Adachi A, Shimizu N, Oomura Y & Kobashi M (1984) Convergence of hepatoportal glucose-sensitive afferent signals to glucose-sensitive units within the nucleus of the solitary tract. Neurosci Lett 46, 215–218.
Ahrén B (2004) Sensory nerves contribute to insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 286, R269–R272.
Ahrén B & Pacini G (1999) Dose-related effects of GLP-1 on insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, and glucose effectiveness in mice. Am J Physiol 277, E996–E1004.
Ahrén B, Larsson H & Holst JJ (1997) Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on islet function and insulin sensitivity in noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 473–478.
Ahrén B, Holst J, Martensson H & Balkan B (2000) Improved glucose tolerance and insulin secretion by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 404, 239–245.
Alvarez E, Roncero I, Chowen JA, Thorens B & Blazquez E (1996) Expression of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene in rat brain. J Neurochem 66, 920–927.
Balkan B & Li X (2000) Portal GLP1 administration in rats augments the insulin response to glucose via neuronal mechanisms. Am J Physiol 279, R1449–R1454.
Balks HJ, Holst JJ, von zur Muhlen A, Brabant G (1997) Rapid oscillations in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in humans: cholinergic control of GLP-1 secretion via muscarinic receptors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 82, 786–790.
Banting FG & Best CH (1922) The internal secretion of the pancreas. J Lab Clin Med 7, 251–266.
Bayliss WM & Starling EH (1902) The mechanisms of pancreatic secretion. J Physiol 22, 325–330.
Bell G, Sanchez-Pescador R, Laybourn P & Najarian R (1983) Exon duplication and divergence in the human preproglucagon gene. Nature 304, 368–371.
Berthoud HR, Niijima A, Sauter JF & Jeanrenaud B (1983) Evidence for a role of the gastric, coeliac and hepatic branches in vagally stimulated insulin secretion in the rat. J Auton Nerv Syst 7, 97–110.
Biggers DW, Myers SR, Neal D, Stinson R, Cooper NB, Jaspan JB, Williams PE, Cherrington AD & Frizzell RT (1989) Role of brain in counterregulation of insulin-induced hypoglycemia in dogs. Diabetes 38, 7–16.
Blazquez E, Alvarez E, Navarro M, Roncero I, Rodriguez-Fonseca F, Chowen JA & Zueco JA (1998) Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide as a novel neuropeptide. Mol Neurobiol 18, 157–173.
Brown JC (1971) A gastric inhibitory peptide. I. The amino acid composition and the tryptic peptides. Can J Biochem 49, 255–261.
Brown JC & Pederson R (1970) A multiparameter study on the action of preparations containing cholecystokinin pancreozymin. Scand J Gastroenterol 5, 537–541.
Brubaker PL (1991) Regulation of intestinal proglucagon-derived peptide secretion by intestinal regulatory peptides. Endocrinology 128, 3175–3182.
Buchan A, Polak J, Capella C, Solcia E & Pearse A (1978) Electron immunocytochemical evidence for the K-cell. Localization of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) in man. Histochemistry 56, 37–44.
Burcelin R & Thorens B (2001) Evidence that extrapancreatic GLUT2-dependent glucose sensors control glucagon secretion. Diabetes 50, 1282–1289.
Burcelin R, Rolland E, Dolci W, Germain S, Carrel V & Thorens B (1999) Encapsulated, genetically engineered cells, secreting glucagon-like peptide-1 for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann NY Acad Sci 875, 277–285.
Burcelin R, Dolci W & Thorens B (2000a) Glucose sensing by the hepatoportal sensor is GLUT-2 dependent; in vivo analysis in GLUT-2 null mice. Diabetes 49, 1643–1648.
Burcelin R, Dolci W & Thorens B (2000b) Portal glucose infusion in the mouse induces hypoglycemia. Evidence that the hepatoportal glucose sensor stimulates glucose utilization. Diabetes 49, 1635–1642.
Burcelin R, Da Costa A, Drucker D, Thorens B (2001) Glucose competence of the hepatoportal vein sensor requires the presence of an activated glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Diabetes 50, 1720–1728.
Byrne MM & Goke B (1996) Human studies with glucagon-like-peptide-1: potential of the gut hormone for clinical use. Diabet Med 13, 854–860.
Campos RV, Lee YC & Drucker DJ (1994) Divergent tissue-specific and developmental expression of receptors for glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 in the mouse. Endocrinology 134, 2156–2164.
Creutzfeldt W (1979) The incretin concept today. Diabetologia 16, 75–85.
Creutzfeldt W (1992) Entero-insular axis and diabetes mellitus. Horm Metab Res 26, Suppl, 13–18.
Creutzfeldt WO, Kleine N, Willms B, Orskov C, Holst JJ & Nauck MA (1996) Glucagonostatic actions and reduction of fasting hyperglycemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide I(7–36) amide in type I diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 19, 580–586.
Cryer P (1981) Glucose counterregulation in man. Diabetes 30, 261–264.
Damholt A, Kofod H & Buchan A (1999) Immunocytochemical evidence for a paracrine interaction between GIP and GLP-1-producing cells in canine small intestine. Cell Tissue Res 298, 287–293.
Deacon CF, Johnsen AH & Holst JJ (1995a) Degradation of glucagon-like peptide-1 by human plasma in vitro yields an N-terminally truncated peptide that is a major endogenous metabolite in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 80, 952–957.
Deacon CF, Nauck MA, Toft-Nielsen M, Pridal L, Willms B & Holst JJ (1995b) Both subcutaneously and intravenously administered glucagon-like peptide I are rapidly degraded from the NH2-terminus in type II diabetic patients and in healthy subjects. Diabetes 44, 1126–1131.
Donahey J, Van Dijk G, Woods S & Seeley R (1998) Intraventricular GLP-1 reduced short but not long term food intake or body weight in lean and obese rats. Brain Res 779, 75–83.
Drucker DJ (1990) Glucagon and the glucagon-like peptides. Pancreas 5, 484–488.
Drucker DJ (1998) Glucagon-like peptides. Diabetes 47, 159–169.
During M, Cao L & Zuzga D (2003) Glucagon like peptide 1 receptor is involved in learning and neuroprotection. Nat Med 9, 1173–1179.
Ebert R & Creutzfeldt W (1982) Influence of gastric inhibitory polypeptide antiserum on glucose induced insulin secretion in rats. Endocrinology 111, 1601–1606.
Ebert R, Unger H & Creutzfeldt W (1983) Preservation of incretin activity after removal of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) from rat gut extracts by immunoadsorption. Diabetologia 24, 449–454.
Fehmann HC, Goke B, Weber V, Goke R, Trautmann ME, Richter G & Arnold R (1990) Interaction of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide and cholecystokinin-8 in the endocrine and exocrine rat pancreas. Pancreas 5, 361–365.
Fehmann HC, Goke R, Goke B, Bachle R, Wagner B & Arnold R (1991) Priming effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and cholecystokinin-8 at the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Biochim Biophys Acta 1091, 356–363.
Fridolf T & Ahren B (1991) GLP-1(7–36) amide stimulates insulin secretion in rat islets: studies on the mode of action. Diabetes Res 16, 185–191.
Fridolf T & Ahren B (1993) Effects of glucagon like peptide-1(7–36) amide on the cytoplasmic Ca(2+)-concentration in rat islet cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 96, 85–90.
Frizzell RT, Jones EM, Davis SN, Biggers DW, Myers SR, Connolly CC, Neal DW, Jaspan JB & Cherrington AD (1993) Counterregulation during hypoglycemia is directed by widespread brain regions. Diabetes 42, 1253–1261.
Fukase N, Takahashi H, Manaka H, Igarashi M, Yamatani K, Daimon M, Sugiyama K, Tominaga M & Sasaki H (1992) Differences in glucagon-like peptide-1 and GIP responses following sucrose ingestion. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 15, 187–195.
Fukase N, Igarashi M, Takahashi H, Manaka H, Yamatani K, Daimon M, Tominaga M & Sasaki H (1993) Hypersecretion of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide in obese patients. Diabet Med 10, 44–49.
Furuse M, Matsumoto M, Okumura J, Sugahara K & Hasegawa S (1997) Intracerebroventricular injection of mammalian and chicken glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits food intake of the neonatal chick. Brain Res 755, 167–169.
Gallwitz B, Witt M, Folsch UR, Creutzfeldt W & Schmidt WE (1993) Binding specificity and signal transduction of receptors for glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36)amide and gastric inhibitory polypeptide on RINm5F insulinoma cells. J Mol Endocrinol 10, 259–268.
Gardemann A, Strulik H & Jungermann K (1986) A portal–arterial glucose concentration gradient as a signal for an insulin-dependent net glucose uptake in perfused rat liver. FEBS Lett 202, 255–259.
Gerich J, Cryer P & Rizza R (1990) Hormonal mechanisms in acute glucose counterregulation: the relative role of glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, and cortisol. Metabolism 29, 1164–1175.
Goke B, Fehmann HC, Schirra J, Hareter A & Goke R (1997) The intestinal hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1): from experiment to the clinic. Z Gastroenterol 35, 285–294.
Goke R, Trautmann ME, Haus E, Richter G, Fehmann HC, Arnold R & Goke B (1989) Signal transmission after GLP-1(7–36)amide binding in RINm5F cells. Am J Physiol 257, G397–G401.
Goke R, Wagner B, Fehmann HC & Goke B (1993) Glucose-dependency of the insulin stimulatory effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide on the rat pancreas. Res Exp Med 193, 97–103.
Goke R, Larsen PJ, Mikkelsen JD & Sheikh SP (1995) Distribution of GLP-1 binding sites in the rat brain: evidence that exendin-4 is a ligand of brain GLP-1 binding sites. Eur J Neurosci 7, 2294–2300.
Goldstone AP, Morgan I, Mercer JG, Morgan DG, Moar KM, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR (2000) Effect of leptin on hypothalamic GLP-1 peptide and brain-stem pre-proglucagon mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 269, 331–335.
Gulpinar MA, Bozkurt A, Coskun T, Ulusoy NB & Yegen BC (2000) Glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is involved in the central modulation of fecal output in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 278, G924–G929.
Hargrove DM, Nardone NA, Persson LM, Parker JC & Stevenson RW (1995) Glucose-dependent action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–37) in vivo during short- or long-term administration. Metabolism 44, 1231–1237.
Herrmann C, Goke R, Richter G, Fehmann HC, Arnold R & Goke B (1995) Glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulin-releasing polypeptide plasma levels in response to nutrients. Digestion 56, 117–126.
Herrmann-Rinke C, Voge A, Hess M & Goke B (1995) Regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion from rat ileum by neurotransmitters and peptides. J Endocrinol 147, 25–31.
Hevener AL, Bergman RN & Donovan CM (1997) Novel glucosensor for hypoglycemic detection localized to the portal vein. Diabetes 46, 1521–1525.
Hevener AL, Bergman RN & Donovan CM (2000) Portal vein afferents are critical for the sympathoadrenal response to hypoglycemia. Diabetes 49, 8–12.
Holst JJ (1977) Extraction, gel filtration pattern, and receptor binding of porcine gastrointestinal glucagon-like immunoreactivity. Diabetologia 13, 159–169.
Holst JJ (1994) Glucagon like peptide 1: a newly discovered gastrointestinal hormone. Gastroenterology 107, 1848–1855.
Holst JJ (1996) GLP-1 in NIDDM. Diabet Med 13, S156–S160.
Holst JJ (1997) Enteroglucagon. Annu Rev Physiol 59, 257–271.
Holst JJ, Orskov C, Nielsen OV & Schwartz TW (1987) Truncated glucagon-like peptide I, an insulin-releasing hormone from the distal gut. FEBS Lett 211, 169–174.
Holz GGt, Kuhtreiber WM & Habener JF (1993) Pancreatic beta-cells are rendered glucose-competent by the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7–37). Nature 361, 362–365.
Holz GGt, Leech CA & Habener JF (1995) Activation of a cAMP-regulated Ca(2+)-signaling pathway in pancreatic beta-cells by the insulinotropic hormone glucagon-like peptide-1. J Biol Chem 270, 17749–17757.
Ikeda T, Ochi H, Ohtani I, Fujiyama K, Hoshino T, Tanaka Y, Takeuchi T & Mashiba H (1993) Possible role of the adrenergic mechanism in gastric inhibitory polypeptide- and glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide-induced insulin release in the rat. Metabolism 42, 209–213.
Imeryuz N, Yegen BC, Bozkurt A, Coskun T, Villanueva-Penacarrillo ML & Ulusoy NB (1997) Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits gastric emptying via vagal afferent-mediated central mechanisms. Am J Physiol 273, G920–G927.
Jehle PM, Jehle D, Fussganger RD & Adler G (1995) Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in RINm5F insulinoma cells. Stimulation of insulin secretion, insulin content, and insulin receptor binding. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes 2, 31–36.
Juhl C, Schmitz O, Pincu S, Holdt J, Veldhuis J & Porksen N (2000) Short-term treatment with GLP-1 increases pulsatile insulin secretion in type II diabetes with no effect on orderliness. Diabetologia 43, 583–588.
Kanse SM, Kreymann B, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR (1988) Identification and characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1 7–36 amide-binding sites in the rat brain and lung. FEBS Lett 241, 209–212.
Knapper JM, Heath A, Fletcher JM, Morgan LM & Marks V (1995) GIP and GLP-1(7–36)amide secretion in response to intraduodenal infusions of nutrients in pigs. Comp Biochem Physiol C Pharmacol Toxicol Endocrinol 111, 445–450.
Kok NN, Morgan LM, Williams CM, Roberfroid MB, Thissen JP & Delzenne NM (1998a) Insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and insulin-like growth factor I as putative mediators of the hypolipidemic effect of oligofructose in rats. J Nutr 128, 1099–1103.
Kok NN, Taper HS & Delzenne NM (1998b) Oligofructose modulates lipid metabolism alterations induced by a fat-rich diet in rats. J Appl Toxicol 18, 47–53.
Kolligs F, Fehmann HC, Goke R & Goke B (1995) Reduction of the incretin effect in rats by the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor antagonist exendin (9–39) amide. Diabetes 44, 16–19.
Komatsu R, Matsuyama T & Namba M (1989) Glucagonostatic and insulinotropic action of glucagon like peptide-1-(7–36)-amide. Diabetes 38, 902–905.
Kreymann B, Williams G, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR (1987) Glucagon-like peptide-1 7–36: a physiological incretin in man. Lancet 2, 1300–1304.
Kreymann B, Ghatei MA, Burnet P, Williams G, Kanse S, Diani AR & Bloom SR (1989) Characterization of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7–36)amide in the hypothalamus. Brain Res 502, 325–331.
Mattson MP, Perry T & Greig N (2003) Learning from the gut. Nat Med 9, 1113–1114.
Miyawaki K, Yamada Y & Yano H (1999) Glucose intolerance caused by a defect in the entero-insular axis: a study in gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96, 14843–14847.
Mojsov S, Weir GC & Habener JF (1987) Insulinotropin: glucagon-like peptide I (7–37) co-encoded in the glucagon gene is a potent stimulator of insulin release in the perfused rat pancreas. J Clin Invest 79, 616–619.
Moody A, Thim L & Valverde I (1984) The isolation and sequencing of human gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP). FEBS Lett 172, 142–148.
Moore B, Edie E & Abram J (1906) On the treatment of diabetes mellitus by acid extract of duodenal mucous membrane. Biochem J 1, 28–38.
Moore MC & Cherrington AD (1996) The nerves, the liver, and the route of feeding: an integrated response to nutrient delivery. Nutrition 12, 282–284.
Moore MC, Rossetti L, Pagliassotti MJ, Monahan M, Venable C, Neal D & Cherrington AD (1996) Neural and pancreatic influences on net hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. Am J Physiol 271, E215–E222.
Nakabayashi H, Nishizawa M, Nakagawa A, Takeda R & Niijima A (1996) Vagal hepatopancreatic reflex effect evoked by intraportal appearance of tGLP-1. Am J Physiol 271, E808–E813.
Nathan D, Schreiber E, Fogel H, Mojsov S & Habener J (1991) Insulinotropic action of glucagon like peptide-1-(7–37) in diabetic and non diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 15, 270–275.
Nauck M (1996) Therapeutic potential of glucagon-like peptide 1 in type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med 13, S39–S43.
Nauck MA (1998) Glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1): a potent gut hormone with a possible therapeutic perspective. Acta Diabetol 35, 117–129.
Nauck MA, Bartels E, Orskov C, Ebert R & Creutzfeldt W (1993a) Additive insulinotropic effects of exogenous synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1-(7–36) amide infused at near-physiological insulinotropic hormone and glucose concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 76, 912–917.
Nauck MA, Heimesaat MM, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Ebert R & Creutzfeldt W (1993b) Preserved incretin activity of glucagon-like peptide 1 [7–36 amide] but not of synthetic human gastric inhibitory polypeptide in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J Clin Invest 91, 301–307.
Nauck MA, Kleine N, Orskov C, Holst JJ, Willms B & Creutzfeldt W (1993c) Normalization of fasting hyperglycaemia by exogenous glucagon-like peptide 1 (7–36 amide) in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia 36, 741–744.
Nauck MA, Siemsgluss J, Orskov C & Holst JJ (1996) Release of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1 [7–36 amide]), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) and insulin in response to oral glucose after upper and lower intestinal resections. Z Gastroenterol 34, 159–166.
Niijima A (1969) Afferent impulse discharges from glucoreceptors in the liver of the guinea pig. Ann NY Acad Sci 157, 690–700.
Niijima A (1985) Blood glucose levels modulate efferent activity in the vagal supply to the rat liver. J Physiol 364, 105–112.
Nordt TK, Besenthal I, Eggstein M & Jakober B (1991) Influence of breakfasts with different nutrient contents on glucose, C peptide, insulin, glucagon, triglycerides, and GIP in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 155–160.
Oomura Y (1981) Chemosensitive neuron in the hypothalamus related to food intake behavior. Jpn J Pharmacol 31, 1P–12P.
Oomura Y, Ono T, Ooyama H & Wayner MJ (1969) Glucose and osmosensitive neurones of the rat hypothalamus. Nature 222, 282–284.
Oomura Y, Ooyama H, Sugimori M, Nakamura T & Yamada Y (1974) Glucose inhibition of the glucose-sensitive neurone in the rat lateral hypothalamus. Nature 247, 284–286.
Orskov C, Holst JJ, Poulsen SS & Kirkegaard P (1987) Pancreatic and intestinal processing of proglucagon in man. Diabetologia 30, 874–881.
Orskov C, Holst JJ & Nielsen OV (1988) Effect of truncated glucagon-like peptide-1, proglucagon-(78–107) amide, on endocrine secretion from pig pancreas, antrum, and nonantral stomach. Endocrinology 123, 2009–2013.
Orskov C, Rabenhoj L, Wettergren A, Kofod H & Holst JJ (1994) Tissue and plasma concentrations of amidated and glycine-extended glucagon-like peptide I in humans. Diabetes 43, 535–539.
Orskov C, Wettergren A & Holst JJ (1996) Secretion of the incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide correlates with insulin secretion in normal man throughout the day. Scand J Gastroenterol 31, 665–670.
Pagliassotti MJ, Myers SR, Moore MC, Neal DW & Cherrington AD (1991) Magnitude of negative arterial–portal glucose gradient alters net hepatic glucose balance in conscious dogs. Diabetes 40, 1659–1668.
Pagliassotti MJ, Holste LC, Moore MC, Neal DW & Cherrington AD (1996) Comparison of the time courses of insulin and the portal signal on hepatic glucose and glycogen metabolism in the conscious dog. J Clin Invest 97, 81–91.
Perley M & Kpnis D (1967) Plasma insulin responses to oral and intravenous glucose: studies in normal and diabetic subjects. J Clin Invest 46, 1954–1962.
Plaisancie P, Dumoulin V, Chayvialle JA & Cuber JC (1995) Luminal glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide-releasing factors in the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon. J Endocrinol 145, 521–526.
Plant TM & Durrant AR (1997) Circulating leptin does not appear to provide a signal for triggering the initiation of puberty in the male rhesus monkey ( Macaca mulatta ). Endocrinology 138, 4505–4508.
Qualmann C, Nauck MA, Holst JJ, Orskov C & Creutzfeldt W (1995) Insulinotropic actions of intravenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) [7–36 amide] in the fasting state in healthy subjects. Acta Diabetol 32, 13–16.
Reimer RA & McBurney MI (1996) Dietary fiber modulates intestinal proglucagon messenger ribonucleic acid and postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin in rats. Endocrinology 137, 3948–3956.
Ritzel U, Fromme A, Ottleben M, Leonhardt U & Ramadori G (1997) Release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by carbohydrates in the perfused rat ileum. Acta Diabetol 34, 18–21.
Rizza R, Cryer P & Gerich J (1979) Role of glucagon, catecholamines, and growth hormone in human glucose counterregulation: effects of somatostatin and combined alpha and beta adrenergic blockade on plasma glucose recovery and glucose flux rates following insulin-induced hypoglycemia. J Clin Invest 64, 62–71.
Roberge J, Gronau K & Brubaker P (1996) Gastrin-releasing peptide is a novel mediator of proximal nutrient-induced proglucagon-derived peptide secretion from the distal gut. Endocrinology 137, 2383–2388.
Rocca AS & Brubaker PL (1995) Stereospecific effects of fatty acids on proglucagon-derived peptide secretion in fetal rat intestinal cultures. Endocrinology 136, 5593–5599.
Rocca AS & Brubaker PL (1999) Role of vagus nerve in mediating proximal nutrient induced glucagon like peptide-1 secretion. Endocrinology 140, 1687–1694.
Rodriquez de, Fonseca F, Navarro M & Alvarez E (2000) Peripheral versus central effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on satiety and body weight loss in Zucker obese rats. Metabolism 49, 709–717.
Rouille Y, Westermark G, Martin SK & Steiner DF (1994) Proglucagon is processed to glucagon by prohormone convertase PC2 in alpha TC1-6 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 3242–3246.
Rouille Y, Martin S & Steiner DF (1995) Differential processing of proglucagon by the subtilisin-like prohormone convertases PC2 and PC3 to generate either glucagon or glucagon-like peptide. J Biol Chem 270, 26488–26496.
Schirra J, Katschinski M, Weidmann C, Schafer T, Wank U, Arnold R & Goke B (1996) Gastric emptying and release of incretin hormones after glucose ingestion in humans. J Clin Invest 97, 92–103.
Schmitt M (1973) Influence of hepatic portal receptors on hypothalamic feeding and satiety centers. Am J Physiol 225, 1089–1095.
Scrocchi LA, Brown TJ, MaClusky N, Brubaker PL, Auerbach AB, Joyner AL & Drucker DJ (1996) Glucose intolerance but normal satiety in mice with a null mutation in the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor gene. Nat Med 2, 1254–1258.
Shima K, Hirota M & Ohboshi C (1988) Effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin secretion. Regul Pept 22, 245–252.
Shimizu I, Hirota M, Ohboshi C & Shima K (1987) Identification and localization of glucagon-like peptide-1 and its receptor in rat brain. Endocrinology 121, 1076–1082.
Shimizu N, Oomura Y, Novin D, Grijalva CV & Cooper PH (1983) Functional correlations between lateral hypothalamic glucose-sensitive neurons and hepatic portal glucose-sensitive units in rat. Brain Res 265, 49–54.
Stumpel F & Jungermann K (1997) Sensing by intrahepatic muscarinic nerves of a portal–arterial glucose concentration gradient as a signal for insulin-dependent glucose uptake in the perfused rat liver. FEBS Lett 406, 119–122.
Takeda J, Seino Y & Tanaka K (1987) Sequence of an intestinal cDNA encoding human gastric inhibitory polypeptide precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84, 7005–7008.
Tanizawa Y, Riggs AC, Elbein SC, Whelan A, Donis-Keller H & Permutt MA (1994) Human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor gene in NIDDM. Identification and use of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in genetic analysis. Diabetes 43, 752–757.
Thiele TE, Van Dijk G, Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Burn P, Woods SC, Bernstein IL & Seeley RJ (1997) Central infusion of GLP-1, but not leptin, produces conditioned taste aversions in rats. Am J Physiol 272, R726–R730.
Thorens B & Waeber G (1993) Glucagon-like peptide-I and the control of insulin secretion in the normal state and in NIDDM. Diabetes 42, 1219–1225.
Thorens B, Porret A, Buhler L, Deng SP, Morel P & Widmann C (1993) Cloning and functional expression of the human islet GLP-1 receptor. Demonstration that exendin-4 is an agonist and exendin-(9–39) an antagonist of the receptor. Diabetes 42, 1678–1682.
Tseng CC, Zhang XY & Wolfe MM (1999) Effect of GIP and GLP-1 antagonists on insulin release in the rat. Am J Physiol 276, E1049–E1054.
Turton MD, O'Shea D & Gunn I (1996) A role for glucagon-like peptide-1 in the central regulation of feeding. Nature 379, 69–72.
Uttenthal LO, Toledano A & Blazquez E (1992) Autoradiographic localization of receptors for glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide in rat brain. Neuropeptides 21, 143–146.
Vaag AA, Holst JJ, Volund A, Beck-Nielsen HB (1996) Gut incretin hormones in identical twins discordant for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) – evidence for decreased glucagon-like peptide 1 secretion during oral glucose ingestion in NIDDM twins. Eur J Endocrinol 135, 425–432.
van Dijk G & Thiele TE (1999) Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7–36) amide: a central regulator of satiety and interoceptive stress. Neuropeptides 33, 406–414.
van Eyll B, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Bode HP, Goke R & Goke B (1994) Signal transduction of the GLP-1-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma. FEBS Lett 348, 7–13.
Volz A, Goke R, Lankat-Buttgereit B, Fehmann HC, Bode HP & Goke B (1995) Molecular cloning, functional expression, and signal transduction of the GIP-receptor cloned from a human insulinoma. FEBS Lett 373, 23–29.
Wang Z, Wang RM, Owji AA, Smith DM, Ghatei MA & Bloom SR (1995) Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a physiological incretin in rat. J Clin Invest 95, 417–421.
Wei Y & Mojsov S (1995) Tissue-specific expression of the human receptor for glucagon-like peptide-I: brain, heart and pancreatic forms have the same deduced amino acid sequences. FEBS Lett 358, 219–224.
Wettergren A, Wojdemann M, Meisner S, Stadil F & Holst JJ (1997) The inhibitory effect of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) 7–36 amide on gastric acid secretion in humans depends on an intact vagal innervation. Gut 40, 597–601.
Widmann C, Burki E, Dolci W & Thorens B (1994) Signal transduction by the cloned glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor: comparison with signaling by the endogenous receptors of beta cell lines. Mol Pharmacol 45, 1029–1035.
Willms B, Werner J, Holst JJ, Orskov C, Creutzfeldt W & Nauck MA (1996) Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal: effects of exogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-(7–36) amide in type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81, 327–332.
Yoshimoto S, Hirota M, Ohboshi C & Shima K (1989) Identification of glucagon-like peptide-1(7–36) amide in rat brain. Ann Clin Biochem 26, 169–171.
Young AA, Gedulin BR & Rink TJ (1996) Dose–responses for the slowing of gastric emptying in a rodent model by glucagon-like peptide (7–36) NH2, amylin, cholecystokinin, and other possible regulators of nutrient uptake. Metabolism 45, 1–3.
Zawalich WS & Zawalich KC (1996) Glucagon-like peptide-1 stimulates insulin secretion but not phosphoinositide hydrolysis from islets desensitized by prior exposure to high glucose or the muscarinic agonist carbachol. Metabolism 45, 273–278.
Zawalich WS, Zawalich KC & Rasmussen H (1993) Influence of glucagon-like peptide-1 on beta cell responsiveness. Regul Pept 44, 277–283.
Zhang Y, Cook JT, Hattersley AT, Firth R, Saker PJ, Warren-Perry M, Stoffel M & Turner RC (1994) Non-linkage of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor gene with maturity onset diabetes of the young. Diabetologia 37, 721–724.