1Rozner S & Garti N (2006) The activity and absorption relationship of cholesterol and phytosterols. Colloid Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 282–283, 435–456.
2Garcia-Cruset S, Carpenter KL, Guardiola F, Stein BK & Mitchinson MJ (2001) Oxysterol profiles of normal human arteries, fatty streaks and advanced lesions. Free Radic Res 35, 31–41.
3Miguet-Alfonsi C, Prunet C, Monier S, Bessède G, Lemaire-Ewing S, Berthier A, Ménétrier F, Néel D, Gambert P & Lizard G (2002) Analysis of oxidative processes and of myelin figures formation before and after the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential during 7β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis: comparison with various pro-apoptotic chemicals. Biochem Pharmacol 64, 527–541.
4Berthier A, Lemaire-Ewing S, Prunet C, et al. (2004) Involvement of a calcium-dependent dephosphorylation of BAD associated with the localization of Trpc-1 within lipid rafts in 7-ketocholesterol-induced THP-1 cell apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 11, 897–905.
5Berthier A, Lemaire-Ewing S, Prunet C, Montange T, Vejux A, Pais de Barros JP, Monier S, Gambert P, Lizard G & Néel D (2005) 7-Ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Involvement of several pro-apoptotic but also anti-apoptotic calcium-dependent transduction pathways. FEBS J 272, 3093–3104.
6Ryan L, O'Callaghan YC & O'Brien NM (2006) Involvement of calcium in 7β-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol-5β,6β-epoxide induced apoptosis. Int J Toxicol 25, 35–39.
7Prunet C, Lemaire-Ewing S, Ménétrier F, Néel D & Lizard G (2005) Activation of caspase-3-dependent and -independent pathways during 7-ketocholesterol- and 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death: a morphological and biochemical study. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 19, 311–326.
8Ryan L, O'Callaghan YC & O'Brien NM (2005) The role of the mitochondria in apoptosis induced by 7β-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol-5β,6β-epoxide. Br J Nutr 94, 519–525.
9Ryan L, O'Callaghan YC & O'Brien NM (2004) Generation of an oxidative stress precedes caspase activation during 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 18, 50–59.
10Lemaire-Ewing S, Prunet C, Montange T, Vejux A, Berthier A, Bessède G, Corcos L, Gambert P, Néel D & Lizard G (2005) Comparison of the cytotoxic, pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory characteristics of different oxysterols. Cell Biol Toxicol 21, 97–114.
11Hou L, Zhou B, Yang L & Liu Z (2004) Inhibition of human low density lipoprotein oxidation by flavonols and their glycosides. Chem Phys Lipids 129, 209–219.
12Matsui J, Kiyokawa N, Takenouchi H, et al. (2005) Dietary flavonoids induce apoptosis in human leukemia cells. Leuk Res 5, 573–581.
13Balasubramanian S, Zhu L & Eckert RL (2006) Apigenin inhibition of involucrin gene expression is associated with a specific reduction in phosphorylation of PKCδ-Y311. J Biol Chem 281, 36162–36172.
14Duthie GG, Duthie SJ & Kyle JAM (2000) Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev 13, 79–106.
15Rao AV & Agarwal S (1999) Role of lycopene as antioxidant carotenoid in the prevention of chronic diseases: a review. Nutr Res 19, 305–323.
16Weisburger JH (2002) Lycopene and tomato products in health promotion. Exp Biol Med 227, 924–927.
17Hadley CW, Clinton SK & Schwartz SJ (2003) The consumption of processed tomato products enhances plasma lycopene concentrations in association with a reduced lipoprotein sensitivity to oxidative damage. J Nutr 133, 727–732.
18Omoni AO & Aluko RE (2005) The anti-carcinogenic and anti-atherogenic effects of lycopene: a review. Trends Food Sci Tech 16, 344–350.
19Tapiero H, Townsend DM & Tew KD (2004) The role of carotenoids in the prevention of human pathologies. Biomed Pharmacother 58, 100–110.
20Kurashige M, Okimasu E, Inoue M & Utsumi K (1990) Inhibition of oxidative injury of biological membranes by astaxanthin. Physiol Chem Phys Med NMR 22, 27–38.
21Lowe GM, Vlismas K & Young AJ (2003) Carotenoids as prooxidants? Mol Aspects Med 24, 363–369.
22Lee KW & Lee HJ (2006) Biphasic effects of dietary antioxidants on oxidative stress-mediated carcinogenesis. Mech Aging Dev 127, 424–431.
23Lyons NM, Woods JA & O'Brien NM (2001) α-Tocopherol, but not γ-tocopherol inhibits 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced apoptosis in human U937 cells. Free Radic Res 35, 329–339.
24Aupeix K, Weltin D, Mejia JE, Christ M, Marchal J, Freyssinet J & Bischoff P (1995) Oxysterol-induced apoptosis in human monocytic cells. Immunobiology 194, 415–428.
25Lizard G, Gueldry S, Sordet O, Monier S, Athias A, Miguet C, Bessede G, Lemaire S, Solary E & Gambert P (1998) Glutathione is implied in the control of 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis, which is associated with radical oxygen species production. FASEB J 12, 1651–1663.
26Somanath PR, Razorenova OV, Chen J & Byzova TV (2006) Akt1 in endothelial cell and angiogenesis. Cell Cycle 5, 512–518.
27Song G, Ouyang G & Bao S (2005) The activation of Akt/PKB signaling pathway and cell survival. J Cell Mol Med 9, 59–71.
28Lee DK, Grantham RN, Mannion JD & Trachte AL (2006) Carotenoids enhance phosphorylation of Akt and suppress tissue factor activity in human endothelial cells. J Nutr Biochem 17, 780–786.
29Munteanu A, Taddei M, Tamburini I, Bergamini E, Azzi A & Zingg J-M (2006) Antagonistic effects of oxidized low density lipoprotein and α-tocopherol on CD36 scavenger receptor expression in monocytes. Involvement of protein kinase B and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. J Biol Chem 281, 6489–6497.
30Mowels JM (1990) Mycoplasma detection. In Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. V: Animal Cell Culture, pp. 65–74 [Pollard JW and Walker JM, editors]. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press.
31Strauss GHS (1991) Non-random cell killing in cryopreservation: implications for performance of the battery of leukocyte tests (BLT). I. Toxic and immunotoxic effects. Mutat Res 252, 1–15.
32Dubrez L, Savoy I, Hamman A & Solary E (1996) Pivotal role of a DEVD-sensitive step in etoposide-induced and Fas-mediated apoptotic pathways. EMBO J 15, 5504–5512.
33O'Callaghan YC, Woods JA & O'Brien NM (1999) Oxysterol-induced cell death in U937 and HepG2 cells at reduced and normal serum concentrations. Eur J Nutr 38, 255–262.
34Griffin RJ, Moloney A, Kelliher M, Johnston JA, Ravid R, Dockery P, O'Connor R & O'Neill C (2005) Activation of Akt/PKB, increased phosphorylation of Akt substrates and loss and altered distribution of Akt and PTEN are features of Alzheimer's disease pathology. J Neurochem 93, 105–117.
35Larsson DA, Baird S, Nyhalah JD, Yuan X-M & Li W (2006) Oxysterol mixtures, in atheroma-relevant proportions, display synergistic and proapoptotic effects. Free Radic Bio Med 41, 902–910.
36O'Callaghan YC, Woods JA & O'Brien NM (2001) Comparative study of the cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing potential of commonly occurring oxysterols. Cell Biol Toxicol 17, 127–137.
37Wang I-K, Lin-Shiau S-Y & Lin J-K (1999) Induction of apoptosis by apigenin and related flavonoids through cytochrome c release and activation of capase-9 and caspase-3 in leukaemia HL-60 cells. Eur J Canc 35, 1517–1525.
38Li W, Hellsten A, Jacobsson LS, Blomqvist HM, Olsson AG & Yuan X-M (2004) α-Tocopherol and astaxanthin decrease macrophage infiltration, apoptosis and vulnerability in atheroma of hyperlipidaemic rabbits. J Mol Cell Cardiol 37, 969–978.
39O'Callaghan YC, Woods JA & O'Brien NM (2002) Characteristics of 7β-hydroxycholesterol-induced cell death in a human monocytic blood cell line, U937 and a human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Toxicol In Vitro 16, 245–251.
40Zhou Q, Wasowicz E & Kummerow FA (1995) Failure of vitamin E to protect cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells against oxysterol-induced cytotoxicity. J Am Coll Nutr 14, 169–175.
41Lizard G, Miguet C, Bessède G, Monier S, Gueldry S, Néel D & Gambert P (2000) Impairment with various antioxidants of the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential and of the cytosolic release of cytochrome c occurring during 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med 28, 743–753.
42O'Sullivan AJ, O'Callaghan YC, Woods JA & O'Brien NM (2003) Toxicity of cholesterol oxidation products to Caco-2 and HepG2 cells: modulatory effects of α- and γ-tocopherol. J Appl Toxicol 23, 191–197.
43Ryan L, O'Callaghan YC & O'Brien NM (2004) Comparison of the apoptotic processes induced by the oxysterols 7β-hydroxycholesterol and cholesterol-5β,6β-epoxide. Cell Biol Toxicol 20, 313–323.
44Ruiz E, Padilla E, Redondo S, Gordillo-Moscoso A & Tejerina T (2006) Kaempferol inhibits apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle induced by a component of oxidized LDL. Eur J Pharmacol 529, 79–83.
45Nunez G & del Peso L (1998) Linking extracellular survival signals and the apoptotic machinery. Curr Opin Neurobiol 8, 613–618.
46Rusiñol AE, Thewke D, Liu J, Freeman N, Panini SR & Sinensky MS (2004) AKT/protein kinase B regulation of BCL family members during oxysterol-induced apoptosis. J Biol Chem 279, 1392–1399.
47Way T-D, Kao M-C & Lin J-K (2004) Apigenin induces apoptosis through proteasomal degradation of HER2/neu in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem 279, 4479–4489.
48Way T-D, Kao M-C & Lin J-K (2005) Degradation of HER2/neu by apigenin induces apoptosis through cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer cells. FEBS Lett 579, 145–152.
49Palozza P, Serini S, Verdecchia S, Ameruso M, Trombino S, Picci N, Monego G & Ranelletti FO (2007) Redox regulation of 7-ketocholesterol-induced apoptosis by β-carotene in human macrophages. Free Radic Bio Med 42, 1579–1590.
50Sarkar FH & Li Y (2004) Cell signaling pathways altered by natural chemopreventive agents. Mutat Res 555, 53–64.
51Monasterio A, Urdaci MC, Pinchuk IV, Lopez-Moratalla N & Martinez-Irujo JJ (2004) Flavonoids induce apoptosis in human leukemia U937 cells through caspase- and caspase-calpain-dependent pathways. Nutr Cancer 50, 90–100.
52Choi Y-J, Kang J-S, Park JHY, Lee Y-J, Choi J-S & Kang Y-H (2003) Polyphenolic flavonoids differ in their antiapoptotic efficacy in hydrogen peroxide-treated human vascular endothelial cells. J Nutr 133, 985–991.
53O'Prey J, Brown J, Fleming J & Harrison PR (2003) Effects of dietary flavonoids on major signal transduction pathways in human epithelial cells. Biochem Pharmacol 66, 2075–2088.
54Tanaka T, Morishita Y, Suzui M, Kojima T, Okumura A & Mori H (1994) Chemoprevention of mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis by the naturally occurring carotenoid astaxanthin. Carcinogenesis 15, 15–19.
55Tanaka T, Makita H, Ohnishi M, Mori H, Satoh K & Hara A (1995) Chemoprevention of rat oral carcinogenesis by naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin. Cancer Res 55, 4059–4064.
56Tanaka T, Kawamori T, Ohnishi M, Makita H, Mori H, Satoh K & Hara A (1995) Suppression of azoymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by dietary administration of naturally occurring xanthophylls, astaxanthin and canthaxanthin during the postinitiation phase. Carcinogenesis 16, 2957–2963.
57De Stefani E, Boffetta P, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Carzoglio JC, Ronco A & Olivera L (1999) Dietary antioxidants and lung cancer risk: a case-control study in Uruguay. Nutr Cancer 34, 100–110.