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Estimated intake of milk fat is negatively associated with cardiovascular risk factors and does not increase the risk of a first acute myocardial infarction. A prospective case–control study

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  09 March 2007

Eva Warensjö
Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Jan-Håkan Jansson
Department of Medicine-Geriatric, Skellefteå County Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Lars Berglund
Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Kurt Boman
Department of Medicine-Geriatric, Skellefteå County Hospital, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Bo Ahrén
Department of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden
Lars Weinehall
Epidemiology, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Bernt Lindahl
Behavioral Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Göran Hallmans
Nutritional Research, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
Bengt Vessby*
Unit for Clinical Nutrition Research, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
*Corresponding author: Dr Bengt Vessby, fax +46 18 611 7976, email
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Milk fat is high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and high intakes of SFA are associated with cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the present study was to prospectively evaluate the potential risk of a first-ever acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to the estimated milk-fat intake, reflected as the proportions of pentadecanoic acid (15:0) and heptadecanoic acid (17:0) in serum lipid esters. This was evaluated in a study population selected within the Västerbotten Intervention Program and the northern Sweden ‘Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular disease’ survey populations. A prospective case–control design was used. The proportions of the biomarkers were lower in the cases (n78) than in the controls (n156), who were matched for age, sex, sampling time and geographical region. The standardised odds ratios of becoming an AMI case were between 0·7 and 0·8 for the biomarkers. The proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 in serum phospholipids were significantly and negatively correlated to serum concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tissue-type plasminogen activator, triacylglycerols, insulin, specific insulin, pro-insulin and leptin (all P<0·0001), suggesting a negative relationship to the insulin-resistance syndrome and the risk of CHD. Adjustment for BMI did not materially change the relationships. Although there seems to be a negative association between milk-fat intake as mirrored by the proportions of 15:0 and 17:0 in serum lipid esters and a first-ever AMI, adjustment for clinical risk factors removed this relationship.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2004


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