2 E Giovannucci , MJ Stampfer , GA Colditz , DJ Hunter , C Fuchs , BA Rosner , FE Speizer & WC Willett (1998) Multivitamin Use, Folate, and Colon Cancer in Women in the Nurses' Health Study. Ann Intern Med 129, 517–524.
4 MA Sanjoquin , N Allen , E Couto , AW Roddam & TJ Key (2005) Folate intake and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analytical approach. Int J Cancer 113, 825–828.
5 SC Larsson , E Giovannucci & A Wolk (2005) A prospective study of dietary folate intake and risk of colorectal cancer: modification by caffeine intake and cigarette smoking. Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers & Prev 14, 740–743.
6 JL Freudenheim , S Graham , JR Marshall , BP Haughey , S Cholewinski & G Wilkinson (1991) Folate intake and carcinogenesis of the colon and rectum. Int J Epidemiol 20, 368–374.
7 A Flood , L Caprario , N Chaterjee , JV Lacey Jr, C Schairer & A Schatzkin (2002) Folate, methionine, alcohol, and colorectal cancer in a prospective study of women in the United States. Cancer Causes Control 13, 551–561.
8 M Lucock (2000) Folic acid: nutritional biochemistry, molecular biology, and role in disease processes. Mol Genet Metab 71, 121–138.
9 GR Anderson , DL Stoler & BM Brenner (2001) Cancer: the evolved consequence of a destabilized genome. BioEssays 23, 1037–1046.
10 SJ Duthie (1999) Folic acid deficiency and cancer: mechanisms of DNA instability. Br Med Bull 55, 578–592.
11 M Esteller (2007) Cancer epigenomics: DNA methylomes and histone-modification maps. Nat Rev Genet 8, 286–298.
13 BA Lashner , PA Heidenreich , GL Su , SV Kane & SB Hanauer (1989) Effect of folate supplementation on the incidence of dysplasia and cancer in chronic ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 97, 255–259.
14 BA Lashner (1993) Red blood cell folate is associated with the development of dysplasia and cancer in ulcerative colitis. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 119, 549–554.
16 LC Bollheimer , R Buettner , A Kullmann & F Kullmann (2005) Folate and its preventative potential in colorectal carcinogenesis. How strong is the biological and epidemiological evidence? Crit Rev Oncol Haematol 55, 13–36.
18 Y-I Kim , RN Salomon , F Graeme-Cook , S-W Choi , DE Smith , GE Dallal & JB Mason (1996) Dietary folate protects against the development of macroscopic colonic neoplasia in a dose responsive manner in rats. Gut 39, 732–740.
20 DR Geter , TM Moore , MH George , SR Kilburn , JW Allen , GM Nelson , E Winkfield & AB DeAngelo (2005) Tribromomethane exposure and dietary folate deficiency in the formation of aberrant crypt foci in the colons of F344/N rats. Food Chem Toxicol 43, 1405–1412.
21 RK Leu , GP Young & GH McIntosh (2000) Folate deficiency diminishes the occurrence of aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon but does not alter global DNA methylation status. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15, 1158–1164.
22 RK Leu , GP Young & GH McIntosh (2000) Folate deficiency reduces the development of colorectal cancer in rats. Carcinogenesis 21, 2261–2265.
24 S Sibani , S Melnyk , IP Pogribny , W Wang , F Hiou-Tim , L Deng , J Trasler , SJ James & R Rosen (2002) Studies of methionine cycle intermediates (SAM, SAH), DNA methylation and the impact of folate deficiency on tumour numbers in Min mice. Carcinogenesis 23, 61–65.
26 SW Thenen (1991) Gestational and neonatal folate deficiency in rats. Nutr Res 11, 105–116.
27 JM Burgoon , J Selhub , M Nadeau & TW Sadlere (2002) Investigation of the effects of folate deficiency on embryonic development through the establishment of a folate deficient mouse model. Teratology 65, 219–227.
29 L Frey & WA Hauser (2003) Epidemiology of neural tube defects. Epilepsia 44, Suppl. 3, 4–13.
32 IF Tagbo & DC Hill (1976) Effect of folic acid deficiency on pregnant rats and their offspring. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 55, 427–433.
33 DJP Barker (2004) The developmental origins of well-being. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 359, 1359–1366.
35 GP Collett , CN Robson , JC Mathers & FC Campbell (2001) Curcumin modifies Apc(min) apoptosis resistance and inhibits 2-amino 1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) induced tumour formation in Apc(min) mice. Carcinogenesis 22, 821–825.
38 OD Bird , VM McGlohon & JW Vaitkus (1969) A microbiological assay system for naturally occurring folates. Can J Microbiol 15, 465–472.
39 EW McDorman , BW Collins & JW Allen (2002) Dietary folate deficiency enhances induction of micronuclei by arsenic in mice. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 40, 71–77.
42 P Bateson , D Barker , T Clutton-Brock , (2004) Developmental plasticity and human health. Nature 430, 419–421.
43 M Baserga , C Bertolotto , NK Maclennan , JL Hsu , T Pham , GS Laksana & RH Lane (2004) Uteroplacental insufficiency decreases small intestine growth and alters apoptotic homeostasis in term intrauterine growth retarded rats. Early Hum Dev 79, 93–105.
44 SW Limesand , J Jensen , JC Hutton & WW Hay Jr (2005) Diminished beta-cell replication contributes to reduced beta-cell mass in fetal sheep with intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288, R1297–R1305.
48 KA Vonnahme , BW Hess , TR Hansen , (2003) Maternal undernutrition from early- to mid-gestation leads to growth retardation, cardiac ventricular hypertrophy, and increased liver weight in the fetal sheep. Biol Reprod 69, 133–140.
49 I-L Steffensen , JE Paulsen , TJ Eide & J Alexander (1997) 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine increases the numbers of tumors, cystic crypts and aberrant crypt foci in multiple intestinal neoplasia mice. Carcinogenesis 18, 1049–1054.
50 T Tanaka , H Kohno , R Suzuki , K Hata , S Sugie , N Niho , K Sakano , M Takahashi & K Wakabayashi (2006) Dextran sodium sulphate strongly promotes colorectal carcinogenesis in Apc(Min/+) mice: inflammatory stimuli by dextran sodium sulfate results in development of multiple colonic neoplasms. Int J Cancer 118, 25–34.
51 JE Paulsen , I-K Elvsaas , I-L Steffensen & J Alexander (1997) A fish oil derived concentrate enriched in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid as ethyl ester suppresses the formation and growth of intestinal polyps in the Min mouse. Carcinogenesis 18, 1905–1910.
53 HJ van Kranen , PWC van Iersel , JM Rijnkels , DB Beems , GM Alink & CF van Kreijl (1998) Effects of dietary fat and vegetable-fruit mixture on the development of intestinal neoplasia in the Apc(Min/+) mouse. Carcinogenesis 19, 1597–1601.
54 KA Mehl , M Davis , JM Clements , FG Berger , MM Pena & JA Carson (2005) Decreased intestinal polyp multiplicity is related to exercise mode and gender in ApcMin/+ mice. J Appl Physiol 98, 2219–2225.
56 SH Javid , AE Moran , AM Carothers , M Redston & MM Bertagnolli (2005) Modulation of tumor formation and intestinal cell migration by estrogens in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis 26, 587–595.
57 Y-I Kim (2004) Folate, colorectal carcinogenesis and DNA methylation: lessons from animal studies. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 44, 10–25.
58 JM Tucker , C Davis , ME Kitchens , MA Bunni , DG Priest , HT Spencer & FG Berger (2002) Response to 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy is modified by dietary folic acid deficiency in ApcMin/+ mice. Cancer Lett 187, 153–162.
59 BF Cole , JA Baron , RS Sandler , (2007) Folic acid for the prevention of colorectal adenomas: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA 297, 2351–2359.