Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Milk drinking and risk of hip fracture: the Norwegian Epidemiologic Osteoporosis Studies (NOREPOS)

  • Kristin Holvik (a1), Haakon E. Meyer (a1) (a2), Ida Laake (a3), Diane Feskanich (a4), Tone K. Omsland (a2) and Anne-Johanne Søgaard (a1)...

Abstract

Milk provides energy and nutrients considered protective for bone. Meta-analyses of cohort studies have found no clear association between milk drinking and risk of hip fracture, and results of recent studies are contradictory. We studied the association between milk drinking and hip fracture in Norway, which has a population characterised by high fracture incidence and a high Ca intake. Baseline data from two population-based cohorts were used: the third wave of the Norwegian Counties Study (1985–1988) and the Five Counties Study (2000–2002). Diet and lifestyle variables were self-reported through questionnaires. Height and weight were measured. Hip fractures were identified by linkage to hospital data with follow-up through 2013. Of the 35 114 participants in the Norwegian Counties Study, 1865 suffered a hip fracture during 613 018 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression, hazard ratios (HR) per daily glass of milk were 0·97 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·03) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·96, 1·07) in women. Of 23 259 participants in the Five Counties Study, 1466 suffered a hip fracture during 252 996 person-years of follow-up. HR for hip fractures per daily glass of milk in multivariable Cox regression was 0·99 (95 % CI 0·92, 1·07) in men and 1·02 (95 % CI 0·97, 1·08) in women. In conclusion, there was no overall association between milk intake and risk of hip fracture in Norwegian men and women.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: K. Holvik, email Kristin.holvik@fhi.no

References

Hide All
1. Cauley, JA, Chalhoub, D, Kassem, AM, et al. (2014) Geographic and ethnic disparities in osteoporotic fractures. Nat Rev Endocrinol 10, 338351.
2. Swallow, DM (2003) Genetics of lactase persistence and lactose intolerance. Annu Rev Genet 37, 197219.
3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2013) Milk and dairy products as part of the diet. In Milk and Dairy Products in Human Nutrition, pp. 103–206 [E Muehlhoff, A Bennett and D McMahon, editors]. Rome: FAO.
4. Gaucheron, F (2011) Milk and dairy products: a unique micronutrient combination. J Am Coll Nutr 30, 400s409s.
5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2016) Food-based dietary guidelines. http://www.fao.org/nutrition/education/food-dietary-guidelines/home/en/ (accessed July 2018).
6. Weaver, CM (2014) How sound is the science behind the dietary recommendations for dairy? Am J Clin Nutr 99, 1217s1222s.
7. International Osteoporosis Foundation (2015) Fact sheet: milk and dairy products are good for bone health. https://www.iofbonehealth.org/data-publications/fact-sheets/milk-and-dairy-products-are-good-bone-health (accessed July 2018).
8. Xu, L, McElduff, P, D’Este, C, et al. (2004) Does dietary calcium have a protective effect on bone fractures in women? A meta-analysis of observational studies. Br J Nutr 91, 625634.
9. Meyer, HE (2004) Calcium and osteoporotic fractures. Br J Nutr 91, 505506.
10. Bolland, MJ, Leung, W, Tai, V, et al. (2015) Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review. BMJ 351, h4580.
11. Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Dawson-Hughes, B, Baron, JA, et al. (2007) Calcium intake and hip fracture risk in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 17801790.
12. Bischoff-Ferrari, HA, Dawson-Hughes, B, Baron, JA, et al. (2011) Milk intake and risk of hip fracture in men and women: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Bone Miner Res 26, 833839.
13. Bian, S, Hu, J, Zhang, K, et al. (2018) Dairy product consumption and risk of hip fracture: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Public Health 18, 165.
14. Michaëlsson, K, Wolk, A, Langenskiöld, S, et al. (2014) Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies. BMJ 349, g6015.
15. Feskanich, D, Meyer, HE, Fung, TT, et al. (2018) Milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Osteoporosis Int 29, 385396.
16. Fardellone, P, Sejourne, A, Blain, H, et al. (2017) Osteoporosis: is milk a kindness or a curse? Joint Bone Spine 84, 275281.
17. Bjartveit, K, Foss, OP, Gjervig, T, et al. (1979) The cardiovascular disease study in Norwegian counties. Background and organization. Acta Med Scand Suppl 634, 170.
18. Forsén, L, Bjørnelv, GMW, Bentzen, H, et al. (2012) Functional ability, physical activity and self-rated health in old age. A cross-sectional population-based study in Norway. Open Public Health J 5, 4051.
19. Løken, EB & Solvoll, K (1997) Can dietary data from the cardiovascular screenings in Finnmark, Sogn og Fjordane and Oppland be used to analyse risk for other diseases than cardiovascular disease? Nor J Epidemiol 7, 191200.
20. Blaker, B & Aarsland, M (1995) Measure and Weight for Foods, 2nd ed. Oslo: National Society for Diet and Health.
21. Omsland, TK, Holvik, K, Meyer, HE, et al. (2012) Hip fractures in Norway 1999–2008: time trends in total incidence and second hip fracture rates: a NOREPOS study. Eur J Epidemiol 27, 807814.
22. Søgaard, AJ, Holvik, K, Meyer, HE, et al. (2016) Continued decline in hip fracture incidence in Norway: a NOREPOS study. Osteoporos Int 27, 22172222.
23. R Core Team (2017) R for Windows version 3.4.3. The R Project for Statistical Computing. http://www.R-project.org (accessed January 2019).
24. Korn, EL, Graubard, BI & Midthune, D (1997) Time-to-event analysis of longitudinal follow-up of a survey: choice of the time-scale. Am J Epidemiol 145, 7280.
25. Thiebaut, AC & Benichou, J (2004) Choice of time-scale in Cox’s model analysis of epidemiologic cohort data: a simulation study. Stat Med 23, 38033820.
26. Grambsch, PM & Therneau, TM (1994) Proportional hazards tests and diagnostics based on weighted residuals. Biometrika 81, 515526.
27. Meyer, HE, Pedersen, JI, Løken, EB, et al. (1997) Dietary factors and the incidence of hip fracture in middle-aged Norwegians. A prospective study. Am J Epidemiol 145, 117123.
28. Michaëlsson, K, Wolk, A, Lemming, EW, et al. (2018) Intake of milk or fermented milk combined with fruit and vegetable consumption in relation to hip fracture rates: a cohort study of Swedish women. J Bone Miner Res 33, 449457.
29. Byberg, L & Michaëlsson, K (2018) Comments on Feskanich et al.: milk and other dairy foods and risk of hip fracture in men and women. Osteoporos Int 29, 12211222.
30. Quick, JA & Murphy, EW (1982) History of policies in the United States. In The Fortification of Foods: A Review. USDA Agriculture Handbook no. 598, pp. 4–5. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture.
31. Norwegian Food Safety Authority, University of Oslo, Norwegian Directorate of Health (2015) Weights, Measures and Portion Sizes for Foods. Report IS-2286. Oslo: Norwegian Food Safety Authority, the University of Oslo and the Norwegian Directorate of Health.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Holvik et al. supplementary material
Table S1

 Word (23 KB)
23 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed