This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 AR Saltiel & JE Pessin (2002) Insulin signalling pathways in time and space. Trends in Cell Biol 12, 65–71.
2 JE Pessin & AR Saltiel (2000) Signalling pathways in insulin action: molecular targets of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 106, 165–169.
3 GI Shulman (2000) Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 106, 171–176.
5 JK Grover & SP Yadav (2004) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 93, 123–132.
6 S Yibchok-Anun , S Adisakwattana , CY Yao , P Sangvanich , S Roengsumran & WH Hsu (2006) Slow acting protein extract from fruit pulp of Momordica charantia with insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities. Biol Pharm Bull 29(6), 1126–1131.
7 T Miura , Y Itoh , N Iwamoto , M Kato & T Ishida (2004) Suppressive activity of the fruit of Momordica charantia with exercise on blood glucose in type 2 diabetic mice. Biol Pharm Bull 27(2), 248–250.
8 L Ali , AK Khan , MI Mamun , M Mosihuzzaman , N Nahar , M Nur-e-Alam & B Rokeya (1993) Studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Med 59(5), 408–412.
9 I Ahmed , MS Lakhani , M Gillett , A John & H Raza (2001) Hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of anti-diabetic Momordica charantia (karela) fruit extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 51(3), 155–161.
10 T Miura , C Itoh , N Iwamoto , M Kato , M Kawai , SR Park & I Suzuki (2001) Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 47(5), 340–344.
13 BA Leatherdale , RK Panesar , G Singh , TW Atkins , CJ Bailey & AHC Bignell (1981) Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela). Brit Med J 282, 1823–1824.
16 MJA Saad , E Araki , M Miralpeix , PL Rothenberg , MF White & CR Kohn (1992) Regulation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and muscle of animal models of insulin resistance. J Clin Invest 90, 1839–1849.
17 M Bradford (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantity of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye binding. Anal Biochem 72, 248–254.
18 UK Laemmli (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680–685.
19 PA Hansen , DH Han , BA Marshall , LA Nolte , MM Chen , M Mueckler & JO Holloszy (1998) A high fat diet impairs insulin stimulation of glucose transport in muscle. J Biol chem 273, 26157–26163.
22 ND Oakes , GJ Cooney , S Camilleri , DJ Chisholm & EW Kraegen (1997) Mechanisms of liver and muscle insulin resistance induced by chronic high-fat feeding. Diabetes 46, 1768–1774.
24 H Tamemoto , T Kadowaki , K Tobe , (1994) Insulin resistance and growth retardation in mice lacking insulin receptor substrate-1. Nature 372, 182–186.
25 T Yamauchi , K Tobe , H Tamemoto , (1996) Insulin signalling and insulin actions in the muscles and livers of insulin resistant, insulin receptor substrate 1- deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol 16, 3074–3084.
27 K De Fea & RA Roth (1997) Modulation of insulin receptor substrate -1 tyrosine phosphorylation and function by mitogen activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem 272, 31400–31406.
28 JK Grover & SP Yadav (2004) Pharmacological actions and uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethanopharmacol 93(1), 123–132.
30 CY Chuang , C Hsu , CY Chao , YS Wein , YH Kuo & CJ Huang (2006) Fractionation and identification of 9c, 11t, 13t-conjugated linolenic acid as an activator of PPAR alpha in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). J Biomed Sci 13(6), 763–772.
31 CY Chao & CJ Huang (2003) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and upregulates the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase gene in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells. J Biomed Sci 10(2), 782–791.
34 BM Spiegelmen (1997) PPAR-γ: adipogenic regulator and thiazolidinedione receptor. Diabetes 47, 507–514.
36 BM Forman , J Chen & RM Evans (1997) Hypolipidemic drugs, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and eicosanoids are ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and δ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94, 4312–4317.
37 M Guerre-Millo , P Gervois , E Raspe , (2000) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α activators improve insulin sensitivity and reduce adiposity. J Biol Chem 275, 16638–16642.
38 DE Werner , J Lee , L Hansen , M Yuan & SE Shoelson (2004) Insulin resistance due to phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 at serine 302. J Biol Chem 279, 35298–35305.
39 JK Kim , YJ Kim , JJ Fillmore , (2001) Prevention of fat induced insulin resistance by salicylate. J clin Invest 108, 437–448.
41 M Yuan , N Konstantopoulos , J Lee , L Hansen , ZW Li , M Karin & SE Shoelson (2001) Reversal of obesity and diet induced insulin resistance with salicylates or targeted disruption of IKKβ. Science 293, 1673–1677.
42 GP Sykiotis & AG Papavassiliou (2001) Serine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1: a novel target for the reversal of insulin resistance. Molecular Endocrinology 15, 1864–1869.