenment: Theology, Aesthetics, and the Novel (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 219 .
20 Satchel, John, Thornton Abbey: A Series of Letters on Religious Subjects (New York: Williams and Whiting, 1809), 104 .
21 Kett, Henry, Emily: A Moral Tale, Including Letters from a Father to His Daughter, 2nd ed., 2 vols (London: Rivington, 1809), 2:303 .
22 Major, Emma, Madam Britannia: Women, Church, and Nation, 1712-1812 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 275 ; More, Coelebs in Search of a Wife, 2:354-6.
23 Yacovazzi, Cassandra L., ‘“Are You Allowed to Read the Bible in a Convent?”: Protestant Approaches on the Catholic Approach to Scripture in Convent Narratives, 1830-1860,’ U.S. Catholic Historian 31 (Summer 2013): 29 .
24 Procrastination; Or, the Vicar’s Daughter. A Tale (London: Burton and Smith, 1824), 51.
25 The Vicar of Iver (London: Francis Westley, 1821), 114.
26 Review of Thornton Abbey, Eclectic Review 2 (December 1806): 1030.
27 Coelebs Married. Being Intended as a Continuation of Coelebs in Search of a Wife (London: G. Walker, 1814), 50-3.
28 [Harriet Corp], Coelebs Deceived, 2 vols (London: Baldwin, Craddock, and Joy, 1817), 2:13-14.
29 Rumbold, Kate, Shakespeare and the Eighteenth-Century Novel: Cultures of Quotation from Samuel Richardson to Jane Austen (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016), 36 .
30 The Catholic Association gave way to the New Catholic Association in 1825.
31 ‘The Catholic Association,’ Dublin Correspondent 21 June 1823: 3. On activism during the 1821-23 period more generally, see Macaulay, Ambrose, The Catholic Church and the Campaign for Emancipation in Ireland and England (Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2016), 304-328 ; Machin, G. I. T., The Catholic Question in English Politics 1820 to 1830 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960), 21-41 .
32 Hoeveler, Diane Long, The Gothic Ideology: Religious Hysteria and Anti-Catholicism in British Popular Fiction, 1780-1880 (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2014), 180 .
33 [Grace Kennedy], Father Clement: A Roman Catholic Story (Edinburgh: William Oliphant, 1823), 12-13.
34 Carnes, Geremy, The Papist Represented: Literature and the English Catholic Community, 1688-1791 (Newark:University of Delaware Press, 2017), 139 . Cf. the sympathetic English responses to the French Catholic emigrant community during the 1790s and early 1800s: Purves, Maria, The Gothic and Catholicism: Religion, Cultural Exchange and the Popular Novel, 1785-1829 (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2009), 32–47 .
35 Kennedy, Father Clement, 44.
36 Tomko, Michael, British Romanticism and the Catholic Question: Religion, History, and National Identity, 1778-1829 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011), 104 .
37 Kennedy, Father Clement, 91; Wolff, Gains and Losses, 33.
38 Kennedy, Father Clement, 47, 52, 60, 90, 291; for his ‘mild politeness,’ 34.
39 Wolff, Gains and Losses, 32. For nineteenth-century British Jesuit stereotypes, see Maison, The Victorian Vision, 169-82; Moran, Maureen, Catholic Sensationalism and Victorian Literature (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2007), 28–76 ; Wolffe, John, ‘The Jesuit as Villain in Nineteenth-Century British Fiction,’ The Church and Literature, ed. Peter Clarke and Charlotte Methuen (Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2012), 308–320 . Maison notes that Kennedy began a fad for ‘suffering Jesuits’. Maison, The Victorian Vision, 176.
40 Swaim, Barton, Scottish Men of Letters and the New Public Sphere, 1802-1834 (Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 2009), 77 .
41 Matheson, Ann, ‘Preaching in the Church of Scotland,’ The Oxford Handbook of the British Sermon, 1689-1901, ed. Keith A. Francis and William Gibson (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012), 164–165 .
42 Kennedy, Father Clement, 88.
43 Ibid., 89.
45 Ibid., 114.
46 On Victorian anxieties about Catholicism and emotional excess, see Moran, Catholic Sensationalism, esp. 180-7.
47 Kennedy, Father Clement, 116.
48 Ibid., 114, 115.
49 Yacovazzi, ‘“Are You Allowed”’, 42.
50 Kennedy, Father Clement, 211.
51 Ibid., 149.
52 Ibid., 135.
53 Ibid., 128.
54 Ibid., 129.
55 Ibid., 129, 130.
56 Kennedy, Father Clement, 135. For this argument, see Barnett, S. J., ‘Where Was Your Church before Luther? Claims for the Antiquity of Protestantism Examined,’ Church History 68 (March 1999): 14–41 .
57 Kennedy, Father Clement, 142, 136.
58 Ibid., 138.
59 Shapiro, James, Burning to Read: English Fundamentalism and its Reformation Opponents (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007), 117 .
60 Kennedy, Father Clement, 139.
61 Ibid., 141.
62 Ibid., 145.
63 Allan, David, Commonplace Books and Reading in Georgian England (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010), 87 .
64 Kennedy, Father Clement, 326.
65 Ibid., 331, 332.
66 Riso, Mary, The Narrative of the Good Death: The Evangelical Deathbed in Victorian England (Farnham, Surrey: Ashgate, 2015), 30 . Cf. Jalland, Pat, Death in the Victorian Family (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), 59–61 ; Wheeler, Michael, Death and the Future Life in Victorian Literature and Theology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 27–47 .
67 Kennedy, Father Clement, 355, 357.
68 Howard, ‘Domesticating the Novel’, 186.
69 Represented as a book any Protestant would own, Griffin, Gerald, The Rivals. Tracy’s Ambition, 3 vols (London: Saunders and Otley, 1830), 1:51 ; as a genre descriptor, review of Lowe’s Edinburgh Magazine for May, Dumfries and Galloway Standard and Advertiser 19 May 1847: 2.
70 As Isabel Hofmeyr dubs The Pilgrim’s Progress: The Portable Bunyan: A Transnational History of The Pilgrim’s Progress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2004), 78.
71 James Godkin, The Outcast: A Story of the Modern Reformation, 2 vols 2nd ed., rev. and corr. (Dublin: William Curry, Jun., 1831), 2:78; Rachel McCrindell [sometimes M’Crindell], The Schoolgirl in France (London: R. B. Seeley and W. Burnside, 1840), 108; M. Chippendale, Blanche Neville: A Tale of Real Life, Hood’s Magazine 6 (September 1846): 256.
72 ‘Father Clement; A Roman Catholic Story,’ The Cottage Register 2 (October 1826): 175.
73 Luke Thompson, Jemima, The Female Jesuit: Or, the Spy in the Family (New York: M. W. Dodd, 1851), 123 ; Wheeler, Michael, The Old Enemies: Catholic and Protestant in Nineteenth-Century English Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006), 225 .
74 Ellmer Castle: A Roman Catholic Story of the Nineteenth Century, rev. American ed. (Boston: James Loring, 1833), 118. This printing is taken from the second Dublin edition.
75 Review of Father Clement, The Edinburgh Christian Instructor 22 (March 1824): 195; review of Father Clement, The Christian Observer 26 (March. 1826): 172; and for similarly negative responses to the Calvinism, ‘Father Oswald, A Catholic Story,’ The Eclectic Museum of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art 2 (June 1843): 256; ‘Review of Current Literature,’ Christian Examiner 5th s. 6 (March 1860): 314-5.
76 Thomas Ellison, Noel, Protestant Errors and Roman Catholic Truths: A Tale (London: C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1829), 171 ; ‘Didactic Fiction,’ The Christian Remembrancer: A Monthly Magazine and Review n.s. 3 (January 1842): 81-2.
77 ‘The La Ferronays Family,’ The Christian Remembrancer 53 (1867): 360; ‘Lady Georgiana Fullerton,’ The Dublin Review 103 (October 1888): 317.
78 R[achel] M’Crindell, The English Governess. A Tale of Real Life (London: W. H. Dalton, 1844), 145, 147. The Dublin Review also thought that Father Clement converted to Protestantism at the end: ‘Controversial Novels - Geraldine,’ 539.
79 Stodart, M. A., Principles of Education Practically Considered; with an Especial Reference to the Present State of Female Education in England (London: Seeley, Burnside, and Seeley, 1844), 43 .
80 ‘Anti-Popery Fictions,’ The Morning Register 16 October 1838: 2; cf. ‘The Rev. Hugh M’Neile and the Fisher-Street Martyrdom,’ The Liverpool Mercury 9 November 1838: 362.
81 Letter to the editor, London Evening Standard 23 May 1839: 2.
82 Gosse, Edmund, The Life of Philip Henry Gosse F. R. S. (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1890), 19 . Cf. Sutton, Henry, The Christian’s Recreations (London: James Nisbet, 1891), 54–55 .
83 Giustiniani, L., Papal Rome as It Is, By a Roman, 2nd ed. (Baltimore: Publication Rooms, 1843), 24 .
84 Giustiniani, Papal Rome, 25.
85 Ibid., 25, 26.
86 Ibid., 29, 159.
87 A conversion tale published as a tract in 1844, ‘The Victory of the Bible Over Popery,’ uses Father Clement in similar ways; see the reprint in The Christian Treasury, Containing Contributions from Ministers and Members of Various Evangelical Denominations (Edinburgh: John Johnstone, 1846), 460.
88 Fleming, Patrick C., The Legacy of the Moral Tale: Children’s Literature and the English Novel, 1744-1859 (Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2016), 45 .
89 ‘La Belle Cannadienne,’ Yale Literary Magazine 3 (August 1838): 392.
90 E. A. B., Not Many Years Ago: Memories of My Life. By an Elderly Bachelor (London: Remington and Co., 1881), 73.
91 Pittar, Fanny-Maria, A Protestant Converted to Catholicity, by Her Bible and Prayer Book, 2nd ed. (Dublin: C. M. Warren, 1846), 12 .
92 ‘Hood’s Magazine,’ The Pilot 14 September 1846: 4.
93 Charles Kegan Paul, Confessio Viatoris (London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner and Co., 1891), 6-7.
94 Vassall, O. R., ‘The Rev. O. R. Vassall,’ in Roads to Rome: Being Personal Records of Some of the More Recent Converts to the Catholic Faith, ed. John Godfrey Raupert (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1901), 281 . Cf. the Anglican priest Charles Gore, Belief in God (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922), xi-xii.
95 A Memoir of Mother Francis Raphael, O.S.D. (Augusta Theodosia Drane), Sometime Prioress Principal of the Congregation of Dominican Sisters of S. Catherine of Siena, Stone, with Some of Her Spiritual Notes and Letters, ed. Father Bertrand Wilberforce, O.P., new ed. (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1904), 16.
96 Mme. Augustus Craven, Life of Lady Georgiana Fullerton, trans. Henry James Coleridge (London: Richard Bentley and Son, 1888), 21-2.
97 Originally published anonymously. Englefield was identified by Monika Brown from an association copy. Monika Brown, ‘Father Oswald: A Roman Catholic Conversion Novel as “Woman’s Sermon,”’ paper delivered at the Nineteenth Century Studies Association Conference: Spiritual Matters/Matters of Spirit, Asheville, 2012.
98 For the expanded version of Geraldine’s publishing and reception history, see Miriam Elizabeth Burstein, Victorian Reformations: Historical Fiction and Religious Controversy, 1820-1900 (Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2014), 169.
99 On the revisions (not by Pise) for Father Rowland’s Dublin reprinting, see Willard Thorp, ‘Catholic Novelists in Defense of Their Faith, 1829-1865,’ Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society 78 (April 1968): 32. Obituary: ‘The Rev. Charles Constantine Pise, D.D.,’ The Illustrated Catholic Family Annual for 1884 (New York: Catholic Publication Society Co., 1884), 76.
100 [Catherine Englefield], Father Oswald: A Genuine Catholic Story (London: Charles Dolman, 1842), 400.
101 The Biblicals, or Glenmoyle Castle. A Tale of Modern Times (London: Keating and Brown, 1831), iii; The Converts; A Tale of the Nineteenth Century: Or, Romanism and Protestantism Brought to Bear in Their True Light against One Another (London: Keating and Brown, 1837), 382, n. 4.
102 Mrs. Robertson, Florence; Or, the Aspirant, 3 vols (London: Whittaker Treacher, 1829), 3:311.
103 Wolff, Gains and Losses, 34.
104 See Bowen, Desmond, The Protestant Crusade in Ireland, 1800-70: A Study of Protestant-Catholic Relations Between the Act of Union and Disestablishment (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1978) , e.g., 195-208; Whelan, Irene, The Bible War in Ireland: The ‘Second Reformation’ and the Polarization of Protestant-Catholic Relations, 1800-1840 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005) , e.g., 131-41, 204-9.
105 Messbarger, Paul R., ’The Failed Promise of American Catholic Literature,’ U. S. Catholic Historian 4 (1985): 148 .
106 Howard, ‘Domesticating the Novel,’ 190.
107 For a case study in Victorian Catholic prooftexting, see Timothy Larsen’s discussion of Nicholas Wiseman in A People of One Book: The Bible and the Victorians (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), esp. 50-4.
108 de Bodenham, E. M., Mrs. Herbert and the Villagers; or, Familiar Conversations on the Principal Duties of Christianity, 10th ed. (1824; London: Dolman and Co., 1878), 67 .
109 E.g., Bossy, John, The English Catholic Community, 1570-1850 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1976), 153–160 ; Lux-Sterritt, Laurence, ‘“Virgo Becomes Virago”: Women in the Accounts of Seventeenth-Century English Catholic Missionaries,’ Recusant History 30 (2011): 537-553 ; Walsham, Alexandra, Church Papists: Catholicism, Conformity, and Confessional Polemic in Early Modern England (Woodbridge: Boydell, 1999), 77-81 .
110 McClain, Lisa, Divided Loyalties? Pushing the Boundaries of Gender and Lay Roles in the Catholic Church, 1534-1829 (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018), 74 .
111 Ebel Brożyna, Andrea, Labour, Love, and Prayer: Female Piety in Ulster Religious Literature, 1850-1914 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1999), 38 .
112 McDannell, Colleen, ‘Catholic Women Fiction Writers, 1840-1920,’ Women’s Studies 19 (1991): 398 .
113 Michael S. Carter, ‘“Under the Benign Sun of Toleration”: Matthew Carey, the Douai Bible, and Catholic Print Culture, 1789-1791,’ Journal of the Early Republic 27 (Fall 2007): 448.
114 Constantine Pise, Charles, Father Rowland: A North American Tale (Baltimore: Fielding Lucas, Jr., 1841), 57 .
115 Pise, Father Rowland, 74. Cf. David S. Reynolds, Faith in Fiction: The Emergence of Religious Literature in America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 151-52, which does not discuss either prooftexting or Father Clement.
116 The Biblicals, 40-41.
117 Ibid., 112.
118 Reynolds, Faith in Fiction, 150. For more on Florence, see Howard, ‘Domesticating the Novel’, 189-91 .
119 Florence, 3:14.
120 Rachel Howard, ‘Domesticating the Novel: Moral-Domestic Fiction, 1820-1834,’ Romantic Textualities: Literature and Print Culture, 1780-1840 no. 13 (Winter 2004): par. 3; and for such plots in a Catholic mode, Edgell Becker, Penny, ‘“Rational Amusement and Sound Instruction”: Constructing the True Catholic Woman in the Ave Maria, 1865-1889,’ Religion and American Culture 8 (Winter 1998): 73 .
121 The Converts, 25.
122 Ibid., 334.
123 Ibid., 345.
124 For Geraldine’s critique of Protestantism more generally, Burstein, Victorian Reformations, 169-76 and on Father Clement’s ‘biblicism’ in more detail, 170. This article corrects my previous reading of Geraldine’s approach to prooftexting.
125 [Orestes Brownson], ‘Catholic Popular Literature,’ Brownson’s Quarterly Review 1 (April 1873): 192.
126 Agnew, E. C., Geraldine: A Tale of Conscience, 2nd ed., 2 vols (London: Booker and Dolman, 1838), 1:10 .
127 Agnew, E. C., Geraldine: A Tale of Conscience, vol. 3 (London: Charles Dolman, 1839), 31 .
128 On Gentili, see Turnham, Margaret H., Catholic Faith and Practice in England 1779-1992: The Role of Revivalism and Renewal (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2015), 50-52 ; Norman, Edward, The English Catholic Church in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1984), 226-229 ; and for devotional conflicts generally, Heimann, Mary, Catholic Devotion in Victorian England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), 30-40 , 138-41.
129 Agnew, Geraldine, 3:42.
130 Ibid., 3:141, 3:142.
131 Robertson, Florence, 1:9.
132 Agnew, Geraldine, 2:241, 2:241-42.
133 Englefield, Father Oswald, 398, 399.
* I am grateful to Monika Brown for allowing me to cite her unpublished work on Catherine Englefield. Some of the research for this article was funded by a Provost’s Post-Tenure Fellowship from the College at Brockport, State University of New York.
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