Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

  • Alison O. Booth (a1), Catherine E. Huggins (a2), Naiyana Wattanapenpaiboon (a1) and Caryl A. Nowson (a1)
Abstract

This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials assessed the effect of Ca on body weight and body composition through supplementation or increasing dairy food intake. Forty-one studies met the inclusion criteria (including fifty-one trial arms; thirty-one with dairy foods (n 2091), twenty with Ca supplements (n 2711). Ca intake was approximately 900 mg/d higher in the supplement groups compared with control. In the dairy group, Ca intake was approximately 1300 mg/d. Ca supplementation did not significantly affect body weight (mean change ( − 0·17, 95 % CI − 0·70, 0·37) kg) or body fat (mean change ( − 0·19, 95 % CI − 0·51, 0·13) kg) compared to control. Similarly, increased dairy food intake did not affect body weight ( − 0·06, 95 % CI − 0·54, 0·43) kg or body fat change ( − 0·36, 95 % CI − 0·80, 0·09) kg compared to control. Sub-analyses revealed that dairy supplementation resulted in no change in body weight (nineteen studies, n 1010) ( − 0·32, 95 % CI − 0·93, 0·30 kg, P= 0·31), but a greater reduction in body fat (thirteen studies, n 564) ( − 0·96, 95 % CI − 1·46, − 0·46 kg, P < 0·001) in the presence of energy restriction over a mean of 4 months compared to control. Increasing dietary Ca intake by 900 mg/d as supplements or increasing dairy intake to approximately 3 servings daily (approximately 1300 mg of Ca/d) is not an effective weight reduction strategy in adults. There is, however, an indication that approximately 3 servings of dairy may facilitate fat loss on weight reduction diets in the short term.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of increasing dietary calcium through supplements and dairy food on body weight and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor C. A. Nowson, fax +61 3 9244 6017, email caryl.nowson@deakin.edu.au
References
Hide All
1 World Health Organization (2011) Obesity and Overweight. Geneva: WHO.
2 Thompson W, Holdman N, Janzow D, et al. (2005) Effect of energy-reduced diets high in dairy productes and fiber on weight loss in obese adults. Obes Res 13, 13441353.
3 Blackburn G (1995) Effect of degree of weight loss on health benefits. Obes Res 3, S211S216.
4 Shapses SA, Heshka S & Heymsfield SB (2004) Effect of calcium supplementation on weight and fat loss in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89, 632637.
5 Haub MD, Simons TR, Cook CM, et al. (2005) Calcium-fortified beverage supplementation on body composition in postmenopausal women. Nutr J 4, 21.
6 Barba G & Russo P (2006) Dairy foods, dietary calcium and obesity: a short review of the evidence. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 16, 445451.
7 Trowman R, Dumville JC, Hahn S, et al. (2006) A systematic review of the effects of calcium supplementation on body weight. Br J Nutr 95, 10331038.
8 Harvey-Berino J, Gold BC, Lauber R, et al. (2005) The impact of calcium and dairy product consumption on weight loss. Obes Res 13, 17201726.
9 Davies KM, Heaney RP, Recker RR, et al. (2000) Calcium intake and body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85, 46354638.
10 Loos RJ, Rankinen T, Leon AS, et al. (2004) Calcium intake is associated with adiposity in Black and White men and White women of the HERITAGE Family Study. J Nutr 134, 17721778.
11 Parikh SJ & Yanovski JA (2003) Calcium intake and adiposity. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 281287.
12 Major GC, Chaput JP, Ledoux M, et al. (2008) Recent developments in calcium-related obesity research. Obes Rev 9, 428445.
13 Christensen R, Lorenzen JK, Svith CR, et al. (2009) Effect of calcium from dairy and dietary supplements on faecal fat excretion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Obes Rev 10, 475486.
14 Jacobsen R, Lorenzen JK, Toubro S, et al. (2005) Effect of short-term high dietary calcium intake on 24-h energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and fecal fat excretion. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 292301.
15 Zemel MB (2003) Mechanisms of dairy modulation of adiposity. J Nutr 133, 252S256S.
16 Szollosi A, Nenquin M, Aguilar-Bryan L, et al. (2007) Glucose stimulates Ca2+ influx and insulin secretion in 2-week-old β-cells lacking ATP-sensitive K+ channels. J Biol Chem 282, 17471756.
17 Pereira MA, Jacobs DR Jr, Van Horn L, et al. (2002) Dairy consumption, obesity, and the insulin resistance syndrome in young adults: the CARDIA Study. JAMA 287, 20812089.
18 Yanovski JA, Parikh SJ, Yanoff LB, et al. (2009) Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and adiposity in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 150, 821829, W145-6.
19 Angeles-Agdeppa I, Capanzana MV, Li-Yu J, et al. (2010) High-calcium milk prevents overweight and obesity among postmenopausal women. Food Nutr Bull 31, 381390.
20 Onakpoya IJ, Perry R, Zhang J, et al. (2011) Efficacy of calcium supplementation for management of overweight and obesity: systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Nutr Rev 69, 335343.
21 Abargouei AS, Janghorbani M, Salehi-Marzijarani M, et al. (2012) Effect of dairy consumption on weight and body composition in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Int J Obes (Lond) 36, 14851493.
22 Chen M, Pan A, Malik VS, et al. (2012) Effects of dairy intake on body weight and fat: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 735747.
23 Dawson-Hughes B, Harris SS, Krall EA, et al. (1997) Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 337, 670676.
24 Teegarden D, White KM, Lyle RM, et al. (2008) Calcium and dairy product modulation of lipid utilization and energy expenditure. Obesity (Silver Spring) 16, 15661572.
25 Pittas AG, Harris SS, Stark PC, et al. (2007) The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults. Diabetes Care 30, 980986.
26 Moschonis G & Manios Y (2006) Skeletal site-dependent response of bone mineral density and quantitative ultrasound parameters following a 12-month dietary intervention using dairy products fortified with calcium and vitamin D: the Postmenopausal Health Study. Br J Nutr 96, 11401148.
27 Kruger MC, Booth CL, Coad J, et al. (2006) Effect of calcium fortified milk supplementation with or without vitamin K on biochemical markers of bone turnover in premenopausal women. Nutrition 22, 11201128.
28 Caan B, Neuhouser M, Aragaki A, et al. (2007) Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of postmenopausal weight gain. Arch Intern Med 167, 893902.
29 Gunther CW, Legowski PA, Lyle RM, et al. (2005) Dairy products do not lead to alterations in body weight or fat mass in young women in a 1-y intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 751756.
30 Manios Y, Moschonis G, Koutsikas K, et al. (2009) Changes in body composition following a dietary and lifestyle intervention trial: the postmenopausal health study. Maturitas 62, 5865.
31 Reid IR, Ames R, Mason B, et al. (2010) Effects of calcium supplementation on lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in healthy older men: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 131139.
32 Higgins JP & Green Se (2011) Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions: The Cochrane Collaboration . www.cochrane-handbook.org.
33 Barr SI, McCarron DA, Heaney RP, et al. (2000) Effects of increased consumption of fluid milk on energy and nutrient intake, body weight, and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 810817.
34 Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, et al. (2009) Introduction to Meta Analysis. Chicester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
35 Borenstein M & Higgins JP (2013) Meta-analysis and subgroups. Prev Sci 14, 134143.
36 World Health Organization (2008) Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993–2005. Geneva: WHO.
37 Zemel MB, Thompson W, Milstead A, et al. (2004) Calcium and dairy acceleration of weight and fat loss during energy restriction in obese adults. Obes Res 12, 582590.
38 Palacios C, Bertran JJ, Rios RE, et al. (2011) No effects of low and high consumption of dairy products and calcium supplements on body composition and serum lipids in Puerto Rican obese adults. Nutrition 27, 520525.
39 Smilowitz JT, Wiest MM, Teegarden D, et al. (2011) Dietary fat and not calcium supplementation or dairy product consumption is associated with changes in anthropometrics during a randomized, placebo-controlled energy-restriction trial. Nutr Metab (Lond) 8, 67.
40 Zemel MB, Teegarden D, Loan MV, et al. (2009) Dairy-rich diets augment fat loss on an energy-restricted diet: a multicenter trial. Nutrients 1, 83100.
41 Wagner G, Kindrick S, Hertzler S, et al. (2007) Effects of various forms of calcium on body weight and bone turnover markers in women participating in a weight loss program. J Am Coll Nutr 26, 456461.
42 Jensen LB, Kollerup G, Quaade F, et al. (2001) Bone minerals changes in obese women during a moderate weight loss with and without calcium supplementation. J Bone Miner Res 16, 141147.
43 Stancliffe RA, Thorpe T & Zemel MB (2011) Dairy attentuates oxidative and inflammatory stress in metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 94, 422430.
44 Witbracht MG, Van Loan M, Adams SH, et al. (2013) Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention. J Nutr 143, 4652.
45 Tanaka S, Uenishi K, Ishida H, et al. (2014) A randomized intervention trial of 24-wk dairy consumption on waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting blood sugar and lipids in Japanese men with metabolic syndrome. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 60, 305312.
46 Reid IR, Horne A, Mason B, et al. (2005) Effects of calcium supplementation on body weight and blood pressure in normal older women: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 38243829.
47 Winters-Stone KM & Snow CM (2004) One year of oral calcium supplementation maintains cortical bone density in young adult female distance runners. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 14, 717.
48 Major GC, Alarie FP, Dore J, et al. (2009) Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and fat mass loss in female very low-calcium consumers: potential link with a calcium-specific appetite control. Br J Nutr 101, 659663.
49 Dove ER, Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, et al. (2009) Skim milk compared with a fruit drink acutely reduces appetite and energy intake in overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 7075.
50 Tsuchiya A, Almiron-Roig E, Lluch A, et al. (2006) Higher satiety ratings following yogurt consumption relative to fruit drink or dairy fruit drink. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 550557.
51 Wycherley TP, Moran LJ, Clifton PM, et al. (2012) Effects of energy-restricted high-protein, low-fat compared with standard-protein, low-fat diets: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 96, 12811298.
52 Bendtsen LQ, Lorenzen JK, Bendsen NT, et al. (2013) Effect of dairy proteins on appetite, energy expenditure, body weight, and composition: a review of the evidence from controlled clinical trials. Adv Nutr 4, 418438.
53 Tremblay A & Gilbert JA (2011) Human obesity: is insufficient calcium/dairy intake part of the problem? J Am Coll Nutr 30, 449S453S.
54 Rosenblum JL, Castro VM, Moore CE, et al. (2012) Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 101108.
55 Booth AO & Nowson CA (2013) Food choices that achieve calcium adequacy in older women. Nutr Diet 70, 300306.
56 Shalileh M, Shidfar F, Haghani H, et al. (2010) The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet. J Res Med Sci 15, 191201.
57 Zhu W, Cai D, Wang Y, et al. (2013) Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated fat loss in overweight and obese college students with very-low calcium consumption: a randomized controlled trial. Nutr J 12, 8.
58 Bowen J, Noakes M & Clifton PM (2004) A high dairy protein, high-calcium diet minimizes bone turnover in overweight adults during weight loss. J Nutr 134, 568573.
59 Frestedt JL, Zenk JL, Kuskowski MA, et al. (2008) A whey-protein supplement increases fat loss and spares lean muscle in obese subjects: a randomized human clinical study. Nutr Metab (Lond) 5, 8.
60 Gilbert JA, Joanisse DR, Chaput JP, et al. (2011) Milk supplementation facilitates appetite control in obese women during weight loss: a randomised, single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr 105, 133143.
61 Jones KW, Eller LK, Parnell JA, et al. (2013) Effect of a dairy- and calcium-rich diet on weight loss and appetite during energy restriction in overweight and obese adults: a randomized trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 371376.
62 Josse AR, Atkinson SA, Tarnopolsky MA, et al. (2011) Increased consumption of dairy foods and protein during diet- and exercise-induced weight loss promotes fat mass loss and lean mass gain in overweight and obese premenopausal women. J Nutr 141, 16261634.
63 Rosado JL, Garcia OP, Ronquillo D, et al. (2011) Intake of milk with added micronutrients increases the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet to reduce body weight: a randomized controlled clinical trial in Mexican women. J Am Diet Assoc 111, 15071516.
64 Thomas DT, Wideman L & Lovelady CA (2010) Effects of calcium and resistance exercise on body composition in overweight premenopausal women. J Am Coll Nutr 29, 604611.
65 Torres MR, Francischetti EA, Genelhu V, et al. (2010) Effect of a high-calcium energy-reduced diet on abdominal obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese Brazilian subjects. Int J Clin Pract 64, 10761083.
66 Torres MR & Sanjuliani AF (2013) Effects of weight loss from a high-calcium energy-reduced diet on biomarkers of inflammatory stress, fibrinolysis, and endothelial function in obese subjects. Nutrition 29, 143151.
67 Van Loan MD, Keim NL, Adams SH, et al. (2011) Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight, and intra-abdominal adipose tissue losses nor reduce adipocyte size or inflammatory markers in overweight and obese adults: a controlled feeding study. J Obes 2011, 989657.
68 Zemel MB, Richards J, Mathis S, et al. (2005) Dairy augmentation of total and central fat loss in obese subjects. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 391397.
69 Chee WS, Suriah AR, Chan SP, et al. (2003) The effect of milk supplementation on bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women in Malaysia. Osteoporos Int 14, 828834.
70 Crichton GE, Murphy KJ, Howe PR, et al. (2012) Dairy consumption and working memory performance in overweight and obese adults. Appetite 59, 3440.
71 Kukuljan S, Nowson CA, Bass SL, et al. (2009) Effects of a multi-component exercise program and calcium–vitamin-D3-fortified milk on bone mineral density in older men: a randomised controlled trial. Osteoporos Int 20, 12411251.
72 Lau EM, Woo J, Lam V, et al. (2001) Milk supplementation of the diet of postmenopausal Chinese women on a low calcium intake retards bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 16, 17041709.
73 Wennersberg MH, Smedman A, Turpeinen AM, et al. (2009) Dairy products and metabolic effects in overweight men and women: results from a 6-mo intervention study. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 960968.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Booth supplementary material
Supplementary Figures

 Word (24 KB)
24 KB
WORD
Supplementary materials

Booth supplementary material
Booth supplementary material 1

 Word (15 KB)
15 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 67
Total number of PDF views: 422 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 735 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.