Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Antioxidant supplementation preserves antioxidant response in physical training and low antioxidant intake

  • Stéphane Palazzetti (a1), Anne-Sophie Rousseau (a1) (a2), Marie-Jeanne Richard (a3), Alain Favier (a4) and Irène Margaritis (a1)...

Abstract

The present controlled-training double-blind study (supplemented (S) group, n 7; placebo (P) group, n 10) was designed to investigate whether an antioxidant mixture (Se 150 μg, retinyl acetate mg, ascorbic acid 120 mg, α-tocopheryl succinate) would allow overloaded triathletes to avoid adaptation failure in the antioxidant system. Dietary intakes were recorded. The supplement of Se, and vitamins A and E provided 100 % of the French RDA. Four weeks of overloaded training (OT) followed 4 weeks of normal training (NT). After NT and OT, biological studies were conducted at rest and after a duathlon test (run 5 km, cycle 20 km, run 5 km). During the 4-week period of NT, blood levels of GSH levels increased in response to supplementation (P<0·05) and remained elevated during OT. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the S group in all situations after NT and OT (P<0·01). The S group had increased erythrocyte Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activity in response to OT (P<0·05). Supplementation significantly reduced (P<0·05) the magnitude in duathlon-induced creatine kinase isoenzyme MB mass increase, which tended to be higher with OT (P=0·09). We conclude that the antioxidant mixture helped to preserve the antioxidant system during an OT-induced stress in subjects with initially low antioxidant intakes. Effects of supplementation during NT and/or OT are shown mostly by the alleviated muscle damage. The effects of the antioxidant mixture were observed for doses that can be provided by a diversified and well-balanced diet. The maintenance of normal nutritional status with regard to the antioxidant intake (Se, vitamins C and E) plays a key role in antioxidant adaptive effects during NT and OT.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Antioxidant supplementation preserves antioxidant response in physical training and low antioxidant intake
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Antioxidant supplementation preserves antioxidant response in physical training and low antioxidant intake
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Antioxidant supplementation preserves antioxidant response in physical training and low antioxidant intake
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Irène Margaritis, fax +33 4 92 29 65 49, email margarit@unice.fr

References

Hide All
Akerboom, T & Sies, H (1981) Assay of glutathione, glutathione disulfides and glutathione mixed disulfides in biological samples. In Methods in Enzymology 373382 [Colowick, SP, Kaplan, NO, editors] New York: Academic Press.
Alessio, HM, Goldfarb, AH & Cao, G (1997) Exercice-induced oxidative stress before and after vitamin C supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr. 7, 19.
Arnaud, J, Fortis, I, Blachier, S, Kia, D & Favier, A (1991) Simultaneous determination of retinol, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene in serum by isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B 572, 103116.
Arnaud, J, Prual, A, Preziosi, P, Favier, A & Hercberg, S (1993) Selenium determination in human milk in Niger: influence of maternal status. J Trace Elem Electrolytes Health Dis 7, 199204.
Clarkson, PM (1995) Micronutrients and exercise: anti-oxidants and minerals. J Sports Sci 13, S11S24.
Collins, AR (1999) Oxidative DNA damage, antioxidants, and cancer. Bioessays 21, 238246.
Dekkers, JC, Van Doornen, LJ & Kemper, HC (1996) The role of antioxidant vitamins and enzymes in the prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage. Sports Med 21, 213238.
Durnin, JVGA & Rahaman, MM (1967) The assessment of the amount of fat in the human body from measurements of skinfold thickness. Br J Nutr 21, 681689.
Duthie, SJ, Ma, A, Ross, MA & Collins, AR (1996) Antioxidant supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes. Cancer Res 56, 12911295.
Emonet, N, Leccia, MT, Favier, A, Beani, JC & Richard, MJ (1997) Thiols and selenium: protective effect on human skin fibroblasts exposed to UVA radiation. J Photochem Photobiol B 40, 8490.
Emonet, N, Richard, MJ, Ravanat, JL, Signorini, N, Cadet, J & Beani, JC (1998) Protective effects of antioxidants against UVA-induced DNA damage in human skin fibroblasts in culture. Free Radic Res 29, 307313.
Goldfarb, AH (1999) Nutritional antioxidants as therapeutic and preventive modalities in exercise-induced muscle damage. Can J Appl Physiol 24, 249266.
Guilland, JC, Margaritis, I, Melin, B, Pérès, G, Richalet, JP & Sabatier, PP (2001) Sportifs et sujets à activité physique intense (Sportsmen and subjects with high physical activity). In Apports Nutritionnels Conseillés pour la Population Française (French Population Recommended Dietary Allowances) 3rd ed. pp. 337394 [Martin, A, editor]. Paris: T ec & Doc.
Günzler, WA, Kremers, H & Flohé, L (1974) An improved coupled test procedure for glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) in blood. Z Klin Chem Klin Biochem 12, 444448.
Halliwell, B (2000) Why and how should we measure oxidative DNA damage in nutritional studies? How far have we come? Am J Clin Nutr 72, 10821087.
Hartmann, A, Nieb, AM, Grünert-Fuchs, M, Poch, B & Speit, G (1995) Vitamin E prevents exercise-induced DNA damage. Mutat Res 346, 195202.
Hartmann, A, Plappert, U, Raddatz, K, Grünert-Fuchs, M & Günter, S (1994) Does physical activity induce DNA damage? Mutagenesis 9, 269272.
Hellman, B, Vaghef, H & Boström, B (1995) The concepts of the tail moment and tail inertia in the single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Mutat Res 336, 123131.
Hinchcliff, KW, Reinhart, GADiSilvestro, R, Reynolds, ABlostein-Fujii, A &Swenson, RA (2000) Oxidant stress in sled dogs subjected to repetitive endurance exercise. Am J Vet Res 61, 512517.
Huang, HY, Helzlsouer, KJ & Appel, LJ (2000) The effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on oxidative DNA damage: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 647652.
Itoh, H, Ohkuwa, T & Yamazaki, Y (1999) Vitamin E supplementation attenuates leakage of enzymes following 6 successive days of running training. Int J Sports Med 21, 369374.
Ji, LL (1999) Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 222, 283292.
Kanter, MM, Nolte, LA & Holloszy, JO (1993) Effects of an antioxidant vitamin mixture on lipid peroxidation at rest and postexercise. J Appl Physiol 74, 965969.
McCall, MR &Frei, B (1999) Can antioxidant vitamins materially reduce oxidative damage in humans? Free Radic Biol Med 26, 10341053.
McNair, DM, Lorr, M & Droppleman, LF (1992) Edits Manual for the Profile of Mood States. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Services.
Margaritis, I, Tessier, F, Richard, MJ & Marconnet, P (1997) No evidence of oxidative stress after a triathlon race in highly trained competitors. Int J Sports Med 18, 186190.
Marklund, S & Marklund, G (1974) Involvement of the superoxide anion radical in the autoxidation of pyrogallol and a convenient assay for superoxide dismutase. Eur J Biochem 47, 469474.
Marzatico, F, Pansarasa, O, Bertorelli, L, Somenzini, LDella Valle, G (1997) Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 37, 235239.
Meydani, M, Evans, WJ & Handelman, G (1993) Protective effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced oxidative damage in young and older adults. Am J Physiol 264, R992R998.
Nadif, R, Diallo, L & Mayer, L (1998) Relationship between blood antioxidants and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke oven workers. Am J Ind Med 34, 272279.
Niess, AM, Hartmann, A, Grunert-Fuchs, M, Poch, B & Speit, G (1996) DNA damage after exhaustive treadmill running in trained and untrained men. Int J Sports Med 17, 397403.
Palazzetti, S, Richard, MJ, Favier, A & Margaritis, I (2003) Overloaded training increases exercise-induced oxidative stress and damage. Can J Appl Physiol 28, 588604.
Powers, SK & Hamilton, K (1999) Antioxidants and exercise. Clin Sports Med 18, 525536.
Powers, SK, Ji, LL & Leeuwenburgh, C (1999) Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle antioxidant capacity: a brief review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31, 987997.
Preziosi, P, Galan, P & Herbeth, B (1998) Effects of supplementation with a combination of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements, at nutritional doses, on biochemical indicators and markers of the antioxidant system in adult subjects. J Am Coll Nutr 17, 244249.
Prieme, H, Loft, S, Nyyssonen, K, Salonen, JT & Poulsen, HE (1997) No effect of supplementation with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or coenzyme Q10 on oxidative DNA damage estimated by 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine excretion in smokers. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 503507.
Radàk, Z, Kaneko, T & Tahara, S (1999) The effect of exercise training on oxidative damage on lipids, proteins, and DNA in rat skeletal muscle: evidence for beneficial outcomes. Free Radic Biol Med 27, 6974.
Richard, MJ, Portal, B, Meo, J, Coudray, C, Hadjian, A & Favier, A (1992) Malondialdehyde kit evaluated for determining plasma and lipoprotein fractions that react with thiobarbituric acid. Clin Chem 38, 704709.
Rokitzki, L, Logemann, E, Huber, G, Keck, E & Keul, J (1994a) Alpha-tocopherol supplementation in racing cyclists during extreme endurance training. Int J Sport Nutr 4, 253264.
Rokitzki, L, Logemann, E, Sagredos, AN, Murphy, M, Wetzel-Roth, W & Keul, J (1994b) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidative vitamins under extreme endurance stress. Acta Physiol Scand 151, 149158.
Sato, Y, Nanri, H, Ohta, M, Kasai, H & Ikeda, M (2003) Increase of human MTH1 and decrease of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in leukocyte DNA by acute and chronic exercise in healthy male subjects. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 305, 333338.
Singh, NPMcCoy, MT, Tice, RR & Schneider, EL (1988) A simple technique for the quantification of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 175, 184191.
Speek, AJ, Schrijver, J & Schreus, WHP (1984) Fluorometric determination of total vitamin C in whole blood by high performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. J Chromatogr 305, 5360.
Tsai, K, Hsu, TG & Hsu, KM (2001) Oxidative DNA damage in human peripheral leukocytes induced by massive aerobic exercise. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 14651472.
Vermorel, M, Ritz, P, Tappy, L & Laville, M (2001) Energie (Energy). In Apports Nutritionnels Conseillés pour la Population Française (French Population Recommended Dietary Allowance), 3rd ed., pp. 1736 [Martin, A, editor]. Paris: Tec & Doc.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed