Skip to main content

Effect of the fat composition of a single high-fat meal on inflammatory markers in healthy young women

  • Mari C. W. Myhrstad (a1), Ingunn Narverud (a1) (a2), Vibeke H. Telle-Hansen (a1) (a2), Toni Karhu (a3), Daniel Bødtker Lund (a1), Karl-Heinz Herzig (a3), Markus Makinen (a3), Bente Halvorsen (a4) (a5), Kjetil Retterstøl (a6), Bente Kirkhus (a7) (a8), Linda Granlund (a7), Kirsten B. Holven (a2) and Stine M. Ulven (a1)...

The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a single high-fat meal with different fat quality on circulating inflammatory markers and gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to elucidate the role of fat quality on postprandial inflammation. A postprandial study with fourteen healthy females consuming three test meals with different fat quality was performed. Test days were separated by 2 weeks. Fasting and postprandial blood samples at 3 and 6 h after intake were analysed. The test meal consisted of three cakes enriched with coconut fat (43 % energy as saturated fat and 1 % energy as α-linolenic acid (ALA)), linseed oil (14 % energy as ALA and 30 % energy as saturated fat) and cod liver oil (5 % energy as EPA and DHA and 5 % energy as ALA in addition to 31 % energy as saturated fat). In addition, ex vivo PBMC experiments were performed in eight healthy subjects investigating the effects of EPA and ALA on release and gene expression of inflammatory markers. The IL-8 mRNA level was significantly increased after intake of the cod liver oil cake at 6 h compared with fasting level, which was significantly different from the effect observed after the intake of linseed cake. In contrast, no effect was seen on circulating level of IL-8. In addition, ALA and EPA were shown to elicit different effects on the release and mRNA expression levels of inflammatory markers in PBMC cultured ex vivo, with EPA having the most prominent pro-inflammatory potential.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Effect of the fat composition of a single high-fat meal on inflammatory markers in healthy young women
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Effect of the fat composition of a single high-fat meal on inflammatory markers in healthy young women
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Effect of the fat composition of a single high-fat meal on inflammatory markers in healthy young women
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Stine Marie Ulven, fax +47 64 849002, email
Hide All
1 Hyson D, Rutledge JC & Berglund L (2003) Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep 5, 437444.
2 Roche HM & Gibney MJ (2000) Effect of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 232S237S.
3 Kobayashi J, Saito Y, Taira K, et al. (2001) Effect of apolipoprotein E3/4 phenotype on postprandial triglycerides and retinyl palmitate metabolism in plasma from hyperlipidemic subjects in Japan. Atherosclerosis 154, 539546.
4 Cardona F, Morcillo S, Gonzalo-Marin M, et al. (2005) The apolipoprotein E genotype predicts postprandial hypertriglyceridemia in patients with the metabolic syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 29722975.
5 Murphy MC, Isherwood SG, Sethi S, et al. (1995) Postprandial lipid and hormone responses to meals of varying fat contents: modulatory role of lipoprotein lipase? Eur J Clin Nutr 49, 578588.
6 Cohen JC, Noakes TD & Benade AJ (1988) Serum triglyceride responses to fatty meals: effects of meal fat content. Am J Clin Nutr 47, 825827.
7 Zampelas A, Murphy M, Morgan LM, et al. (1994) Postprandial lipoprotein lipase, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals of different fatty acid composition: comparison of saturated, n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eur J Clin Nutr 48, 849858.
8 Giannattasio C, Zoppo A, Gentile G, et al. (2005) Acute effect of high-fat meal on endothelial function in moderately dyslipidemic subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25, 406410.
9 Berry SE, Tucker S, Banerji R, et al. (2008) Impaired postprandial endothelial function depends on the type of fat consumed by healthy men. J Nutr 138, 19101914.
10 van Oostrom AJ, Rabelink TJ, Verseyden C, et al. (2004) Activation of leukocytes by postprandial lipemia in healthy volunteers. Atherosclerosis 177, 175182.
11 Margioris AN (2009) Fatty acids and postprandial inflammation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 12, 129137.
12 Burdge GC & Calder PC (2005) Plasma cytokine response during the postprandial period: a potential causal process in vascular disease? Br J Nutr 93, 39.
13 Libby P (2002) Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Nature 420, 868874.
14 Kliewer SA, Sundseth SS, Jones SA, et al. (1997) Fatty acids and eicosanoids regulate gene expression through direct interactions with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α and γ. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 43184323.
15 Erridge C & Samani NJ (2009) Saturated fatty acids do not directly stimulate Toll-like receptor signaling. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29, 19441949.
16 Wong SW, Kwon MJ, Choi AM, et al. (2009) Fatty acids modulate Toll-like receptor 4 activation through regulation of receptor dimerization and recruitment into lipid rafts in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. J Biol Chem 284, 2738427392.
17 Hong C & Tontonoz P (2008) Coordination of inflammation and metabolism by PPAR and LXR nuclear receptors. Curr Opin Genet Dev 18, 461467.
18 Poppitt SD, Keogh GF, Lithander FE, et al. (2008) Postprandial response of adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and C-reactive protein to a high-fat dietary load. Nutrition 24, 322329.
19 Payette C, Blackburn P, Lamarche B, et al. (2009) Sex differences in postprandial plasma tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Metabolism 58, 15931601.
20 Pacheco YM, Lopez S, Bermudez B, et al. (2008) A meal rich in oleic acid beneficially modulates postprandial sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 in normotensive and hypertensive hypertriglyceridemic subjects. J Nutr Biochem 19, 200205.
21 Jimenez-Gomez Y, Lopez-Miranda J, Blanco-Colio LM, et al. (2009) Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men. Atherosclerosis 204, 7076.
22 Bouwens M, Grootte BM, Jansen J, et al. (2010) Postprandial dietary lipid-specific effects on human peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 208217.
23 Camargo A, Ruano J, Fernandez JM, et al. (2010) Gene expression changes in mononuclear cells in patients with metabolic syndrome after acute intake of phenol-rich virgin olive oil. BMC Genomics 11, 253.
24 Council of Europe (2008) The European Pharmacopoeia 2008, 6th ed., supplement 6.3. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.
25 Lehto SM, Niskanen L, Herzig KH, et al. (2010) Serum chemokine levels in major depressive disorder. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35, 226232.
26 Livak KJ & Schmittgen TD (2001) Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. Methods 25, 402408.
27 Myhrstad MC, Retterstol K, Telle-Hansen VH, et al. (2011) Effect of marine n-3 fatty acids on circulating inflammatory markers in healthy subjects and subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Inflamm Res 60, 309319.
28 Basu A, Devaraj S & Jialal I (2006) Dietary factors that promote or retard inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26, 9951001.
29 Bouwens M, van de Rest O, Dellschaft N, et al. (2009) Fish-oil supplementation induces antiinflammatory gene expression profiles in human blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr 90, 415424.
30 Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, et al. (2005) Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336, 909917.
31 Rokling-Andersen MH, Rustan AC, Wensaas AJ, et al. (2009) Marine n-3 fatty acids promote size reduction of visceral adipose depots, without altering body weight and composition, in male Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet. Br J Nutr 102, 9951006.
32 Bellido C, Lopez-Miranda J, Blanco-Colio LM, et al. (2004) Butter and walnuts, but not olive oil, elicit postprandial activation of nuclear transcription factor κB in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy men. Am J Clin Nutr 80, 14871491.
33 Bouwens M, Afman LA & Muller M (2007) Fasting induces changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles related to increases in fatty acid β-oxidation: functional role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 15151523.
34 Riordan SM, Skinner N, Nagree A, et al. (2003) Peripheral blood mononuclear cell expression of toll-like receptors and relation to cytokine levels in cirrhosis. Hepatology 37, 11541164.
35 Lee JY, Plakidas A, Lee WH, et al. (2003) Differential modulation of Toll-like receptors by fatty acids: preferential inhibition by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Lipid Res 44, 479486.
36 Krey G, Braissant O, L'Horset F, et al. (1997) Fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic agents identified as ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors by coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay. Mol Endocrinol 11, 779791.
37 Toborek M, Lee YW, Garrido R, et al. (2002) Unsaturated fatty acids selectively induce an inflammatory environment in human endothelial cells. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 119125.
38 Hennig B, Meerarani P, Ramadass P, et al. (2000) Fatty acid-mediated activation of vascular endothelial cells. Metabolism 49, 10061013.
39 Dooper MM, van RB, Graus YM, et al. (2003) Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid inhibits tumour necrosis factor-α production by human leucocytes independently of cyclooxygenase activity. Immunology 110, 348357.
40 Ulven SM, Kirkhus B, Lamglait A, et al. (2011) Metabolic effects of krill oil are essentially similar to those of fish oil but at lower dose of EPA and DHA, in healthy volunteers. Lipids 46, 3746.
41 Adolphe JL, Whiting SJ, Juurlink BH, et al. (2010) Health effects with consumption of the flax lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside. Br J Nutr 103, 929938.
42 Tulk HM & Robinson LE (2009) Modifying the n-6/n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio of a high-saturated fat challenge does not acutely attenuate postprandial changes in inflammatory markers in men with metabolic syndrome. Metabolism 58, 17091716.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 28
Total number of PDF views: 165 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 316 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 19th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.