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The ‘genie of the storm’: cyclonic reasoning and the spaces of weather observation in the southern Indian Ocean, 1851–1925

  • MARTIN MAHONY (a1)
Abstract

This article engages with debates about the status and geographies of colonial science by arguing for the significance of meteorological knowledge making in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Mauritius. The article focuses on how tropical storms were imagined, theorized and anticipated by an isolated – but by no means peripheral – cast of meteorologists who positioned Mauritius as an important centre of calculation in an expanding infrastructure of maritime meteorology. Charles Meldrum in particular earned renown in the mid-nineteenth century for theoretical insights into cyclone behaviour and for achieving an unprecedented spatial reach in synoptic meteorology. But as the influx of weather data dried up towards the end of the century, attention turned to developing practices of ‘single-station forecasting’, by which cyclones might be foreseen and predicted not through extended observational networks, but by careful study of the behaviour of one set of instruments in one place. These practices created new moral economies of risk and responsibility, as well as a ‘poetry’, as one meteorologist described it, in the instrumental, sensory and imaginative engagement with a violent atmospheric environment. Colonial Indian Ocean ‘cyclonology’ offers an opportunity to reflect on how the physical, economic and cultural geographies of an island colony combined to produce spaces of weather observation defined by both connection and disconnection, the latter to be overcome not only by infrastructure, but also by the imagination.

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Thank you to the editors and two anonymous reviewers for providing such helpful comments, which have improved this article greatly. Thanks too to Jacques Pougnet, Edley Michaud, Renganaden Virasami, Rory Walshe, Joan Kenworthy and Rob Allan for sharing their knowledge of Mauritian meteorology; to participants of the Cambridge workshop where this special issue was born; and to the family of Albert Walter for agreeing to my use of his papers. Any errors of fact or interpretation are, of course, my own.

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References
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1 Naylor, Simon, ‘Log books and the law of storms: maritime meteorology and the British Admiralty in the nineteenth century’, Isis (2015) 106, pp. 771797. See also Coen, Deborah R., ‘The storm lab: meteorology in the Austrian Alps’, Science in Context (2009) 22, pp. 463486.

2 Jankovic, Vladimir, Reading the Skies: A Cultural History of English Weather, 1650–1820, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2000; Naylor, Simon, ‘Nationalizing provincial weather: meteorology in nineteenth-century Cornwall’, BJHS (2006) 39, pp. 407433; Veale, Lucy, Endfield, Georgina and Naylor, Simon, ‘Knowing weather in place: the Helm Wind of Cross Fell’, Journal of Historical Geography (2014) 45, pp. 2537; Mahony, Martin, ‘For an empire of “all types of climate”: meteorology as an imperial science’, Journal of Historical Geography (2016) 51, pp. 2939; Bergman, James, ‘Knowing their place: the Blue Hill Observatory and the value of local knowledge in an era of synoptic weather forecasting, 1884–1894’, Science in Context (2016) 29, pp. 305346. On meteorological science and the imperial state see Anderson, Katharine, Predicting the Weather: Victorians and the Science of Meteorology, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2005, Chapter 6.

3 Grove, Richard H., Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens and the Origins of Environmentalism, 1600–1860, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995; see also Stockland, Etienne, ‘Policing the oeconomy of nature: the oiseau martin as an instrument of oeconomic management in the eighteenth-century French maritime world’, History and Technology (2014) 30, pp. 207231.

4 See, for example, Schwartz, Stuart B., Sea of Storms: A History of Hurricanes in the Greater Caribbean from Columbus to Katrina, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2015.

5 To borrow the term from Sivasundaram, Sujit, Islanded: Britain, Sri Lanka, and the Bounds of an Indian Ocean Colony, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.

6 Carroll, Siobhan, An Empire of Air and Water: Uncolonizable Space in the British Imagination, 1750–1850, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015, p. 7; Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty, Death of a Discipline, New York: Columbia University Press, 2003. On the complex history of oceanic territoriality see Steinberg, Philip E., The Social Construction of the Ocean, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001.

7 Latour, Bruno, Science in Action, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1987, p. 232.

8 I take the notion of ‘serviceable truths’ from contemporary studies of regulatory science, meaning ‘a state of knowledge that satisfies tests of scientific acceptability and supports reasoned decision making, but also assures those exposed to risk that their interests have not been sacrificed on the altar of an impossible scientific certainty’. See Jasanoff, Sheila, The Fifth Branch: Science Advisers as Policymakers, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990, p. 250. On the broader sociology of truth making see Shapin, Steven, A Social History of Truth, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1994.

9 Alexander Thom, ‘Preface’, Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius, 1853, pp. iv–xii, iv.

10 Basalla, George, ‘The spread of western science’, Science (1967) 156(3775), pp. 611–22; Pyenson, Lewis, Cultural Imperialism and Exact Sciences: German Expansion Overseas, 1900–1930, New York: P. Lang, 1985; Pyenson, , Civilizing Mission: Exact Sciences and French Overseas Expansion, 1830–1940, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1993.

11 A useful recent overview of the historiography is provided by Hodge, Joseph M., ‘Science and empire: an overview of the historical scholarship’, in Bennett, Brett M. and Hodge, Joseph M. (eds.), Science and Empire: Knowledge and Networks of Science across the British Empire, 1800–1970, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011, pp. 332. Compare with Lester, Alan, ‘Imperial circuits and networks: geographies of the British Empire’, History Compass (2006) 4, pp. 124141.

12 Grove, Richard H., ‘The East India Company, the Raj and the El Niño: the critical role played by colonial scientists in establishing the mechanisms of global climate teleconnections, 1770–1930’, in Grove, Richard H., Damodaran, Vinita and Sangwan, Satpal (eds.), Nature & the Orient, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998, pp. 301323; Cushman, Gregory, ‘The imperial politics of hurricane prediction: from Calcutta and Havana to Manila and Galveston, 1839–1900’, in Lawrence, Mark, Bsumek, Erika and Kinkela, David (eds.), Nation-States and the Global Environment, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, pp. 137162.

13 Storey, William K., Science and Power in Colonial Mauritius, Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 1997. Storey built here on the work of Ly-Tio-Fane, Madeleine, for example her The Triumph of Jean Nicolas Céré: And His Isle Bourbon Collaborators, Paris: Mouton, 1970.

14 McClellan, James E. III and Regourd, Francois, The Colonial Machine: French Science and Overseas Expansion in the Old Regime, Turnhout: Brepols, 2012.

15 Quoted in McAleer, John, Britain's Maritime Empire: Southern Africa, the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, 1763–1820, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 7.

16 Jackson, Ashley, War and Empire in Mauritius and the Indian Ocean, Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001, p. 17.

17 Storey, op. cit. (13), p. 27.

18 Island of Mauritius Meteorological Service, Meteorology in Mauritius, 1774–1974, Vacoas, 1974.

19 Roberts, Lissa, ‘“Le centre de toutes choses”: constructing and managing centralization on the Isle de France’, History of Science (2014) 52, pp. 319342.

20 Michaud, Edley, ‘Meteorologist's profile – Charles Meldrum’, Weather (2000) 55, pp. 1517. The account presented here of Meldrum's work draws on both published sources and the small collections of correspondence which survive in the national archives of the UK and Mauritius. One of his successors, Albert Walter, left a wealth of personal papers and correspondence to Oxford University, and use is made of these in the second half of the paper.

21 Bruce, Charles, The Broad Stone of Empire: Problems of Crown Colony Administration, with Records of Personal Experience, vol. 2, London: Macmillan, 1910, p. 265. Bruce was rector of the Royal College in Port Louis from 1868 to 1878, and returned in 1897 as governor, a post he held for six years. ‘Creole’ in this period referred to a Mauritian-born person of French descent, rather than of African descent as now.

22 Henri Bousquet to C.J. Bayley, 2 December 1853, National Archives of Mauritius, Coromandel (subsequently NAM), RA/1220.

23 Alexander Thom to C.J. Bayley, 25 October 1853, NAM, RA/1220.

24 Edward Sabine to Captain W.A.B. Hamilton, 26 July 1854, The National Archives (subsequently TNA), Kew, BJ 3/54.

25 Naylor, op. cit. (1).

26 Bruce, op. cit. (21) p. 265.

27 Meldrum, Charles, ‘Report on the best means of carrying out the objects of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius: read before a meeting of the society on the 11th September 1851’, Transactions of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius (1851) 1, pp. 510, 10. The society started with twelve members, growing to forty-seven in 1859 and ninety-two in 1866.

28 These contestations are best illustrated by Anderson, op. cit. (2).

29 Thom, Alexander, An Inquiry into the Nature and Course of Storms in the Indian Ocean South of the Equator, London: Smith, Elder & Co., 1845.

30 Lieutenant Fyers to Robert Fitzroy, 21 April 1856, TNA, BJ 7/1013.

31 Alexander Thom, presidential address, Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius, 1853, pp. 1–18, 11, emphasis in original.

32 Naylor, Simon, ‘Weather instruments all at sea: meteorology and the Royal Navy in the nineteenth century’, in MacDonald, Fraser and Withers, Charles W.J. (eds.), Geography, Technology and Instruments of Exploration, Farnham: Routledge, 2015, pp. 7796.

33 Naylor, op. cit. (1), p. 776.

34 John Herschel, quoted in Naylor, op. cit. (1), p. 774.

35 See, for example, Aubin, David, Bigg, Charlotte and Sibum, H. Otton (eds.), The Heavens on Earth: Observatories and Astronomy in Nineteenth-Century Science and Culture, London: Duke University Press, 2010; Anderson, op. cit. (2); Naylor, op. cit. (1); Daston, Lorraine, ‘Unruly weather: natural law confronts natural variability’, in Daston, Lorraine and Stolleis, Michael (eds.), Natural Law and Law of Nature in Early Modern Europe: Jurispudence, Theology, Moral and Natural Philosophy, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008, pp. 233248.

36 Mahony, op. cit. (2).

37 Naylor, op. cit. (1), p. 782.

38 Bruce, op. cit. (21), p. 265. Bousquet cuts a rather tragic figure. He had a difficult relationship not only with most of the Meteorological Society, but also with the harbourmaster and a number of the captains whose testimony he was supposed to rely upon. Report of a Special Committee of the Meteorological Society, 4 February 1853, NAM, RA/1220. Nonetheless he continued to make observations and to carefully observe passing cyclones. In 1866 he attempted to publish his tables and charts in Paris, but was rebuffed on account of the expense. Despairing, he proceeded to destroy the two-volume manuscript. See ‘Bousquet, Eugène Henri’, Dictionnaire de biographie mauriciennce, Port Louis: Société de l'histoire de l'i̇le Maurice, 1941. Thank to Jacques Pougnet for drawing my attention to this episode.

39 Bousquet to C.J. Bayley, 3 December 1853, NAM RA/1220. Philipp Lehmann, ‘Average rainfall and the play of colors: colonial experience and global climate data’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, in press.

40 Mann, R.J., ‘Address delivered by the president at the annual general meeting, January 21st, 1874’, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (1875) 2(10), pp. 5974. On Anglo-French meteorological rivalries in the Atlantic region see Locher, F., Le savant et la tempête: Etudier l'atmosphère et prévoir le temps au XIXe siècle, Rennes: Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2008.

41 Subscription levels had been lower than hoped for from the outset, creating financial challenges which the colonial government were rarely willing to amend. Report of a Special Committee, op. cit. (38).

42 Thom, op. cit. (9), p. xiii.

43 Napier Shaw's 1926 volume on the history of meteorology describes Meldrum's charts as the first ‘daily charts of the oceans’, appearing over a decade before Captain N. Hoffmeyer's daily charts of the Atlantic emanated from the Danish Meteorological Institute. Shaw, Napier, Manual of Meteorology, vol. 1: Meteorology in History, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1926, p. 287.

44 Report of the 1859 Annual Meeting, contained in Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius 1859–60 (1861) 5, p. 23.

45 Redfield, quoted in Piddington, Henry, The Sailor's Horn Book for the Law of Storms, 3rd edn, London: Williams and Norgate, 1860, p. 108.

46 Quoted in Sarma, A.K. Sen, ‘Henry Piddington (1797–1858): a bicentennial tribute’, Weather (1997) 52, pp. 187–93, 188.

47 Piddington, op. cit. (45), p. 108.

48 Piddington, op. cit. (45), pp. 113–114.

49 See Naylor, op. cit. (1), p. 786.

50 Meldrum, Charles, ‘On the weather and hurricanes in the Indian Ocean from the 18th to the 29th of February, 1860’, Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius (1861) 5, pp. 122158, 157.

51 Such as those contained in Meldrum, Charles, Notes on the Form of cyclones in the Southern Indian Ocean, and on Some of the Rules Given for Avoiding Their Centres, London: HMSO, 1873.

52 Bruce, op. cit. (21), p. 268.

53 ‘A new discovery in the “law of storms”’, Wellington Independent, 17 March 1874, 1, reprinted from the New York Herald. The publishing history of this piece indicates something of the global circulation which Meldrum's work started to enjoy in the 1870s.

54 See, for example, Abercromby, Ralph, ‘On Meldrum's rules for handling ships in the southern Indian Ocean’, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London (1888) 44, pp. 314317.

55 Cyclonic Tracks in the South Indian Ocean from Information Compiled by Dr. Meldrum, London: Meteorological Office, 1891.

56 Charles Meldrum, ‘The Law of Storms’, Port Louis, 1876. Available at the National Meteorological Archive, Exeter (subsequently NMA), Y23.D2.

57 Meldrum, Charles, ‘On the oscillations of the barometer at Mauritius in connection with the Cape Gales’, Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius (1864) 6, pp. 916, 9.

58 Meldrum, Charles, ‘Annual report’, Proceedings of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius (1862) 5, pp. 6386, 79.

59 Claxton, Thomas F., quoted in Proceedings and Transactions of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius, new series (1901) 2 pp. 411, 11.

60 Borrowing the term from Sivasundaram, op. cit. (5).

61 Anderson, op. cit. (2) p. 114.

62 Headrick, Daniel R., The Tentacles of Progress: Technology Transfer in the Age of Imperialism, 1850–1940, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988, p. 108.

63 Jerningham, Hubert E.H., ‘Cyclone of April 29 1892 in Mauritius’, in Pendavis, W. (ed.), The Hurricane: Mauritius, April 29, 1892, Port Louis: Central Printing Establishment, pp. 19.

64 Quoted in Padya, B.M., Weather and Climate of Mauritius, Moka: Mahatma Gandhi Institute, 1989, p. 141.

65 Jerningham, op. cit. (63), p. 3.

66 Compare, for example, the more antagonistic politics surrounding the prediction of the Galveston hurricane of 1900, as reported in Cushman, op. cit. (12), pp. 155–157. Also Pietruska, Jamie, ‘Hurricanes, crops, and capital: the meteorological infrastructure of American empire in the West Indies’, Journal of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era (2016) 15, pp. 418445, esp. 431–432.

67 For biographical details see Kenworthy, Joan M., Albert Walter, O.B.E (1877–1972) Meteorologist in the Colonial Service Part I: His Early Life and Work in Mauritius, Reading: Royal Meteorological Society, Occasional Papers on Meteorological History, 2013; Kenworthy, , Albert Walter, O.B.E (1877–1972): Meteorologist in the Colonial Service, Part II, Reading: Royal Meteorological Society, Occasional Papers on Meteorological History, 2014.

68 Not long after its opening, requests were being made by staff to spend the summers in the apparently healthier highlands. See the correspondence in NAM RA/2185 and subsequent volumes.

69 Walter left behind a considerable personal archive and memoirs, which are held in the Commonwealth and African manuscript collection at the Bodleian Library, University of Oxford. This passage draws largely on his memoirs, ‘Echoes of a Vanishing Empire, being the Memoirs of a Meteorological and Civil Servant in the Colonial Empire, 1897–1947’. MSS. Brit. Emp. r. 9–10.

70 Thomas F. Claxton, ‘Annual Report of the Royal Alfred Observatory for the year 1902’, NMA, Y17.K2; Walter, op. cit. (69), pp. 33–34.

71 Colonial Secretary to Claxton, 21 February 1902, NAM Z6C/3.

72 Walter, op. cit. (69), p. 39.

73 Fleming, James Rodger, Meteorology in America, 1800–1870, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000.

74 Kutzbach, Gisela, The Thermal Theory of Cyclones: A History of Meteorological Thought in the Nineteenth Century, Washington, DC: American Meteorological Society, 1979.

75 Davis, John L., ‘Weather forecasting and the development of meterorological theory at the Paris Observatory, 1853–1878’, Annals of Science (1984) 41, pp. 359382.

76 Dechevrens, Marc, ‘On vertical currents in cyclones’, American Meteorological Journal (1886) 3, pp. 170186; Harrington, H.W., ‘Comments on Dechevrens’ “On vertical currents …”’, American Meteorological Journal (1886) 3, pp. 184186. Kutzbach, op. cit. (74), p. 137.

77 Kutzbach, op. cit. (74), p. 84.

78 Faye, Hervé, Nouvelle étude sur les tempêtes, cyclones, trombes ou tornados, Paris: Gauthier-Villars et fils, 1897.

79 Walter, Albert, ‘On the origin and propagation of cyclonic storms’, Proceedings and Transactions of the Meteorological Society of Mauritius, new series (1902) 3, pp. 119.

80 Shaw, op. cit. (43), p. 298.

81 Bigelow, Frank, Report on the International Cloud Observations, May 1 1896–July 1 1897, Washington, DC: US Weather Bureau, 1898.

82 Walter, op. cit. (79), p. 18.

83 Walter, op. cit. (79), p. 16.

84 Walter, op. cit. (69), p. 32.

85 Walter, op. cit. (69), p. 47.

86Loodiana’, Board of Trade official inquiry, 1910, Southampton Central Library, Maritime Collection, at www.plimsoll.org/resources/SCCLibraries/WreckReports2002/19975a.asp, accessed 13 June 2017.

87 Walter, op. cit. (69). Unfortunately, Claxton appears to have left behind little by way of his own recollections of these events.

88 Storey, op. cit. (13).

89 Walter, Albert, The Sugar Industry of Mauritius: A Study in Correlation; Including a Scheme of Insurance of the Cane Crop against Damage Caused by Cyclones, London: A.L. Humphreys, 1910.

90 Staub, J.B.G.S., Crop Insurance in Mauritius, 1946–1971, Port Louis: Cyclone and Drought Insurance Board, 1971.

91 Walter, op. cit. (69), p. 133.

92 Walter, op. cit. (69), pp. 38a–38b. The unusual numbering of the pages reflects their uncertain position in his memoirs.

93 Walter, op. cit. (69), pp. 38a–38b.

94 Daston, Lorraine, ‘On scientific observation’, Isis (2008) 99, pp. 97110, 101. See also Ellis, R., ‘Jizz and the joy of pattern recognition: virtuosity, discipline and the agency of insight in UK naturalists’ arts of seeing’, Social Studies of Science (2011) 41, pp. 769790.

95 Polanyi, Michael, Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-critical Philosophy, London: Routledge, 1973.

96 On the suicide in 1865 of Robert Fitzroy see Naylor, op. cit. (2), p. 417; Anderson, op. cit. (2), pp. 120–121; see also Nichols, Peter, Evolution's Captain: The Dark Fate of Robert Fitzroy, the Man Who Sailed Charles Darwin around the World, London: Profile, 2003.

97 There is surprisingly little literature on atmospheric aesthetics and the sublime, save for work on the visual cultures of cloud observation. See e.g. Anderson, op. cit. (2), pp. 219–227; Thornes, John E., ‘Cultural climatology and the representation of sky, atmosphere, weather and climate in selected art works of Constable, Monet and Eliasson’, Geoforum (2008) 39, pp. 570580.

98 Shaw, Napier, ‘The march of meteorology: random recollections’, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society (1934) 60, pp. 101120.

99 In this respect the paper seeks to extend the insights provided in Gregory Cushman's recent work, op. cit. (12). For more on the importance of looking to ‘peripheries’ in the history of meteorology see Anderson, op. cit. (2), Chapter 6; Cushman, Gregory, ‘Humboldtian science, creole meteorology, and the discovery of human-caused climate change in South America’, Osiris (2011) 26, pp. 1644; and Mahony, Martin and Caglioti, Angelo Matteo, ‘Relocating meteorology’, History of Meteorology (2017) 8, pp. 114.

100 Bose, Sugata, A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009; Metcalf, T.R., Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860–1920, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007.

101 Lambert, D. and Lester, A., Colonial Lives across the British Empire: Imperial Careering in the Long Nineteenth Century, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

102 For example, ‘Single observer forecasting’, AIR 2/2083, The National Archives.

103 Naylor, op. cit. (1).

104 Carroll, op. cit. (6), p. 7.

Thank you to the editors and two anonymous reviewers for providing such helpful comments, which have improved this article greatly. Thanks too to Jacques Pougnet, Edley Michaud, Renganaden Virasami, Rory Walshe, Joan Kenworthy and Rob Allan for sharing their knowledge of Mauritian meteorology; to participants of the Cambridge workshop where this special issue was born; and to the family of Albert Walter for agreeing to my use of his papers. Any errors of fact or interpretation are, of course, my own.

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