Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring

  • Staffan K. Berglund (a1) (a2), Francisco J. Torres-Espínola (a1), Luz García-Valdés (a1), Mª Teresa Segura (a1), Cristina Martínez-Zaldívar (a1), Carmen Padilla (a3), Ricardo Rueda (a4), Miguel Pérez García (a5), Harry J. McArdle (a6) and Cristina Campoy (a1) (a7) (a8)...
Abstract

Both maternal Fe deficiency (ID) and being overweight or obese (Ow/Ob, BMI≥25 kg/m2) may negatively affect offspring brain development. However, the two risk factors correlate and their independent effects on infant neurodevelopment are unclear. PREOBE is a prospective observational study that included 331 pregnant Spanish women, of whom 166 had pre-gestational Ow/Ob. Fe status was analysed at 34 weeks and at delivery, and babies were assessed using Bayley III scales of neurodevelopment at 18 months. In confounder-adjusted analyses, maternal ID at 34 weeks was associated with lower composite motor scores at 18 months (mean 113·3 (sd 9·9) v. 117·1 (sd 9·2), P=0·039). Further, the offspring of mothers with ID at delivery had lower cognitive scores (114·0 (sd 9·7) v. 121·5 (sd 10·9), P=0·039) and lower receptive, expressive and composite (99·5 (sd 8·6) v. 107·6 (sd 8·3), P=0·004) language scores. The negative associations between maternal ID at delivery and Bayley scores remained even when adjusting for maternal Ow/Ob and gestational diabetes. Similarly, maternal Ow/Ob correlated with lower gross motor scores in the offspring (12·3 (sd 2·0) v. 13·0 (sd 2·1), P=0·037), a correlation that remained when adjusting for maternal ID. In conclusion, maternal ID and pre-gestational Ow/Ob are both negatively associated with Bayley scores at 18 months, but independently and on different subscales. These results should be taken into account when considering Fe supplementation for pregnant women.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The impacts of maternal iron deficiency and being overweight during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of the offspring
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor C. Campoy, email ccampoy@ugr.es
References
Hide All
1. Georgieff, MK (2007) Nutrition and the developing brain: nutrient priorities and measurement. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 614S620S.
2. Anjos, T, Altmae, S, Emmett, P, et al. (2013) Nutrition and neurodevelopment in children: focus on NUTRIMENTHE project. Eur J Nutr 52, 18251842.
3. Tomalski, P & Johnson, MH (2010) The effects of early adversity on the adult and developing brain. Curr Opin Psychiatry 23, 233238.
4. Cusick, SE & Georgieff, MK (2012) Nutrient supplementation and neurodevelopment: timing is the key. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 166, 481482.
5. Beard, JL (2008) Why iron deficiency is important in infant development. J Nutr 138, 25342536.
6. Georgieff, MK (2008) The role of iron in neurodevelopment: fetal iron deficiency and the developing hippocampus. Biochem Soc Trans 36, 12671271.
7. Lozoff, B, Beard, J, Connor, J, et al. (2006) Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutr Rev 64, S34S43; discussion S72–S91.
8. Berglund, SK, Westrup, B, Hagglof, B, et al. (2013) Effects of iron supplementation of LBW infants on cognition and behavior at 3 years. Pediatrics 131, 4755.
9. Georgieff, MK, Landon, MB, Mills, MM, et al. (1990) Abnormal iron distribution in infants of diabetic mothers: spectrum and maternal antecedents. J Pediatr 117, 455461.
10. Radlowski, EC & Johnson, RW (2013) Perinatal iron deficiency and neurocognitive development. Front Hum Neurosci 7, 585.
11. Berglund, S & Domellof, M (2014) Meeting iron needs for infants and children. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 17, 267272.
12. Lubach, GR & Coe, CL (2006) Preconception maternal iron status is a risk factor for iron deficiency in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). J Nutr 136, 23452349.
13. De Pee, S, Bloem, MW, Sari, M, et al. (2002) The high prevalence of low hemoglobin concentration among Indonesian infants aged 3–5 months is related to maternal anemia. J Nutr 132, 22152221.
14. Jaime-Perez, JC, Herrera-Garza, JL & Gomez-Almaguer, D (2005) Sub-optimal fetal iron acquisition under a maternal environment. Arch Med Res 36, 598602.
15. Colomer, J, Colomer, C, Gutierrez, D, et al. (1990) Anaemia during pregnancy as a risk factor for infant iron deficiency: report from the Valencia Infant Anaemia Cohort (VIAC) study. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 4, 196204.
16. Allen, LH (2000) Anemia and iron deficiency: effects on pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 1280s1284s.
17. Lozoff, B, Jiang, Y, Li, X, et al. (2016) Low-dose iron supplementation in infancy modestly increases infant iron status at 9 mo without decreasing growth or increasing illness in a randomized clinical trial in rural China. J Nutr 146, 612621.
18. Domellof, M, Braegger, C, Campoy, C, et al. (2014) Iron requirements of infants and toddlers. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 58, 119129.
19. Peña-Rosas, JP, De-Regil, LM, Garcia-Casal, MN, et al. (2015) Daily oral iron supplementation during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue 7, CD004736.
20. Neggers, YH, Goldenberg, RL, Ramey, SL, et al. (2003) Maternal prepregnancy body mass index and psychomotor development in children. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82, 235240.
21. Brion, MJ, Zeegers, M, Jaddoe, V, et al. (2011) Intrauterine effects of maternal prepregnancy overweight on child cognition and behavior in 2 cohorts. Pediatrics 127, e202e211.
22. Van Lieshout, RJ (2013) Role of maternal adiposity prior to and during pregnancy in cognitive and psychiatric problems in offspring. Nutr Rev 71, Suppl. 1, S95S101.
23. Van Lieshout, RJ, Taylor, VH & Boyle, MH (2011) Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy obesity and neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring: a systematic review. Obes Rev 12, e548e559.
24. Cao, C & O’Brien, KO (2013) Pregnancy and iron homeostasis: an update. Nutr Rev 71, 3551.
25. Aigner, E, Feldman, A & Datz, C (2014) Obesity as an emerging risk factor for iron deficiency. Nutrients 6, 35873600.
26. Burke, RM, Leon, JS & Suchdev, PS (2014) Identification, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency during the first 1000 days. Nutrients 6, 40934114.
27. Nikonorov, AA, Skalnaya, MG, Tinkov, AA, et al. (2015) Mutual interaction between iron homeostasis and obesity pathogenesis. J Trace Elem Med Biol 30, 207214.
28. Phillips, AK, Roy, SC, Lundberg, R, et al. (2014) Neonatal iron status is impaired by maternal obesity and excessive weight gain during pregnancy. J Perinatol 34, 513518.
29. Berglund, SK, Garcia-Valdes, L, Torres-Espinola, FJ, et al. (2016) Maternal, fetal and perinatal alterations associated with obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes: an observational cohort study (PREOBE). BMC Public Health 16, 207.
30. Torres-Espinola, FJ, Berglund, SK, Garcia-Valdes, LM, et al. (2015) Maternal obesity, overweight and gestational diabetes affect the offspring neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 months of age – a follow up from the PREOBE cohort. PLOS ONE 10, e0133010.
31. Acosta, D, Balsells, M, Ballesteros, M, et al. (2015) Care of pregnancies complicated by diabetes. Clinical practice guidelines: 2014 update [Spanish]. Avances en Diabetología 31, 4559.
32. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (1998) Recommendations to prevent and control iron deficiency in the United States. MMWR Recomm Rep 47, 129.
33. Milman, N, Bergholt, T, Byg, KE, et al. (2007) Reference intervals for haematological variables during normal pregnancy and postpartum in 434 healthy Danish women. Eur J Haematol 79, 3946.
34. Siddappa, AM, Rao, R, Long, JD, et al. (2007) The assessment of newborn iron stores at birth: a review of the literature and standards for ferritin concentrations. Neonatology 92, 7382.
35. Tamura, T, Goldenberg, RL, Hou, J, et al. (2002) Cord serum ferritin concentrations and mental and psychomotor development of children at five years of age. J Pediatr 140, 165170.
36. McLean, E, Cogswell, M, Egli, I, et al. (2009) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutr 12, 444454.
37. Cantor, AG, Bougatsos, C, Dana, T, et al. (2015) Routine iron supplementation and screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive services task force. Ann Intern Med 162, 566576.
38. Oski, FA (1993) Iron deficiency in infancy and childhood. N Engl J Med 329, 190193.
39. Golub, MS & Hogrefe, CE (2015) Fetal iron deficiency and genotype influence emotionality in infant rhesus monkeys. J Nutr 145, 647653.
40. Chang, S, Zeng, L, Brouwer, ID, et al. (2013) Effect of iron deficiency anemia in pregnancy on child mental development in rural China. Pediatrics 131, e755e763.
41. Geng, F, Mai, X, Zhan, J, et al. (2015) Impact of fetal-neonatal iron deficiency on recognition memory at 2 months of age. J Pediatr 167, 12261232.
42. Tran, PV, Dakoji, S, Reise, KH, et al. (2013) Fetal iron deficiency alters the proteome of adult rat hippocampal synaptosomes. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 305, R1297R1306.
43. Monk, C, Georgieff, MK, Xu, D, et al. (2016) Maternal prenatal iron status and tissue organization in the neonatal brain. Pediatr Res 79, 482488.
44. Zhou, SJ, Gibson, RA, Crowther, CA, et al. (2006) Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the intelligence quotient and behavior of children at 4 y of age: long-term follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 11121117.
45. Parsons, AG, Zhou, SJ, Spurrier, NJ, et al. (2008) Effect of iron supplementation during pregnancy on the behaviour of children at early school age: long-term follow-up of a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr 99, 11331139.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 65
Total number of PDF views: 288 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1045 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 10th February 2017 - 22nd April 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.