1Williams J, Wake M, Hesketh K, et al. (2005) Health-related quality of life of overweight and obese children. JAMA 293, 70–76.
2Swallen KC, Reither EN, Haas SA, et al. (2005) Overweight, obesity, and health-related quality of life among adolescents: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Pediatrics 115, 340–347.
3Berenson GS, Srinivasan SR, Bao W, et al. (1998) Association between multiple cardiovascular risk factors and atherosclerosis in children and young adults. The Bogalusa Heart Study. N Engl J Med 338, 1650–1656.
4Mahoney LT, Burns TL, Stanford W, et al. (1996) Coronary risk factors measured in childhood and young adult life are associated with coronary artery calcification in young adults: the Muscatine Study. J Am Coll Cardiol 27, 277–284.
5Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH, et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 362–366.
6Salmeron J, Ascherio A, Rimm EB, et al. (1997) Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care 20, 545–550.
7Ludwig DS (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287, 2414–2423.
8Stevenson EJ, Williams C, Mash LE, et al. (2006) Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent excercise in women. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 354–360.
9Pereira MA, Swain J, Goldfine AB, et al. (2004) Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA 292, 2482–2490.
10Augustin LS, Franceschi S, Jenkins DJ, et al. (2002) Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 1049–1071.
11Nielsen BM, Bjornsbo KS, Tetens I, et al. (2005) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness. Br J Nutr 94, 992–997.
12Murakami K, Miyake Y, Sasaki S, et al. (2011) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to risk of overweight in Japanese children and adolescents: the Ryukyus Child Health Study. Int J Obes 35, 925–936.
13Barba G, Sieri S, Dello Russo M, et al. (2012) Glycaemic index and body fat distribution in children: the results of the ARCA project. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 22, 28–34.
14O'Sullivan TA, Lyons-Wall P, Bremner AP, et al. (2010) Dietary glycaemic carbohydrate in relation to the metabolic syndrome in adolescents: comparison of different metabolic syndrome definitions. Diabet Med 27, 770–778.
15Hui LL & Nelson EAS (2006) Meal glycaemic load of normal-weight and overweight Hong Kong children. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 220–227.
16Scaglioni S, Stival G & Giovannini M (2004) Dietary glycemic load, overall glycemic index, and serum insulin concentrations in healthy schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 339–340.
17Davis JN, Alexander KE, Ventura EE, et al. (2007) Associations of dietary sugar and glycemic index with adiposity and insulin dynamics in overweight Latino youth. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1331–1338.
18Buyken AE, Cheng G, Gunther ALB, et al. (2008) Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, added sugar intake, or fiber intake to the development of body composition between ages 2 and 7 y. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 755–762.
19Cheng G, Karaolis-Danckert N, Libuda L, et al. (2009) Relation of dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and fiber and whole-grain intakes during puberty to the concurrent development of percent body fat and body mass index. Am J Epidemiol 169, 667–677.
20Buyken AE, Dettmann W, Kersting M, et al. (2005) Glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the diet of healthy schoolchildren: trends from 1990 to 2002, contribution of different carbohydrate sources and relationships to dietary quality. Br J Nutr 94, 796–803.
21Louie JCY, Buyken AE, Heyer K, et al. (2011) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load among Australian children and adolescents. Br J Nutr 106, 1273–1282.
22Du H, van der A DL, van Bakel MM, et al. (2008) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 655–661.
23Mendez MA, Covas MI, Marrugat J, et al. (2009) Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 316–322.
24Schulz M, Liese AD, Mayer-Davis EJ, et al. (2005) Nutritional correlates of dietary glycaemic index: new aspects from a population perspective. Br J Nutr 94, 397–406.
25van Bakel MM, Kaaks R, Feskens EJ, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 4, S188–S205.
26Du H, van der A DL, van Bakel MM, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes 33, 1280–1288.
27Lau C, Toft U, Tetens I, et al. (2006) Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem? Am J Clin Nutr 84, 641–645.
28Livingstone MBE & Black AE (2003) Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr 133, Suppl. 3, 895S–920S.
29Subar AF, Kipnis V, Troiano RP, et al. (2003) Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: the OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol 158, 1–13.
30Rosell MS, Hellenius MLB, De Faire UH, et al. (2003) Associations between diet and the metabolic syndrome vary with the validity of dietary intake data. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 84–90.
31Heitmann BL & Lissner L (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals: is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 311, 986–989.
32Murakami K, Sasaki S, Takahashi Y, et al. (2008) Misreporting of dietary energy, protein, potassium and sodium in relation to body mass index in young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 111–118.
33Gregory J & Lowe S (2000) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Young People Aged 4 to 18 Years. vol. 1: Report of the Diet and Nutrition. London: The Stationery Office.
34Cole TJ, Freeman JV & Preece MA (1995) Body mass index reference curves for the UK, 1990. Arch Dis Child 73, 25–29.
35Ashwell M, Gunn P & Gibson S (2012) Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 13, 275–286.
36Smithers G (1993) MAFF's nutrient databank. Nutr Food Sci 93, 16–19.
37Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th ed.Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
38Louie JCY, Flood V, Turner N, et al. (2010) Methodology for adding glycemic index values to 24-hour recalls. Nutrition 27, 59–64.
39van Bakel MM, Slimani N, Feskens EJ, et al. (2009) Methodological challenges in the application of the glycemic index in epidemiological studies using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. J Nutr 139, 568–575.
40Flood A, Subar AF, Hull SG, et al. (2006) Methodology for adding glycemic load values to the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire database. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 393–402.
41Atkinson FS, Foster-Powell K & Brand-Miller JC (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31, 2281–2283.
42Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, et al. (2011) 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43, 1575–1581.
43Institute of Medicine (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
44Rennie KL, Jebb SA, Wright A, et al. (2005) Secular trends in under-reporting in young people. Br J Nutr 93, 241–247.
45Huang TT, Roberts SB, Howarth NC, et al. (2005) Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI. Obes Res 13, 1205–1217.
46Black AE & Cole TJ (2000) Within- and between-subject variation in energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water technique: implications for validating reported dietary energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 386–394.
47Willett WC, Howe GR & Kushi LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 4, 1220S–1228S.
48Mendez MA, Popkin BM, Buckland G, et al. (2011) Alternative methods of accounting for underreporting and overreporting when measuring dietary intake-obesity relations. Am J Epidemiol 173, 448–458.
49Prentice AM & Jebb SA (2001) Beyond body mass index. Obes Rev 2, 141–147.