This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1PC Calder (2002) Dietary modification of inflammation with lipids. Proc Nutr Soc 61, 345–358.
2H Li , XZ Ruan , SH Powis , (2005) EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism. Kidney Int 67, 867–874.
3M Itoh , T Suganami , N Satoh , (2007) Increased adiponectin secretion by highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid in rodent models of obesity and human obese subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27, 1918–1925.
4M Kabir , G Skurnik , N Naour , (2007) Treatment for 2 mo with n 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids reduces adiposity and some atherogenic factors but does not improve insulin sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled study. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 1670–1679.
7RJ Woodman , TA Mori , V Burke , (2002) Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 1007–1015.
8MH Davidson (2006) Mechanisms for the hypotriglyceridemic effect of marine omega-3 fatty acids. Am J Cardiol 98, 27i–33i.
9M Yokoyama , H Origasa , M Matsuzaki , (2007) Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 369, 1090–1098.
10LH Storlien , LA Baur , AD Kriketos , (1996) Dietary fats and insulin action. Diabetologia 39, 621–631.
11AS Rossi , YB Lombardo , JM Lacorte , (2005) Dietary fish oil positively regulates plasma leptin and adiponectin levels in sucrose-fed, insulin-resistant rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 289, R486–R494.
12DB Jump (2002) The biochemistry of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Biol Chem 277, 8755–8758.
13J Plutzky (2003) The potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol 92, 34J–41J.
14Y Zhao , S Joshi-Barve , S Barve , (2004) Eicosapentaenoic acid prevents LPS-induced TNF-alpha expression by preventing NF-kappaB activation. J Am Coll Nutr 23, 71–78.
15O Ziouzenkova & J Plutzky (2004) Lipolytic PPAR activation: new insights into the intersection of triglycerides and inflammation? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 7, 369–375.
16JS Yudkin , CD Stehouwer , JJ Emeis , (1999) C-reactive protein in healthy subjects: associations with obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction: a potential role for cytokines originating from adipose tissue? Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 972–978.
17PA Tataranni & E Ortega (2005) A burning question: does an adipokine-induced activation of the immune system mediate the effect of overnutrition on type 2 diabetes? Diabetes 54, 917–927.
19PJ Havel (2004) Update on adipocyte hormones: regulation of energy balance and carbohydrate/lipid metabolism. Diabetes 53, Suppl. 1, S143–S151.
20S Neschen , K Morino , JC Rossbacher , (2006) Fish oil regulates adiponectin secretion by a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-dependent mechanism in mice. Diabetes 55, 924–928.
21RK Semple , VK Chatterjee & S O'Rahilly (2006) PPAR gamma and human metabolic disease. J Clin Invest 116, 581–589.
22ME D'Alessandro , YB Lombardo & A Chicco (2002) Effect of dietary fish oil on insulin sensitivity and metabolic fate of glucose in the skeletal muscle of normal rats. Ann Nutr Metab 46, 114–120.
23MJ Holness , GK Greenwood , ND Smith , (2003) Diabetogenic impact of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids on pancreatic beta-cell function and the regulation of endogenous glucose production. Endocrinology 144, 3958–3968.
24MJ Holness , ND Smith , GK Greenwood , (2004) Acute omega-3 fatty acid enrichment selectively reverses high-saturated fat feeding-induced insulin hypersecretion but does not improve peripheral insulin resistance. Diabetes 53, Suppl. 1, S166–S171.
25VM Montori , A Farmer , PC Wollan , (2000) Fish oil supplementation in type 2 diabetes: a quantitative systematic review. Diabetes Care 23, 1407–1415.
26D Faeh , K Minehira , JM Schwarz , (2005) Effect of fructose overfeeding and fish oil administration on hepatic de novo lipogenesis and insulin sensitivity in healthy men. Diabetes 54, 1907–1913.
27IL Mostad , KS Bjerve , MR Bjorgaas , (2006) Effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reduction of insulin sensitivity and time-dependent alteration from carbohydrate to fat oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 540–550.
28BP Cummings , EK Digitale , KL Stanhope , (2008) Development and characterization of a novel rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the UC Davis type 2 diabetes mellitus UCD-T2DM rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 295, R1782–R1793.
31SC Griffen , J Wang & MS German (2001) A genetic defect in beta-cell gene expression segregates independently from the fa locus in the ZDF rat. Diabetes 50, 63–68.
32R Bergeron , J Yao , JW Woods , (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonism prevents the onset of type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: a comparison with PPAR gamma agonism. Endocrinology 147, 4252–4262.
33P Yaqoob & P Calder (1995) Effects of dietary lipid manipulation upon inflammatory mediator production by murine macrophages. Cell Immunol 163, 120–128.
36S Neschen , K Morino , J Dong , (2007) n-3 Fatty acids preserve insulin sensitivity in vivo in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-dependent manner. Diabetes 56, 1034–1041.
37G Annuzzi , A Rivellese , B Capaldo , (1991) A controlled study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid and glucose metabolism in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Atherosclerosis 87, 65–73.
38B Vessby & M Boberg (1990) Dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids may impair glucose homeostasis in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Intern Med 228, 165–171.
39B Vessby , B Karlstrom , M Boberg , (1992) Polyunsaturated fatty acids may impair blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 9, 126–133.
40DW Dunstan , TA Mori , IB Puddey , (1997) The independent and combined effects of aerobic exercise and dietary fish intake on serum lipids and glycemic control in NIDDM. A randomized controlled study. Diabetes Care 20, 913–921.
41PJ Randle (1998) Regulatory interactions between lipids and carbohydrates: the glucose fatty acid cycle after 35 years. Diabetes Metab Rev 14, 263–283.
42A Pawar , D Botolin , DJ Mangelsdorf , (2003) The role of liver X receptor-alpha in the fatty acid regulation of hepatic gene expression. J Biol Chem 278, 40736–40743.
43RK Berge , L Madsen , H Vaagenes , (1999) In contrast with docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and hypolipidaemic derivatives decrease hepatic synthesis and secretion of Triacylglycerol by decreased diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity and stimulation of fatty acid oxidation. Biochem J Pt 1, 343, 191–197.
44F Blaschke , Y Takata , E Caglayan , (2006) Obesity, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, and atherosclerosis in type 2 diabetes. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 28–40.
46YC Long & JR Zierath (2006) AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in metabolic regulation. J Clin Invest 116, 1776–1783.
47JJ Lara , M Economou , AM Wallace , (2007) Benefits of salmon eating on traditional and novel vascular risk factors in young, non-obese healthy subjects. Atherosclerosis 193, 213–221.
48M Kratz , MM Swarbrick , HS Callahan , (2008) Effect of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentrations in overweight to moderately obese men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 347–353.
49M Gillam , A Noto , P Zahradka , (2009) Improved n-3 fatty acid status does not modulate insulin resistance in fa/fa Zucker rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 81, 331–339.