1Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation (2002) Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases. WHO Technical Report Series 916.
2Haslam DW & James WPT (2005) Obesity. Lancet 366, 1197–1209.
3Bastard JP, Maachi M, Lagathu C, Kim MJ, Caron M, Vidal H, Capeau J & Feve B (2006) Recent advances in the relationship between obesity, inflammation, and insulin resistance. Eur Cytokine Netw 17, 4–12.
4Hotamisligil GS (2006) Inflammation and metabolic disorders. Nature 444, 860–867.
5Berg AH & Scherer PE (2005) Adipose tissue, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 96, 939–949.
6Tilg H & Moschen AR (2006) Adipocytokines: mediators linking adipose tissue, inflammation and immunity. Nat Rev Immunol 6, 772–783.
7Weisberg S, McCann D, Desai M, Rosenbaum M, Leibel RL & Ferrante AW (2003) Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. J Clin Invest 112, 1796–1808.
8Pietilainen KH, Kannisto K, Korsheninnikova E, Rissanen A, Kaprio J, Ehrenborg E, Hamsten A & Yki-Jarvinen H (2006) Acquired obesity increases CD68 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and decreases adiponectin gene expression in adipose tissue: a study in monozygotic twins. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 2776–2781.
9Skurk T, Alberti-Huber C, Herder C & Hauner H (2007) Relationship between adipocyte size and adipokine expression and secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 1023–1033.
10Pond CM (2003) Paracrine interactions of mammalian adipose tissue. J Exp Zoolog Part A Comp Exp Biol 295, 99–110.
11Farooqi IS, Matarese G, Lord GM, Keogh JM, Lawrence E, Agwu C, et al. (2002) Beneficial effects of leptin on obesity, T cell hyporesponsiveness and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction of human congenital leptin deficiency. J Clin Invest 110, 1093–1103.
12Wu H, Ghosh S, Perrard XD, Feng L, Garcia GE, Perrard JL, Sweeney JF, Peterson LE, Chan L, Smith CW & Ballantyne CM (2007) T-cell accumulation and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted upregulation in adipose tissue in obesity. Circulation 115, 1029–1038.
13Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Yannakoulia M, Chrysohoou C & Stefanadis C (2005) The implication of obesity and central fat on markers of chronic inflammation: The ATTICA study. Atherosclerosis 183, 308–315.
14Wärnberg J, Nova E, Moreno LA, Romeo J, Mesana MI, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Sjöström M, Bueno M & Marcos A (2006) Inflammatory proteins are related to total and abdominal adiposity in a healthy adolescent population: the AVENA Study. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 505–512.
15Fain JN (2006) Release of interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily due to the nonfat cells. Vitam Horm 74, 443–477.
16Arkan MC, Hevener AL, Greten FR, Maeda S, Li ZW, Long JM, Wynshaw-Boris A, Poli G, Olefsky J & Karin M (2005) IKK-beta links inflammation to obesity-induced insulin resistance. Nat Med 11, 191–198.
17Ajuwon KM & Spurlock ME (2005) Adiponectin inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation and IL-6 production and increases PPARgamma2 expression in adipocytes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288, R1220–R1225.
18Gil-Campos M, Canete R & Gil A (2004) Adiponectin, the missing link in insulin resistance and obesity. Clin Nutr 23, 963–974.
19Rommel C, Camps M & Ji H (2007) PI3K delta and PI3K gamma: partners in crime in inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis and beyond? Nat Rev Immunol 7, 191–201.
20Ueki K, Kondo T & Kahn CR (2004) Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 cause insulin resistance through inhibition of tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate proteins by discrete mechanisms. Mol Cell Biol 24, 5434–5446.
21Suganami T, Tanimoto-Koyama K, Nishida J, et al. (2007) Role of the Toll-like receptor 4/NF-kappaB pathway in saturated fatty acid-induced inflammatory changes in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27, 84–91.
22Zamboni M, Di Francesco V, Garbin U, Fratta Pasini A, Mazzali G, Stranieri C, Zoico E, Fantin F, Bosello O & Cominacini L (2007) Adiponectin gene expression and adipocyte NF-kappaB transcriptional activity in elderly overweight and obese women: inter-relationships with fat distribution, hs-CRP, leptin and insulin resistance. Int J Obes (Lond) 31, 1104–1109.
23Moschen AR, Kaser A, Enrich B, Mosheimer B, Theurl M, Niederegger H & Tilg H (2007) Visfatin, an adipocytokine with proinflammatory and immunomodulating properties. J Immunol 178, 1748–1758.
24Varma V, Yao-Borengasser A, Rasouli N, et al. (2007) Human visfatin expression: relationship to insulin sensitivity, intramyocellular lipids, and inflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 666–672.
25Clement K, Viguerie N, Poitou C, et al. (2004) Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects. FASEB J 18, 1657–1669.
26Hotamisligil GS, Arner P, Caro JF, Atkinson RL & Spiegelman BM (1995) Increased adipose tissue expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in human obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 95, 2409–2415.
27Hube F, Birgel M, Lee YM & Hauner H (1999) Expression pattern of tumour necrosis factor receptors in subcutaneous and omental human adipose tissue: role of obesity and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Invest 29, 672–678.
28Wang B, Jenkins JR & Trayhurn P (2005) Expression and secretion of inflammation-related adipokines by human adipocytes differentiated in culture: integrated response to TNF-alpha. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288, E731–E740.
29Do MS, Jeong HS, Choi BH, Hunter L, Langley S, Pazmany L & Trayhurn P (2006) Inflammatory gene expression patterns revealed by DNA microarray analysis in TNF-alpha-treated SGBS human adipocytes. Yonsei Med J 47, 729–736.
30Lee YH, Nair S, Rousseau E, Allison DB, Page GP, Tataranni PA, Bogardus C & Permana PA (2005) Microarray profiling of isolated abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes from obese vs non-obese Pima Indians: increased expression of inflammation-related genes. Diabetologia 48, 1776–1783.
31Murdolo G, Hammarstedt A, Sandqvist M, Schmelz M, Herder C, Smith U & Jansson PA (2007) Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: characterization of interstitial concentration and regulation of gene expression by insulin. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 2688–2695.
32Makkonen J, Westerbacka J, Kolak M, Sutinen J, Corner A, Hamsten A, Fisher RM & Yki-Jarvinen H (2007) Increased expression of the macrophage markers and of 11beta-HSD-1 in subcutaneous adipose tissue, but not in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages, is associated with liver fat in human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). .
33Lumeng CN, Deyoung SM, Bodzin JL & Saltiel AR (2007) Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity. Diabetes 56, 16–23.
34Nair S, Lee YH, Rousseau E, Cam M, Tataranni PA, Baier LJ, Bogardus C & Permana PA (2005) Increased expression of inflammation-related genes in cultured preadipocytes/stromal vascular cells from obese compared with non-obese Pima Indians. Diabetologia 48, 1784–1788.
35Moro C, Klimcakova E, Lolmede K, Berlan M, Lafontan M, Stich V, Bouloumie A, Galitzky J, Arner P & Langin D (2007) Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits the production of adipokines and cytokines linked to inflammation and insulin resistance in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Diabetologia 50, 1038–1047.
36Brake DK, Smith EO, Mersmann H, Smith CW & Robker RL (2006) ICAM-1 expression in adipose tissue: effects of diet-induced obesity in mice. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 291, C1232–C1239.
37Taleb S & Clement K (2007) Emerging role of cathepsin S in obesity and its associated diseases. Clin Chem Lab Med 45, 328–332.