Hostname: page-component-8448b6f56d-qsmjn Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2024-04-23T12:05:56.793Z Has data issue: false hasContentIssue false

Comparative effects on blood lipids and faecal steroids of five legume species incorporated into a semi-purified, hypercholesterolaemic rat diet

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Fatima D Dabai
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AP
Ann F Walker
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AP
Ian E Sambrook
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AP
Vernon A Welch
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AP
Robert W Owen
Affiliation:
Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2AP
Savitri Abeyasekera
Affiliation:
Department of Applied Statistics, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 2FN
Rights & Permissions [Opens in a new window]

Abstract

Core share and HTML view are not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The cholesterolaemic effects in rats of a diet (VS) containing Bambara groundnuts (Vignu subterrunea), a popular legume eaten in Nigeria, were compared with diets PV, PS, LC and PL, containing baked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), marrowfat peas (Pisum sativum), lentils (Lens culinaris Medik.) and butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) respectively. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on hypercholesterolaemic semi-purified diets supplemented with 10 g cholesterol and 5 g cholic acid/kg and formulated to provide 40% of energy from fat, as in a typical Western-type human diet. Legumes were substituted for 330 g/kg of the semi-purified diet on a dry-matter basis, which was modified to maintain the same contribution of energy sources as the control diet C3. Another ten rats were fed on control diet C2, which was similar to diet C3 but with no added cholesterol. The rats were fed for 8 weeks and plasma cholesterol levels were measured at weeks 4 and 8. The diets incorporating the five different legume species produced very Merent cholesterolaemic effects. Diets PV and PL were more potent at lowering raised plasma cholesterol levels than diets PS and LC. Inclusion of the Bambara groundnut into the semi-purified diet resulted in an exaggeration of hypercholesterolaemia. Differences in cholesterol-lowering capacity of the various legume diets in this experiment could not be related to concentrations of faecal bile acids or neutral sterols. However, there was evidence that the inclusion of legumes in the diets reduced the faecal excretion of secondary bile acids

Type
Legumes and lipid metabolism in rats
Copyright
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1996

References

Allain, C. C., Poon, L. S., Chan, C. S. G., Richmond, W. & Fu, P. C.. (1974). Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clinical Chemistry 20, 470475.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Almé, B. A., Bremmelgaard, A., Sjovall, J. & Thomassen, P.. (1977). Analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids in urine using lipophilic anion exchange and computerised gas-liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Journal of Lipid Research 18, 339362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. W. & Chen, W. J. L.. (1979). Plant fiber. Carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 32, 346363.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Anderson, J. W., Gustafson, N. J., Spencer, D. B., Tietyen, J. & Bryant, C. A.. (1990). Serum lipid responseof hypercholesterolemic men to single and divided doses of canned beans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 1031–1019.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Anderson, J. W., Story, L., Sieling, B., Chen, W. J. L., Petro, M. S. & Story, J. A. (1984). Hypocholesterolemic effects of oat bran or bean intake for hypercholesterolemic men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 40, 11461155.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Beynen, A. C.,Lemmens, A. G.,De Bruije, J. J.,Katan, M. B. & Nab Zuphen, L. F. M. (1986). Interaction of dietary cholesteorl with cholate in rats;effect of serum cholesterol, liver cholesterol and function. Nutrition Reports International 34,557563Google Scholar
Beynen, A. C.,Weinans, G. J. B. & Katan, M. B. (1984). Arylesterase activities in the plasma of rats, rabbits and humans on low- and high-cholesterol diets. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 78, 669673.Google ScholarPubMed
Chang, K. C., Ethens, S., Harrold, R. & Brown, G.. (1986). Effect of feeding dry beans on rat plasma cholesterol. Nutrition Reports International 33, 659664.Google Scholar
Chapman, M. J., Goldstein, S., Lagrane, D. & Lapland, P. M.. (1981). A density gradient ultracentrifugal procedure for the isolation of major lipoprotein classes from human serum. Journal of Lipid Research 22, 339358CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Conybeare, G., Leslie, G. B., Angles, K., Barrett, R. J., Luke, J. S. & Gask, D. R.. (1988). An improved simple technique for the collection of blood samples from rats and mice. Laboratory Animals 22, 177182.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, N. M. B., Low, A. G., Walker, A. F., Owen, R. W. & Englyst, H. N.. (1994). Effect of baked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on steroid metabolism and non-starch polysaccharide output of hypercholesterolaemic pigs with or without an ileo-rectal anastomosis. British Journal of Nutrition 71, 871886.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Costa, N. M. B., Walker, A. F. & Low, A. G.. (1993). The effect of graded inclusion of baked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on plasma and liver lipids in hypercholesterolaemic pigs given a Western-type diet. British Journal of Nutrition 70, 515524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dabai, F. D.. (1992). Nutritional and technological properties of Bambara groundnut in infant and adult food. PhD Thesis, University of Reading.Google Scholar
Edgington, J., Gecki, M., Carter, R., Benfield, L., Fisher, K., Ball, M. & Mann, J. (1987). Effects of dietary cholesterol on plasma cholesterol concentrations in subjects following reduced fat, high fibre diet. British Medical Journal 294, 333336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Englyst, H. N. & Cummings, J. H. (1988). Improved method for measurement of dietary fibre as non-starch polysaccharides in plant food. Journal of the Association of Oficial Analytical Chemists 71, 808814.Google Scholar
Folch, J., Lees, M. & Sloane-Stanley, G. H. (1957). A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. Journal of Biological Chemistry 226,497509.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (1979). Standard Method for the Analysis of Oils, Fats and Derivatives, 6th ed., pp.9698 [Paquot, C., editor]. Oxford: Pergamon Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kingman, S. M. (1991). The influence of legume seeds on human plasma lipid concentrations. Nutrition Research Reviews 4, 97123.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kingman, S. M.,Walker, A. F.,Low, A. G., Sambrook, I. E., Owen, R. W. & Cole, T. (1993). Comparative effects of four legume species on plasma lipids and faecal steroid excretion in hypercholesterolaemic pigs. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 409421.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lin, W. J. & Anderson, J. W. (1978). Effects of guar gum and wheat bran on lipid metabolism in rats. Federation Proceedings 31, 542.Google Scholar
Mahadevappa, V. G. & Raina, P. L. (1983). Hypocholesterolaemic effect of cowpea in rats on atherogenic diet. Indian Journal of Medical Research 78, 819823.Google Scholar
Megraw, R. E., Dunn, D. E. & Biggs, H. E. (1979). Manual and continuous flow colorimetry of triacylglycerols by a fully enzymic method. Clinical Chemistry 25, 273278.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Oakenfull, D. G., Fenwick, D. E., Hood, R. L., Topping, D. L., Illman, J. R. & Storer, G. B. (1979). Effects of saponins on bile acids and plasma lipids in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 42, 209216.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Owen, R. W., Thompson, M. H. &Hill, M. J. (1984). Analysis of metabolic profiles of steroids in faeces of healthy subjects undergoing chenodeoxycholic acid treatment by liquid-gel chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry 21, 593600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Prema, L. & Kurup, P. A. (1973). Effect of protein fractions from red gram (Cajanus cajan) and horse gram (Dolichos biflorus) on the serum, liver and aortic lipid levels in rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet. Atherosclerosis 18, 369377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sharma, R. D. (1987). An evaluation of hypocholesterolaemic activity of some uncommon legumes. Nutrition Research 7, 351363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Shutler, S. M., Bircher, G. M., Tredger, J. A., Morgan, L. M., Walker, A. F. & Low, A. G. (1989). The effect of daily baked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) consumption on the plasma lipid levels of young, normocholesterolaemic men. British Journal of Nutrition 61, 257265.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sidhu, G. S., Upson, B. & Malinow, M. R. (1987). Effects of soy saponins and tigogenin cellobioside on intestinal uptake of cholesterol, cholate and glucose. Nutrition Reports International 35, 615623.Google Scholar
Soni, G. I., George, M. & Singh, R. (1982). Role of common Indian pulses as hypocholesterolaemic agents. Indian Journal of Nutrition andDietetics 19, 184190.Google Scholar
Soni, G. I., Sohal, B. S. & Rattan, S. (1979). Comparative effect of pulses on tissue and plasma cholesterol levels in albino rats. Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics 16, 444446.Google ScholarPubMed
Trinder, P. (1969). Determination of glucose in blood using glucose oxidase with an alternative oxygen acceptor. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 6, 2427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar