1 RD Jager , WF Mieler & JW Miller (2008) Age-related macular degeneration. N Engl J Med 358, 2606–2617.
2 RH Muni , M Altaweel , M Tennant , et al. (2008) Agreement among Canadian retina specialists in the determination of treatment eligibility for photodynamic therapy in age-related macular degeneration. Retina 28, 1421–1426.
3 R Klein , T Peto , A Bird , et al. (2004) The epidemiology of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 137, 486–495.
4 JR Evans , AE Fletcher & RPL Wormald (2004) Age-related macular degeneration causing visual impairment in people 75 years or older in Britain: an add-on study to the Medical Research Council Trial of Assessment and Management of Older People in the Community. Ophthalmology 111, 513–517.
5 DS Friedman , BJ O'Colmain , B Muñoz , et al. (2004) Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol 122, 564–572.
6 JC Khan , H Shahid , DA Thurlby , et al. (2006) Age-related macular degeneration and sun exposure, iris colour, and skin sensitivity to sunlight. Br J Ophthalmol 90, 29–32.
7 RJ Klein , C Zeiss , EY Chew , et al. (2005) Complement factor H polymorphism in age-related macular degeneration. Science 308, 385–389.
8 S Schmidt , JL Haines , EA Postel , et al. (2005) Joint effects of smoking history and APOE genotypes in age-related macular degeneration. Mol Vis 11, 941–949.
9 ML Subramanian , S Ness , G Abedi , et al. (2009) Bevacizumab vs ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration: early results of a prospective double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Am J Ophthalmol 148, 875–882.
10 J Thornton , R Edwards , P Mitchell , et al. (2005) Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association. Eye 19, 935–944.
11 J Dillon , L Zhenga , JC Merriama , et al. (2004) Transmission of light to the aging human retina: possible implications for age-related macular degeneration. Exp Eye Res 79, 753–759.
12 W Smith , J Assink , R Klein , et al. (2001) Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: pooled findings from three continents. Ophthalmology 108, 697–704.
13 RA Kowluru , B Menon & D Gierhart (2008) Beneficial effect of zeaxanthin on retinal metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49, 1645–1651.
14 J Cai , K Nelson , M Wu , et al. (2000) Oxidative damage and protection of RPE. Prog Retin Eye Res 19, 205–221.
15 K Izumi-Nagai , N Nagai , K Ohgami , et al. (2007) Macular pigment lutein is antiinflammatory in preventing choroidal neovascularization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27, 2555–2562.
16 TH Margrain , M Boulton , J Marshall , et al. (2004) Do blue light filters confer protection against age-related macular degeneration? Prog Ret Eye Res 23, 523–531.
17 N Krishnadev , AD Meleth & EY Chew (2010) Nutritional supplements for age-related macular degeneration. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 21, 184–189.
18 AD Haegele , C Gillette , C O'Neill , et al. (2000) Plasma xanthophyll carotenoids correlate inversely with indices of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 9, 421–425.
19 LR Thomson , Y Toyoda , A Langner , et al. (2002) Elevated retinal zeaxanthin and prevention of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in quail. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 3538–3549.
20 A Junghans , H Sies & W Stahl (2001) Macular pigments lutein and zeaxanthin as blue light filters studied in liposomes. Arch Biochem Biophys 391, 160–164.
21 V Flood , W Smith , JJ Wang , et al. (2002) Dietary antioxidant intake and incidence of early age-related maculopathy: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 109, 2272–2278.
22 E Cho , JM Seddon , B Rosner , et al. (2004) Prospective study of intake of fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and carotenoids and risk of age-related maculopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 122, 883–892.
23 R van Leeuwen , S Boekhoorn , JR Vingerling , et al. (2005) Dietary intake of antioxidants and risk of age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 294, 3101–3107.
24 JS Tan , JJ Wang , V Flood , et al. (2008) Dietary antioxidants and the long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study. Ophthalmology 115, 334–341.
26 JP Higgins , SG Thompson , JJ Deeks , et al. (2003) Measuring inconsistency in meta-analyses. BMJ 327, 557–560.
27 M Egger , G Davey Smith , M Schneider , et al. (1997) Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ 315, 629–634.
28 JA Sterne & M Egger (2001) Funnel plots for detecting bias in meta-analysis: guidelines on choice of axis. J Clin Epidemiol 54, 1046–1055.
29 GM Van den Langenberg , PJ Mares , R Klein , et al. (1998) Associations between antioxidant and zinc intake and the 5-year incidence of early age-related maculopathy in the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol 148, 204–214.
30 S Moeller , N Parekh , L Tinker , et al. (2006) Associations between intermediate age-related macular degeneration and lutein and zeaxanthin in the Carotenoids in Age-related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS): ancillary study of the Women's Health Initiative. Arch Ophthalmol 124, 1151–1162.
31 E Cho , SE Hankinson , B Rosner , et al. (2008) Prospective study of lutein/zeaxanthin intake and risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 1837–1843.
32 F Khachik , PS Bernstein & DL Garland (1997) Identification of lutein and zeaxanthin oxidation products in human and monkey retinas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 38, 1802–1811.
33 L Ma & XM Lin (2010) Effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on aspects of eye health. J Sci Food Agric 90, 2–12.
34 LM Rapp , SS Maple & JH Choi (2000) Lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in rod outer segment membranes from perifoveal and peripheral human retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 41, 1200–1209.
35 W Stahl & H Sies (1993) Physical quenching of singlet oxygen and cis–trans isomerization of carotenoids. Ann NY Acad Sci 691, 10–19.
36 NI Krinsky , JT Landrum & RA Bone (2003) Biologic mechanisms of the protective role of lutein and zeaxanthin in the eye. Annu Rev Nutr 23, 171–201.
37 LR Thomson , Y Toyoda , FC Delori , et al. (2002) Long term dietary supplementation with zeaxanthin reduces photoreceptor death in light-damaged Japanese quail. Exp Eye Res 75, 529–542.
38 LA Donoso , D Kim , A Frost , et al. (2006) The role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Surv Ophthalmol 51, 137–152.
39 JM Seddon , G Gensler , RC Milton , et al. (2004) Association between C-reactive protein and age-related macular degeneration. JAMA 291, 704–710.
40 RA Kowluru , B Menon & D Gierhart (2008) Beneficial effect of zeaxanthin on retinal metabolic abnormalities in diabetic rat. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 49, 1645–1651.
41 J Seddon , A Anani , R Sperduto , et al. (1994) Dietary carotenoids, vitamin A, C, E and advanced age-related macular degeneration. Eye Disease Case Controlled Study Group. JAMA 272, 1413–1420.
42 AREDS Research Group (2007) The relationship of dietary carotenoid and vitamin A, E and C intake with age-related macular degeneration in a case–control study. AREDS report no. 22. Arch Ophthalmol 125, 1225–1232.
43 JA Mares-Perlman , AI Fisher , R Klein , et al. (2001) Lutein and zeaxanthin in the diet and serum and their relation to age-related maculopathy in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 153, 424–432.
44 CJ Chiu , RC Milton , R Klein , et al. (2009) Dietary compound score and risk of age-related macular degeneration in the Age-related Eye Disease Study. Ophthalmology 116, 939–946.
45 RA Bone , JT Landrum , Z Dixon , et al. (2000) Lutein and zeaxanthin in the eyes, serum and diet of human subjects. Exp Eye Res 71, 239–245.
46 X Zhang , XO Shu , WH Chow , et al. (2008) Body mass index at various ages and mortality in Chinese women: impact of potential methodological biases. Int J Obes 32, 1130–1136.
47 TT Berendschot , JJ Willemse-Assink , M Bastiaanse , et al. (2002) Macular pigment and melanin in age-related maculopathy in a general population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 43, 1928–1932.
48 C Jahn , H Wustemeyer , C Brinkmann , et al. (2005) Macular pigment density in age-related maculopathy. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 243, 222–227.
49 S Beatty , IJ Murray , DB Henson , et al. (2001) Macular pigment and risk for age-related macular degeneration in subjects from a Northern European population. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 439–446.
50 H Wüstemeyer , C Jahn , A Nestler , et al. (2002) A new instrument for the quantification of macular pigment density: first results in patients with AMD and healthy subjects. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 240, 666–671.
51 R Bone , J Landrum , S Mayne , et al. (2001) Macular pigment in donor eyes with and without AMD: a case–controlled study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 42, 235–240.
52 JS Choi , D Kim , Y Hong , et al. (2006) Inhibition of nNOS and COX-2 expression by lutein in acute retinal ischemia. Nutrition 22, 668–671.
53 WR Freeman , M El-Bradey & DJ Plummer (2004) Scanning laser entoptic perimetry for the detection of age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 122, 1647–1651.
54 GM Van den Langenberg , WE Brady , LC Nebeling , et al. (1996) Influence of using different sources of carotenoid data in epidemiologic studies. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 1271–1275.
55 J Seddon , S George & B Rosner (2006) Cigarette smoking, fish consumption, omega-3 fatty acid intake, and associations with age-related macular degeneration. The US twin study of age-related macular degeneration. Arch Ophthalmol 124, 995–1001.
56 JM Seddon , J Cote , WF Page , et al. (2005) The US twin study of age-related macular degeneration: relative roles of genetic and environmental influences. Arch Ophthalmol 123, 321–327.