Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model

  • Hyun Young Kim (a1) (a2), Tsutomu Okubo (a3), Lekh Raj Juneja (a3) and Takako Yokozawa (a2)

Abstract

We investigated the effects of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome using a rat model. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose (65 %) diet or standard chow for 1 week, and treated with an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight per d, or vehicle, for 2 weeks. Serum glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels of the high-fructose diet-fed rats were increased compared with those of the normal rats (P < 0·001). However, the EtOAc extract of amla ameliorated the high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, including hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Also, the elevated levels of hepatic TAG and total cholesterol in rats given the high-fructose diet were significantly reduced by 33·8 and 24·6 %, respectively (P < 0·001), on the administration of the EtOAc extract of amla at the dose of 20 mg/kg with the regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression. The protein levels of PPARα and SREBP-2 were not affected by the feeding of the high-fructose diet or EtOAc extract of amla. In addition, oral administration of the amla extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the increased serum and hepatic mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (21·1 and 43·1 %, respectively; P < 0·001). Furthermore, the amla extract inhibited the increase of cyclo-oxygenase-2 with the regulation of NF-κB and bcl-2 proteins in the liver, while the elevated expression level of bax was significantly decreased by 8·5 and 10·2 % at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. These findings suggest that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is attenuated by the polyphenol-rich fraction of amla.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr Takako Yokozawa, fax +81 76 434 5068, email yokozawa@inm.u-toyama.ac.jp

References

Hide All
1Levi, B & Werman, MJ (1998) Long-term fructose consumption accelerates glycation and several age-related variables in male rats. J Nutr 128, 14421449.
2Catena, C, Giacchetti, G, Novello, M, et al. (2003) Cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance in rats with fructose-induced hypertension. Am J Hypertens 16, 973978.
3Kelley, GL, Allan, G & Azhar, S (2004) High dietary fructose induces a hepatic stress response resulting in cholesterol and lipid dysregulation. Endocrinology 145, 548555.
4Ackerman, Z, Oron-Herman, M, Grozovski, M, et al. (2005) Fructose-induced fatty liver disease: hepatic effects of blood pressure and plasma triglyceride reduction. Hypertension 45, 10121018.
5Basciano, H, Federico, L & Adeli, K (2005) Fructose, insulin resistance, and metabolic dyslipidemia. Nutr Metab 2, 518.
6Hallfrisch, J, Reiser, S & Prather, ES (1983) Blood lipid distribution of hyperinsulinemic men consuming three levels of fructose. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 740748.
7Higley, NA & White, JS (1991) Trends in fructose availability and consumption in the United States. Food Technol 45, 118122.
8Gerrits, PM & Tsalikian, E (1993) Diabetes and fructose metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 796S799S.
9Vuilleumier, S (1993) Worldwide production of high-fructose syrup and crystalline fructose. Am J Clin Nutr 58, 733S736S.
10Uusitupa, MI (1994) Fructose in the diabetic diet. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 753S757S.
11Smith, SM (1998) High fructose corn syrup replaces sugar in processed food. Environ Nutr 11, 78.
12Elliott, SS, Keim, NL, Stern, JS, et al. (2002) Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 911922.
13Hwang, IS, Ho, H, Hoffman, BB, et al. (1987) Fructose-induced insulin resistance and hypertension in rats. Hypertension 10, 512516.
14Reaven, GM (1988) Banting lecture 1988. Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes 37, 15951607.
15Dimo, T, Rakotonirina, A, Tan, PV, et al. (2001) Antihypertensive effects of Dorstenia psilurus extract in fructose-fed hyperinsulinemic, hypertensive rats. Phytomedicine 8, 101106.
16Al-Awwadi, NA, Bornet, A, Azay, J, et al. (2004) Red wine polyphenols alone or in association with ethanol prevent hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and production of reactive oxygen species in the insulin-resistant fructose-fed rat. J Agric Food Chem 52, 55935597.
17Kang, DG, Moon, MK, Sohn, EJ, et al. (2004) Effects of morin on blood pressure and metabolic changes in fructose-induced hypertensive rats. Biol Pharm Bull 27, 17791783.
18Wu, LY, Juan, CC, Hwang, LS, et al. (2004) Green tea supplementation ameliorates insulin resistance and increases glucose transporter IV content in a fructose-fed rat model. Eur J Nutr 43, 116124.
19Al-Awwadi, NA, Araiz, C, Bornet, A, et al. (2005) Extracts enriched in different polyphenolic families normalize increased cardiac NADPH oxidase expression while having differential effects on insulin resistance, hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy in high-fructose-fed rats. J Agric Food Chem 53, 151157.
20Miatello, R, Vazquez, M, Renna, N, et al. (2005) Chronic administration of resveratrol prevents biochemical cardiovascular changes in fructose-fed rats. Am J Hypertens 18, 864870.
21Li, RW, Douglas, TD, Maiyoh, GK, et al. (2006) Green tea leaf extract improves lipid and glucose homeostasis in a fructose-fed insulin-resistant hamster model. J Ethnopharmacol 104, 2431.
22Thakur, CP (1985) Emblica officinalis reduces serum, aortic and hepatic cholesterol in rabbits. Experientia 41, 423424.
23Deokar, AB (1998) 125 Medicinal Plants Grown at Rajagaon, 1st ed., pp. 4849. Pune: DS Manav Vikas Foundation.
24Perry, LM (1980) Medicinal Plants of East and South East Asia: Attributed Properties and Uses, pp. 149150. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
25Anila, L & Vijayalakshmi, NR (2002) Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica – effectiveness for dyslipidemia. J Ethnopharmacol 79, 8187.
26Sabu, MC & Kuttan, R (2002) Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property. J Ethnopharmacol 81, 155160.
27Asmawi, MZ, Kankaanranta, H, Moilanen, E, et al. (1993) Anti-inflammatory activities of Emblica officinalis Gaertn leaf extracts. J Pharm Pharmacol 45, 581584.
28El-Mekkawy, S, Meselhy, MR, Kusumoto, IT, et al. (1995) Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase. Chem Pharm Bull 43, 641648.
29Jose, JK, Kuttan, G & Kuttan, R (2001) Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis. J Ethnopharmacol 75, 6569.
30Bandyopadhyay, SK, Pakrashi, SC & Pakrashi, A (2000) The role of antioxidant activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruits on prevention from indomethacin induced gastric ulcer. J Ethnopharmacol 70, 171176.
31Bhattacharya, A, Chatterjee, A, Ghosal, S, et al. (1999) Antioxidant activity of active tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis (amla). Indian J Exp Biol 37, 676680.
32Anila, L & Vijayalakshmi, NR (2003) Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem 83, 569574.
33Jose, JK & Kuttan, R (1995) Antioxidant activity of E. officinalis. J Clin Biochem Nutr 19, 6370.
34Kim, HJ, Yokozawa, T, Kim, HY, et al. (2005) Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 51, 413418.
35Yokozawa, T, Kim, HY, Kim, HJ, et al. (2007) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) prevents dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in the ageing process. Br J Nutr 97, 11871195.
36Yokozawa, T, Kim, HY, Kim, HJ, et al. (2007) Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) attenuates age-related renal dysfunction by oxidative stress. J Agric Food Chem 55, 77447752.
37National Research Council (1996) Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.
38Havel, RJ, Eder, HA & Bragdon, JH (1955) The distribution and chemical composition of ultracentrifugally separated lipoproteins in human serum. J Clin Invest 34, 13451353.
39McFarland, KF, Catalano, EW, Day, JF, et al. (1979) Nonenzymatic glucosylation of serum proteins in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 28, 10111014.
40Naito, C & Yamanaka, T (1978) Lipid peroxides in atherosclerotic diseases. Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 15, 187191.
41Folch, J, Lees, M & Sloane Stanley, GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497509.
42Johnson, D & Lardy, H (1967) Isolation of liver or kidney mitochondria. Methods Enzymol X, 9496.
43Jung, K & Pergande, M (1985) Influence of cyclosporin A on the respiration of isolated rat kidney mitochondria. FEBS Lett 183, 167169.
44Buege, JA & Aust, SD (1978) Microsomal lipid peroxidation. Methods Enzymol 52, 302310.
45Itzhaki, RF & Gill, DM (1964) A micro-biuret method for estimating proteins. Anal Biochem 9, 401410.
46Sakurai, H, Hisada, Y, Ueno, M, et al. (1996) Activation of transcription factor NF-κB in experimental glomerulonephritis in rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 1316, 132138.
47Laemmli, UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680685.
48Zhang, YJ, Tanaka, T, Yang, CR, et al. (2001) New phenolic constituents from the fruit juice of Phyllanthus emblica. Chem Pharm Bull 49, 537540.
49Tobey, TA, Mondon, CE, Zavaroni, I, et al. (1982) Mechanism of insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Metabolism 31, 608612.
50Thorburn, AW, Storlien, LH, Jenkins, AB, et al. (1989) Fructose-induced in vivo insulin resistance and elevated plasma triglyceride levels in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 49, 11551163.
51Hallfrisch, J (1990) Metabolic effects of dietary fructose. FASEB J 4, 26522660.
52Fried, SK & Rao, SP (2003) Sugars, hypertriglyceridemia, and cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 873S880S.
53Sarti, C & Gallagher, J (2006) The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, CHD risk, and treatment. J Diabetes Complications 20, 121132.
54Dichtl, W, Nilsson, L, Goncalves, I, et al. (1999) Very low-density lipoprotein activates nuclear factor-κB in endothelial cells. Circ Res 84, 10851094.
55Ginsberg, HN (2002) New perspectives on atherogenesis: role of abnormal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism. Circulation 106, 21372142.
56Williams, CM, Maitin, V & Jackson, KG (2004) Triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein-gene interactions in endothelial cells. Biochem Soc Trans 32, 994998.
57Kersten, S, Desvergne, B & Wahli, W (2000) Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 405, 421424.
58Roglans, N, Sanguino, E, Peris, C, et al. (2002) Atorvastatin treatment induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α expression and decreased plasma nonesterified fatty acids and liver triglyceride in fructose-fed rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 302, 232239.
59Schoonjans, K, Martin, G, Staels, B, et al. (1997) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, orphans with ligands and functions. Curr Opin Lipidol 8, 159166.
60Aoyama, T, Peters, JM, Iritani, N, et al. (1998) Altered constitutive expression of fatty acid-metabolizing enzymes in mice lacking the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR α). J Biol Chem 273, 56785684.
61Palmer, CN, Hsu, MH, Griffin, KJ, et al. (1998) Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α expression in human liver. Mol Pharmacol 53, 1422.
62Leone, TC, Weinheimer, CJ & Kelly, DP (1999) A critical role for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in the cellular fasting response: the PPARα-null mouse as a model of fatty acid oxidation disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96, 74737478.
63Miyazaki, M, Dobrzyn, A, Man, WC, et al. (2004) Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 gene expression is necessary for fructose-mediated induction of lipogenic gene expression by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem 279, 2516425171.
64Aljada, A, Garg, R, Ghanim, H, et al. (2001) Nuclear factor-κB suppressive and inhibitor-κB stimulatory effects of troglitazone in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: evidence of an anti-inflammatory action? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 32503256.
65Ghanim, H, Garg, R, Aljada, A, et al. (2001) Suppression of nuclear factor-κB and stimulation of inhibitor κB by troglitazone: evidence for an anti-inflammatory effect and a potential antiatherosclerotic effect in the obese. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 13061312.
66Browning, JD & Horton, JD (2004) Molecular mediators of hepatic steatosis and liver injury. J Clin Invest 114, 147152.
67Furukawa, S, Fujita, T, Shimabukuro, M, et al. (2004) Increased oxidative stress in obesity and its impact on metabolic syndrome. J Clin Invest 114, 17521761.
68Sonnenberg, GE, Krakower, GR & Kissebah, AHA (2004) A novel pathway to the manifestations of metabolic syndrome. Obes Res 12, 180186.
69Stentz, FB, Umpierrez, GE, Cuervo, R, et al. (2004) Proinflammatory cytokines, markers of cardiovascular risks, oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation in patients with hyperglycemic crises. Diabetes 53, 20792086.
70Dandona, P, Aljada, A, Chaudhuri, A, et al. (2005) Metabolic syndrome: a comprehensive perspective based on interactions between obesity, diabetes, and inflammation. Circulation 111, 14481454.
71Delbosc, S, Paizanis, E, Magous, R, et al. (2005) Involvement of oxidative stress and NADPH oxidase activation in the development of cardiovascular complications in a model of insulin resistance, the fructose-fed rat. Atherosclerosis 179, 4349.
72Barzilay, JI, Abraham, L, Heckbert, SR, et al. (2001) The relation of markers of inflammation to the development of glucose disorders in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Diabetes 50, 23842389.
73Pradhan, AD, Manson, JE, Rifai, N, et al. (2001) C-reactive protein, interleukin 6, and risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA 286, 327334.
74Baldwin, AS (2001) The transcription factor NF-κB and human disease. J Clin Invest 107, 36.
75Li, Q & Verma, IM (2002) NF-κB regulation in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol 2, 725734.
76Sasaki, M, Kumazaki, T, Takano, H, et al. (2001) Senescent cells are resistant to death despite low Bcl-2 level. Mech Ageing Dev 122, 16951706.
77Chung, HY, Kim, HJ, Kim, KW, et al. (2002) Molecular inflammation hypothesis of aging based on the anti-aging mechanism of calorie restriction. Microsc Res Tech 59, 264272.

Keywords

The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model

  • Hyun Young Kim (a1) (a2), Tsutomu Okubo (a3), Lekh Raj Juneja (a3) and Takako Yokozawa (a2)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed