Hostname: page-component-848d4c4894-mwx4w Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-06-24T10:19:32.044Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Exploring issues in categorisation of higher music education courses through FOI surveys of gender demographics in UK higher education institutions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  07 September 2022

Stephen Tatlow*
Affiliation:
Department of Music and Media Arts, Royal Holloway, University of London, UK

Abstract

A common conclusion drawn from publicly available Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data releases is that Higher Music Education (HME) courses have a predominantly male population. However, HESA data has key issues when examining HME courses: which courses are reported as ‘music’ courses to HESA; how do universities decide which courses are ‘music’ courses; how many different topics are contained within the umbrella of ‘music’ courses? To address questions of gender representation in HME, universities in the UK were approached with Freedom of Information Act requests for the gender demographics of student populations on “music-related” courses. Information was gained on 3456 courses populations between 2014 and 2020, which was categorised by the subject of study. Six core undergraduate topics were identified: generic music degrees (female bias), degrees combining music and technology (male bias), degrees combining music and business (no gender bias), degrees on popular music (male bias), degrees combining music and theatre (female bias) and major conservatoire courses (no gender bias). No area was accurately represented by HESA data, and gender representation varied significantly between areas. These findings have implications for discussions of gender representation in HME across the UK.

Type
Article
Copyright
© The Author(s), 2022. Published by Cambridge University Press

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

ARMSTRONG, D. V. (2013). Technology and the Gendering of Music Education. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.Google Scholar
BAIN, V. (2019). Counting the music industry: A study of gender inequality in the UK music industry. UK Music. https://www.ukmusic.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Counting-the-Music-Industry-full-report-2019.pdf Google Scholar
BENNETT, H. S. (2017). On Becoming a Rock Musician. New York: Columbia University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BJÖRCK, C. (2011). Claiming Space: Discourses on Gender, Popular Music, and Social Change. Gothenburg: Academy of Music and Drama, University of Gothenburg.Google Scholar
BORN, G. & DEVINE, K. (2015). Music technology, gender, and class: Digitization, educational and social change in Britain. Twentieth-Century Music, 12(2), 135172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BULL, A. (2019). Class, Control, and Classical Music. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CAIZLEY, S. (2020). Levelling the playing field in UK music conservatoires: Diversifying through decolonising. HEPI. https://www.hepi.ac.uk/2020/07/20/levelling-the-playing-field-in-uk-music-conservatoires-diversifying-through-decolonising/ Google Scholar
COMBER, C., HARGREAVES, D. J. & COLLEY, A. (1993). Girls, boys and technology in music education. British Journal of Music Education, 10(2), 123134. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0265051700001583 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
CONWAY, C. (2000). Gender and musical instrument choice: A phenomenological investigation. Bulletin of the Council for Research in Music Education, 146, 117.Google Scholar
COX, T. & KILSHAW, H. (2021). Creating a more inclusive classical music: A study of the English orchestral workforce and the current routes to joining it. Arts Council England. https://www.artscouncil.org.uk/sites/default/files/download-file/Executive_Summary.pdf Google Scholar
DE BOISE, S. (2019). Tackling gender inequalities in music: A comparative study of policy responses in the UK and Sweden. International Journal of Cultural Policy, 25(4), 486499. https://doi.org/10.1080/10286632.2017.1341497 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DOESER, J. (2016). Racial/Ethnic and Gender Diversity in the Orchestra Field. New York: League of American Orchestras.Google Scholar
GINTHER, A. M. (2015). Dysconscious racism in mainstream British voice pedagogy and its potential effects on students from pluralistic backgrounds in UK drama conservatoires. Voice and Speech Review, 9(1), 4160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
GRAHAM, B. J. (2005). Relationships among instrument choice, instrument transfer, subject sex, and gender-stereotypes in instrumental music. Indiana: Indiana University.Google Scholar
GREEN, L. (1997). Music, Gender, Education. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
GREEN, L. (2002). How Popular Musicians Learn: A Way Ahead for Music Education. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.Google Scholar
HALLAM, S., CREECH, A., VARVARIGOU, M. & PAPAGEORGI, I. (2020). Gender differences in musical motivation at different levels of expertise. Psychology of Music, 48(5), 657673. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735618815955 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HALLAM, S., ROGERS, L. & CREECH, A. (2008). Gender differences in musical instrument choice. International Journal of Music Education, 26(1), 719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HESA. (2017a). The Higher Education Classification of Subjects (HECoS) Vocabulary Mappings; JACS3 to HECoS (No. 8). HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/support/documentation/hecos/archive Google Scholar
HESA. (2017b). HECoS Implementation Guide 2018. HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/support/documentation/hecos/archive Google Scholar
HESA. (2020a). The Higher Education Classification of Subjects (HECoS) Vocabulary. HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/support/documentation/hecos/archive Google Scholar
HESA. (2020b). The Common Aggregation Hierarchy (CAH) HECoS and JACS Mapping (1.3.3). HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/support/documentation/hecos/archive Google Scholar
HESA. (2020c). Table 13—HE student enrolments by HE provider and subject of study 2014/15 to 2018/19 | HESA (DT051 Table 13). HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students/table-13 Google Scholar
HESA. (2020d). Figure 13—HE student enrolments by subject area and sex 2014/15 to 2018/19 | HESA (SB255 Figure 13). HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/sb255/figure-13 Google Scholar
HESA. (2020e). Table 9—HE student enrolments by subject of study 2014/15 to 2018/19 (DT051 Table 9). HESA. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/data-and-analysis/students/table-9 Google Scholar
HESA. (n.d.) HESA definitions: students [dictionary]. Definitions: student. https://www.hesa.ac.uk/support/definitions/students Google Scholar
HEWITT, R. (2020). Mind the Gap: Gender Differences in Higher Education. HEPI. https://www.hepi.ac.uk/2020/03/07/mind-the-gap-gender-differences-in-higher-education/ Google Scholar
MACDONALD, R. A. R., HARGREAVES, D. J. & MIELL, D. (2002). Musical Identities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
MCCLARY, S. (1991). Feminine Endings: Music, Gender, and Sexuality. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
MCPHERSON, G., ET AL. (2015). Motivation to study music in Australian schools: The impact of music learning, gender, and socio-economic status. Research Studies in Music Education, 37, 141160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SCHARFF, C. (2019). Gender, Subjectivity and Cultural Work: The Classical Music Profession. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
SERGEANT, D. C. & HIMONIDES, E. (2019). Orchestrated sex: The representation of male and female musicians in world-class symphony orchestras. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1760.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UK MUSIC. (2018). Diversity in the music industry workforce 2018. UK Music. https://www.ukmusic.org/assets/general/UK_Music_Diversity_Report_2018.pdf Google Scholar
VALENZUELA, R., CODINA, N. & PESTANA, J. V. (2020). Gender-differences in conservatoire music practice maladjustment. Can contextual professional goals and context-derived psychological needs satisfaction account for amotivation variations? PLOS ONE, 15(5), e0232711.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WEBSTER, P. R. (2012). Key research in music technology and music teaching and learning. Journal of Music, Technology and Education, 4(2), 115130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
WHITELEY, S. (1997). Sexing the Groove: Popular Music and Gender. London; New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Tatlow supplementary material

Tatlow supplementary material

Download Tatlow supplementary material(File)
File 43.5 KB