Skip to main content


  • Access
  • Cited by 24
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Lee, In-Seon Preissl, Hubert Giel, Katrin Schag, Kathrin and Enck, Paul 2018. Attentional and physiological processing of food images in functional dyspepsia patients: A pilot study. Scientific Reports, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Eudave, Deseree M. BeLow, McKenna N. and Flandreau, Elizabeth I. 2018. Effects of high fat or high sucrose diet on behavioral-response to social defeat stress in mice. Neurobiology of Stress, Vol. 9, Issue. , p. 1.

    Xu, Su Zhu, Wenjun Wan, Yamin Wang, JiaBei Chen, Xi Pi, Liya Lobo, Mary Kay Ren, Bin Ying, Zhekang Morris, Michael and Cao, Qi 2018. Decreased Taurine and Creatine in the Thalamus May Relate to Behavioral Impairments in Ethanol-Fed Mice: A Pilot Study of Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Molecular Imaging, Vol. 17, Issue. , p. 153601211774905.

    Yang, Weichun Shen, Ziyi Wen, Sixian Wang, Wei and Hu, Minyu 2018. Mechanisms of multiple neurotransmitters in the effects of Lycopene on brain injury induced by Hyperlipidemia. Lipids in Health and Disease, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,

    Santos, Carla J. Ferreira, Adaliene V. M. Oliveira, Ana L. Oliveira, Marina C. Gomes, Julia S. and Aguiar, Daniele C. 2018. Carbohydrate-enriched diet predispose to anxiety and depression-like behavior after stress in mice. Nutritional Neuroscience, Vol. 21, Issue. 1, p. 33.

    Son, Eunjung Kim, Seung-Hyung Yang, Won-Kyung Kim, Dong-Seon and Cha, Jimin 2017. Antiplatelet mechanism of an herbal mixture prepared from the extracts of Phyllostachys pubescens leaves and Prunus mume fruits. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol. 17, Issue. 1,

    Bunney, P.E. Zink, A.N. Holm, A.A. Billington, C.J. and Kotz, C.M. 2017. Orexin activation counteracts decreases in nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) caused by high-fat diet. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 176, Issue. , p. 139.

    Ying, Changjiang Mao, Yizhen Chen, Lei Wang, Shanshan Ling, Hongwei Li, Wei and Zhou, Xiaoyan 2017. Bamboo leaf extract ameliorates diabetic nephropathy through activating the AKT signaling pathway in rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Vol. 105, Issue. , p. 1587.

    Davis, Daniel J. Hecht, Patrick M. Jasarevic, Eldin Beversdorf, David Q. Will, Matthew J. Fritsche, Kevin and Gillespie, Catherine H. 2017. Sex-specific effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the microbiome and behavior of socially-isolated mice. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Vol. 59, Issue. , p. 38.

    Guimarães, Ernesto da Silveira Goulart de Caires Júnior, Luiz Carlos Musso, Camila Manso Macedo de Almeida, Mariana Gonçalves, Cássio Francisco Pettersen, Klaus Grossi Paes, Santiago Tavares González Garcia, Raúl Marcel de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cesar Torrezan, Rosana Mourao-Júnior, Carlos Alberto and Andreazzi, Ana Eliza 2017. Altered behavior of adult obese rats by monosodium l-glutamate neonatal treatment is related to hypercorticosteronemia and activation of hypothalamic ERK1 and ERK2. Nutritional Neuroscience, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 153.

    Ganji, Ahmad Salehi, Iraj Sarihi, Abdolrahman Shahidi, Siamak and Komaki, Alireza 2017. Effects of Hypericum Scabrum extract on anxiety and oxidative stress biomarkers in rats fed a long-term high-fat diet. Metabolic Brain Disease, Vol. 32, Issue. 2, p. 503.

    Forsatkar, Mohammad Navid Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali Rafiee, Gholamreza Farahmand, Hamid and Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo 2017. Effects of prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide on the growth, survival, and anxiety-like behaviors of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Journal of Applied Aquaculture, Vol. 29, Issue. 2, p. 183.

    Wang, Shuting Yu, Yinghua Feng, Yan Zou, Fang Zhang, Xiaofei Huang, Jie Zhang, Yuyun Zheng, Xian Huang, Xu-Feng Zhu, Yufu and Liu, Yi 2016. Protective effect of the orientin on noise-induced cognitive impairments in mice. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 296, Issue. , p. 290.

    Woloszynek, S. Pastor, S. Mell, J.C. Nandi, N. Sokhansanj, B. and Rosen, G.L. 2016. Vol. 324, Issue. , p. 67.

    Krishna, Saritha Lin, Zhoumeng de La Serre, Claire B. Wagner, John J. Harn, Donald H. Pepples, Lacey M. Djani, Dylan M. Weber, Matthew T. Srivastava, Leena and Filipov, Nikolay M. 2016. Time-dependent behavioral, neurochemical, and metabolic dysregulation in female C57BL/6 mice caused by chronic high-fat diet intake. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 157, Issue. , p. 196.

    Zemdegs, Juliane Quesseveur, Gaël Jarriault, David Pénicaud, Luc Fioramonti, Xavier and Guiard, Bruno P. 2016. High-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders impairs 5-HT function and anxiety-like behavior in mice. British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 173, Issue. 13, p. 2095.

    Luna, Ruth Ann and Foster, Jane A 2015. Gut brain axis: diet microbiota interactions and implications for modulation of anxiety and depression. Current Opinion in Biotechnology, Vol. 32, Issue. , p. 35.

    Jun, Panee 2015. Potential medicinal application and toxicity evaluation of extracts from bamboo plants. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, Vol. 9, Issue. 23, p. 681.

    Sivanathan, Shathveekan Thavartnam, Kabriya Arif, Shahneen Elegino, Trisha and McGowan, Patrick O. 2015. Chronic high fat feeding increases anxiety-like behaviour and reduces transcript abundance of glucocorticoid signalling genes in the hippocampus of female rats. Behavioural Brain Research, Vol. 286, Issue. , p. 265.

    Shannonhouse, John L. Grater, Danielle M. York, Daniel Wellman, Paul J. and Morgan, Caurnel 2015. Sex differences in motivational responses to dietary fat in Syrian hamsters. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 147, Issue. , p. 102.



      • Send article to Kindle

        To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

        Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

        Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

        Effects of a high-fat diet and bamboo extract supplement on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice
        Available formats
        Send article to Dropbox

        To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

        Effects of a high-fat diet and bamboo extract supplement on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice
        Available formats
        Send article to Google Drive

        To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

        Effects of a high-fat diet and bamboo extract supplement on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice
        Available formats
Export citation


High-fat diet is a major causative factor of overweight and obesity, which are associated with an increased risk of neuropsychiatric diseases, such as anxiety and depression. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of bamboo extract (BEX) on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice treated with a high-fat diet. Male mice with CD-1 genetic background were treated for 2 months with either a standard or a high-fat diet (10 or 45 % energy from fat, respectively), with or without the BEX supplement (11 g dry mass per 17 MJ). The anxiety levels of mice were evaluated using open-field and hole-board tests, and depression was measured using the force-swimming test. The anxiety responses of the animals were found significantly increased after the high-fat diet treatment, and this elevation was effectively abolished by the BEX supplement. The high-fat diet seemed to have an anti-depressive effect in mice at the tested time point, but the effect of the BEX supplement on the depression level of the animals was not conclusive. The high-fat diet significantly decreased total glutathione content in the blood while the BEX supplement increased glutathione oxidation. In summary, the present study shows that decreased total glutathione concentration in the blood co-occurred with a high-fat treatment, high anxiety level and low depression level in mice, and when supplemented in a high-fat diet, BEX had an anxiolytic effect in mice.

Increased dietary fat intake is a major causative factor of obesity and overweight(1), which are associated with psychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression observed in both human subjects and rodents(25). A chronic high-fat diet has been shown to impair the function of brain by increasing oxidative stress(6, 7), inflammation(8) and inducing insulin resistance(9). However, a keyword-guided Pubmed literature search indicates that currently among hundreds of thousands of publications on ‘high fat diet’, ‘obesity’ or ‘overweight’, only 4–5 % are relevant to ‘brain’, implicating that the influences of these factors on the brain remain an under-investigated field. Therefore, it is not surprising that few therapeutic strategies targeting at this link have been developed.

Materials derived from bamboo plants have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat various diseases(10). Phyllostachys edulis, also known as Moso or Maozhu, is one of the fastest growing plants in the world. It is a ‘running bamboo’ with a large biomass and a wide geographical distribution. Our previous studies have shown that an ethanolic extract derived from this bamboo ameliorates obesity-associated lipotoxicity and inflammation(1113). In the present study, we further investigated the influences of this bamboo extract (BEX) on anxiety- and depression-like neurobehaviours in mice treated with a high-fat diet.

Experimental methods

Bamboo extract

BEX used in the present study was provided by Golden Basin LLC. It is made from fresh leaves and small branches of bamboo (P. edulis), produced in Hunan Province, China, through a patented ethanol–water extraction procedure (Chinese invention patent, CN 1287848A). The raw material was adequately washed in water and dried in air, ground and filtered through screen ( < 20 mesh), and then went through infusion extraction in 70–90 % ethanol twice. The extract was filtered to remove particles, and concentrated by vacuuming. There was no excipient material added to the BEX. The manufacturer's measurement showed that the major composition of the raw BEX includes 50 % water, 20 % saccharides, 10 % protein and 20 % others. Our previous studies demonstrated that the anti-lipotoxicity function of BEX is in the ethanol-soluble fraction(12, 13). Phenolics constitute about 30 % (w/w) of the ethanol exactables, corresponding to about 6 % (w/w) of the total dry mass of BEX. Approximately one-third of the phenolics are flavonoids(14).


Male mice with CD-1 genetic background were purchased from Jackson Laboratories at 4 weeks, and housed five per cage in the Laboratory Animal Service Facility of University of Hawaii. Animals had access to water and food ad libitum. The room temperature was controlled at 20°C and lighting at 12 h intervals. All animal procedures have been approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Hawaii.

Dietary treatment

After 1 week of acclimatisation with regular rodent chow, mice were separated into four groups, with five in each group: (1) standard control (SC) group, fed a standard diet with 10 % energy from fat; (2) standard BEX (SB) group, fed the standard diet supplemented with BEX (11 g dry mass per 17 MJ); (3) high-fat control (HC) group, fed a high-fat diet with 45 % energy from fat; (4) high-fat BEX (HB) group, fed the high-fat diet supplemented with BEX. All diets were purchased from Research Diets. The dietary composition is listed in Table 1. Energy derived from BEX contributed to approximately 0·66 % of the total energy in the diet, and this minor portion is not reflected in Table 1. Body weight and food consumption were measured weekly.

Table 1 The composition of the diets used in the study

SC, standard control; SB, standard bamboo extract; HC, high-fat control; HB, high fat bamboo extract.

Glucose tolerance test

d-(+)-Glucose (Sigma) was dissolved in sterile water and delivered to each mouse via intraperitoneal injection at a dosage of 0·75 g/kg body weight after overnight fasting. Then, one drop of blood was collected by tail cut and blood glucose concentration was monitored at 0, 0·5, 1, 1·5 and 2 h after the glucose injection. The area under the curve was calculated to reflect the glucose tolerance status during the test. This test was carried out 10 d before the behavioural tests.

Open-field test

Using the open-field test to assess anxiety responses of rodents is based on a disinhibition of natural exploratory tendencies by anxiolytic treatments(15). An increase in locomotion or time spent in the central area of the open field without modifications of total locomotion and vertical exploration can be interpreted as an anxiolytic-like effect, while a decrease in these parameters is associated with anxiogenic effects. This test has been pharmacologically validated with classical benzodiazepines such as chlordiazepoxide and diazepam that are effective in the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder(16).

The dimension of the open field used in the present study was 46 cm × 46 cm × 36 cm, with opaque walls. At 0·5 h before the test, mice were transported into the test room, housed singly and protected from external perturbation. The lighting condition was adjusted to dim in the test room. Each animal was removed from the home cage and placed at the centre of the open field, a video camera was used to monitor the movement of the animals for 5 min, and data were analysed using the TSE videomot2 system (TSE Systems, Inc.). The apparatus was cleaned with Clidox and water, and dried with a paper towel between the tests.

Hole-board test

Similar to the open-field test, the hole-board test is also based on a disinhibition of natural exploratory tendencies by anxiolytic treatments(15). In this test, the number and duration of head dips have been found to increase dose-dependently upon treatments of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide, and decrease upon exposure to anxiogenic drugs(17). Non-anxiolytic categories of psychoactive drugs do not produce false positive results in this test(15). An open field of the same size as above but with clear Plexiglas walls was used. The floor was made of opaque Plexiglas with sixteen holes evenly distributed; each hole is 3·8 cm in diameter and 10 cm deep. Mice were prepared and released as described above. Each mouse was observed and videotaped for 5 min, and the frequency and duration of head dips were counted. The definition of ‘head dip’ is as follows: ‘the animal places its head into one of the holes to a minimum depth such that the ears are level with the floor of the apparatus’. The scoring procedure was not blinded; however, during the test, the operator was guided by an identification number on the cage of each mouse and tried not to associate the number with the dietary treatment of each subject. The apparatus was cleaned with Clidox and water, and dried with a paper towel between the tests.

Force swimming

The force-swimming test is commonly used for screening antidepressants(18). In this test, rodents are forced to swim in a narrow space from which there is no escape. The animals typically exhibit an initial period of vigorous activity, followed by adopting a characteristic immobile posture, which is interpreted as ‘behavioural despair’. In the present study, a glass baker (24 cm wide, 40 cm deep) was used as the test container. The baker was filled with room-temperature (22°C) water to half volume. The lighting condition in the testing room was adjusted to normal. Each mouse was prepared as described above and released into the water. The movement of the animals was observed and videotaped for 5 min and the immobility time was counted manually using a stopwatch. The water was changed after the test of each mouse. This test was repeated in two consecutive days. As with the hole-board test, the scoring procedure in the force-swimming test was not blinded but the operator tried not to pay attention to the type of dietary treatment of each subject. When the test was re-scored through the videotape, a similar result was obtained.

Measurements of total and oxidised glutathione

Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant thiol antioxidant and a sensitive maker of the redox status in mammalian cells. It exists in either reduced (GSH) or oxidised (GSSG) form. To evaluate the influences of the dietary factors on the systemic redox status of mice, blood was collected from the animals through tail cut after 2 months of dietary treatment. Total and GSSG were measured in lysed whole blood using the GSH/GSSG-412 assay kit (Oxis). The ratio of GSSG:total GSH was calculated as 2 × (GSSG)/(total GSH).

Statistical methods

Prism 4.0a (GraphPad Software, Inc.) was used for statistical analyses. Differences among the means were analysed using one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc Tukey's multiple comparison test, or two-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test. Two-way ANOVA was also used to analyse the influences of BEX, fat content and their interaction. P < 0·05 was considered statistically significant.


Energy intake and body weight

As shown in Table 2, the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet (HB) increased daily energy intake by 22 % in comparison with the HC. However, no difference in body weight was observed in these two groups. The BEX supplement in the standard diet did not affect energy intake or body weight in mice. The high-fat diet is a significant influential factor on both energy intake and body weight in these mice. Our previous studies have shown that the influence of BEX supplement on energy intake is species- and strain-dependent. For example, the BEX supplement in both the standard and high-fat diet did not affect energy intake or body weight in C57BL/6J mice(11). However, one of our unpublished studies showed that when fed to Fischer 344 rats, BEX increased energy intake from the standard diet by 16 % and from the high-fat diet by 19 %, and increased the body weight of these rats by 18 and 13 %, respectively. The mechanism behind these phenomena is to be further studied.

Table 2 Influences of dietary treatment on body weight, energy intake, glucose tolerance, systemic redox status and neurobehaviours of mice

(Mean values and standard deviations, n 5)

SC, standard control; SB, standard bamboo extract; HC, high-fat control; HB, high fat bamboo extract; BEX, bamboo extract; AUC, area under the curve; GSH, reduced glutathione; GSSG, oxidised glutathione.

a,b,c Mean values within a row with unlike superscript letters were significantly different (P < 0·05).

Glucose tolerance

As shown in Table 2, although the high-fat diet caused a significant increase in the body weight of mice, no differences were observed in fasting glucose levels and glucose tolerance (calculated as the area under the curve) among the four groups of mice. The result indicates that at this time point, the changes in body composition in mice have not started to affect glucose metabolism, which is an important sign of the onset of the metabolic syndrome.

Open-field test

In this test, the dietary treatment did not affect the horizontal and vertical locomotion of mice, as shown by the total travel distance and the number of rearing, respectively (Table 2). One-way ANOVA indicated that the number of visits to the central area among the four groups was similar. However, the HC group spent 33 % less time in the central area compared with the SC group, but this decrease was abolished when BEX was supplemented to the high-fat diet (HB). Furthermore, BEX in the high-fat diet also increased centre locomotion, i.e. the centre travel distance of the HB group was not only 68 % higher than the HC group, but also 30 % higher than the SC group. Two-way ANOVA showed that the BEX supplement significantly influenced the time spent and the distance travelled in the central area.

Hole-board test

As an anxiolytic marker, the number of head dips in the hole-board test decreased by 33 % in the HC group compared with the SC group, and the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet (HB) brought this reading back to the same level as SC. The duration of head dips showed more complicated changes, i.e. the high-fat diet dramatically decreased this reading ( − 86 %, HC v. SC), whereas the BEX supplement in the high-fat diet improved this outcome by 157 % (HB v. HC), but the same supplement in the standard diet caused a 68 % decrease (SB v. SC). The interaction between BEX and dietary fat content was highly significant, and the reason of this interaction is yet to be understood.

Force swimming

Previous publications have documented that mice treated with a high-fat diet had a higher level of depression(5). To our surprise, the force-swimming test in the present study showed that the high-fat diet significantly decreased the immobility time of mice, implicating a drop of depression level. On day 1 of the test, the combination of the high-fat diet and BEX (HB) resulted in the shortest immobility time, which equals to about one-fifth of that of SC, and about one-third of HC, implicating a potential further antidepressant effect of BEX in the context of the high-fat diet. When this test was repeated on day 2, dietary fat content remained a highly significant antidepressant factor, but the immobility time of the HB group was no longer different from the other groups, which may implicate a memory gain of the HB group from the experience in day 1.

Glutathione concentration in the whole blood

It has previously been reported that buthionine-S, R-sulfoximine-induced systemic GSH depletion resulted in elevated anxiety level in mice(19). In the present study, we used glutathione content in the blood as a biomarker to reflect the systemic redox status in mice. Table 2 shows that the high-fat treatment resulted in an over 60 % decrease in the total glutathione level in the blood, while the BEX supplement increased glutathione oxidation in general (+35 %), regardless of the dietary fat content. As a result, the rate of glutathione oxidation (GSSG:total GSH) was the highest in mice fed the BEX-supplemented high-fat diet.


The present study showed that a 2-month exposure of mice with CD-1 genetic background to a high level of saturated dietary fat moderately increased body weight (+14 %), but dramatically decreased glutathione concentration in the blood ( − 62 %), which co-occurred with an increase in anxiety in these animals. This observation is consistent with a previous publication that a chemically induced systemic glutathione depletion had an anxiogenic effect in mice(19). The correlation between anxiety and oxidative stress has recently been reviewed by Bouayed et al. (20). Contradictory to this widely reported correlation, the present study revealed that the BEX supplement ameliorated high-fat-induced anxiety yet resulted in the highest level of glutathione oxidation in the blood, implicating that the anxiolytic effect of BEX may be mediated through other pathway(s) than its antioxidant(14) function. In a recent review, the NF-κB pathway has been highlighted in the activation of inflammation in the central nervous system under the condition of overnutrition(21). Our previous publications have documented that BEX inhibits NF-κB and activator protein 1 (AP-1) activation and thus reduces peripheral production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mice treated with a high-fat diet and in cell-culture models mimicking such a condition(11, 12). Recent work has associated the anti-inflammatory effect of BEX with its flavonoid content (JK Higa, unpublished results). Therefore, it is possible that flavonoids in BEX can directly regulate the inflammatory status of the central nervous system, and/or influence the central nervous system through ameliorating peripheral inflammation. Furthermore, flavonoids have also been reported as a new family of benzodiazepine receptor ligands(22); however, this has not been studied in the context of a high-fat diet treatment.

So far, very few animal studies on mood and diet have been published. Buchenauer et al. (4) showed that treating Fischer 344 rats with a high-fat diet (35 % v. 4 % in the control diet) for 8 weeks significantly increased the anxiety level (hole-board test) of rats. In contrast, two short-term studies reported anxiolytic effects of a high-fat diet. Wistar rats fed a high-fat diet (63 % v. 21 % in the control) for 5 d(23) and Sprague–Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (90 % v. 5 % in the control) for 7 d both resulted in reduced anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test(24). It is therefore possible that prolonged treatment may convert a high-fat diet from an anxiolytic to an anxiogenic factor. The treatment in the present study is comparable to that used by Buchenauer et al. (4), i.e. an approximately 30 % increase in energy derived from fat for 8 weeks. Similarly, we also observed that the high-fat treatment for such a period of time increased anxiety levels of the animals.

The association between oxidative stress and depression has recently been reviewed by Hovatta et al. (25), and increased oxidative stress markers and decreased glutathione level in serum have been reported in human subjects with major depression. In contrast to these observations, the present study highlighted the co-occurrence of oxidative stress and decreased depression level in mice fed a high-fat diet. Furthermore, the highest glutathione oxidation rate in the HB group also coincided with the lowest depression level in these mice in the test on day 1. In light of previous publications, it seems that the length of a high-fat diet treatment may be a critical factor in the development of depression. For example, Yamada et al. (5) reported that treating C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet (60 % v. 12·6 % in the control) for 16 weeks increased the immobility time in the force-swimming test. However, Maniam & Morris(26) demonstrated an anti-depressive effect of an 8-week post-weaning high-fat diet treatment (32 % v. 12 % in the control) in Sprague–Dawley rats that experienced early-life stress induced by prolonged maternal separation. In the present study, the dietary fat content was higher than that used by Maniam & Morris, but the length of treatment was similar. This also indicates that short-term and long-term oxidative stress may have differential influences on mood.

Natural products have been extensively explored for their anxiolytic and anti-depressive effects, and the most recent examples include the use of neem leaf extract(27), lavender oil(28), Bacopa monniera and American ginseng(29). However, to the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first investigation on the psychiatric effect of a natural product in the context of a high-fat diet. In summary, the present study demonstrated a significant systemic redox shift caused by a high-fat diet treatment in mice, and the opposite changes in anxiety and depression levels in these animals. The BEX supplement in the high-fat diet showed significant anxiolytic effects, and the mechanism of this function needs further investigation.


We would like to thank the SEED/GPA programme at the University of Hawaii for sponsoring this study. Furthermore, this study was also supported by grants from the NCCAM (no. R21 AT003874 and R21 AT005139 to J. P.) and from the NCMHD (no. 5P20 MD000173-08). Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the funding agencies or the NIH. A. D. R. contributed to the behavioural tests and data analysis; M. M. M. contributed to the animal management and glutathione measurement; J. P. contributed to the study design, data analysis and writing of the manuscript. The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.


1Schrauwen, P & Westerterp, KR (2000) The role of high-fat diets and physical activity in the regulation of body weight. Br J Nutr 84, 417427.
2Scott, KM, Bruffaerts, R, Simon, GE, et al. (2008) Obesity and mental disorders in the general population: results from the world mental health surveys. Int J Obes 32, 192200.
3Simon, GE, Von Korff, M, Saunders, K, et al. (2006) Association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in the US adult population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 63, 824830.
4Buchenauer, T, Behrendt, P, Bode, FJ, et al. (2009) Diet-induced obesity alters behavior as well as serum levels of corticosterone in F344 rats. Physiol Behav 98, 563569.
5Yamada, N, Katsuura, G, Ochi, Y, et al. (2011) Impaired CNS leptin action is implicated in depression associated with obesity. Endocrinology 152, 26342643.
6Park, HR, Park, M, Choi, J, et al. (2010) A high-fat diet impairs neurogenesis: involvement of lipid peroxidation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Neurosci Lett 482, 235239.
7Dalla, Y, Singh, N, Jaggi, AS, et al. (2010) Memory restorative role of statins in experimental dementia: an evidence of their cholesterol dependent and independent actions. Pharmacol Rep 62, 784796.
8Pistell, PJ, Morrison, CD, Gupta, S, et al. (2010) Cognitive impairment following high fat diet consumption is associated with brain inflammation. J Neuroimmunol 219, 2532.
9McNay, EC, Ong, CT, McCrimmon, RJ, et al. (2010) Hippocampal memory processes are modulated by insulin and high-fat-induced insulin resistance. Neurobiol Learn Mem 93, 546553.
10Panee, J (2008) Bamboo extract in the prevention of diabetes and breast cancer. In Complementary and Alternative Therapies and the Aging Population: An Evidence-based Approach, chapter 9, pp. 159191 [Watson, RR, editor]. San Diego, CA: Elsevier.
11Higa, JK, Liu, W, Berry, MJ, et al. (2011) Supplement of bamboo extract lowers serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 concentration in mice fed a high fat diet. Br J Nutr 14(epublication ahead of print version 7 July 2011).
12Higa, JK & Panee, J (2011) Bamboo extract reduces interleukin 6 (IL-6) overproduction under lipotoxic conditions through inhibiting the activation of NFkappaB and AP-1 pathways. Cytokine 55, 1823.
13Panee, J, Liu, W, Lin, Y, et al. (2008) A novel function of bamboo extract in relieving lipotoxicity. Phytother Res 22, 675680.
14Lin, Y, Collier, A & Liu, W (2008) The inhibitory effect of bamboo extract on the development of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast cancer and its regulatory effect on sulfotransferase activity. Phytother Res 22, 14401522.
15Crawley, JN (1985) Exploratory behavior models of anxiety in mice. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 9, 3744.
16Prut, L & Belzung, C (2003) The open field as a paradigm to measure the effects of drugs on anxiety-like behaviors: a review. Eur J Pharmacol 463, 333.
17Takeda, H, Tsuji, M & Matsumiya, T (1998) Changes in head-dipping behavior in the hole-board test reflect the anxiogenic and/or anxiolytic state in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 350, 2129.
18Porsolt, RD, Brossard, G, Hautbois, C, et al. (2001) Rodent models of depression: forced swimming and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in rats and mice. Curr Protoc Neurosci Chapter 8, Unit 8, 10A.
19Masood, A, Nadeem, A, Mustafa, SJ, et al. (2008) Reversal of oxidative stress-induced anxiety by inhibition of phosphodiesterase-2 in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 326, 369379.
20Bouayed, J, Rammal, H & Soulimani, R (2009) Oxidative stress and anxiety: relationship and cellular pathways. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2, 6367.
21Cai, D (2009) NFkappaB-mediated metabolic inflammation in peripheral tissues versus central nervous system. Cell Cycle 8, 25422548.
22Medina, JH, Viola, H, Wolfman, C, et al. (1997) Overview-flavonoids: a new family of benzodiazepine receptor ligands. Neurochem Res 22, 419425.
23Alsiö, J, Roman, E, Olszewski, PK, et al. (2009) Inverse association of high-fat diet preference and anxiety-like behavior: a putative role for urocortin 2. Genes Brain Behav 8, 193202.
24Prasad, A & Prasad, C (1996) Short-term consumption of a diet rich in fat decreases anxiety response in adult male rats. Physiol Behav 60, 10391042.
25Hovatta, I, Juhila, J & Donner, J (2010) Oxidative stress in anxiety and comorbid disorders. Neurosci Res 68, 261275.
26Maniam, J & Morris, MJ (2010) Voluntary exercise and palatable high-fat diet both improve behavioural profile and stress responses in male rats exposed to early life stress: role of hippocampus. Psychoneuroendocrinology 35, 15531564.
27Thaxter, KA, Young, LE, Young, RE, et al. (2010) An extract of neem leaves reduces anxiety without causing motor side effects in an experimental model. West Indian Med J 59, 245248.
28Kasper, S, Gastpar, M, Müller, WE, et al. (2010) Efficacy and safety of silexan, a new, orally administered lavender oil preparation, in subthreshold anxiety disorder – evidence from clinical trials. Wien Med Wochenschr 160, 547556.
29Chatterjee, M, Verma, P & Palit, G (2010) Comparative evaluation of Bacopa monniera and Panax quniquefolium in experimental anxiety and depressive models in mice. Indian J Exp Biol 48, 306313.