Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 195
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    ALAJMI, NAWAL DEIGHTON, KEVIN KING, JAMES A. REISCHAK-OLIVEIRA, ALVARO WASSE, LUCY K. JONES, JENNY BATTERHAM, RACHEL L. and STENSEL, DAVID J. 2016. Appetite and Energy Intake Responses to Acute Energy Deficits in Females versus Males. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Vol. 48, Issue. 3, p. 412.


    Bailey, Daniel P. Broom, David R. Chrismas, Bryna C.R. Taylor, Lee Flynn, Edward and Hough, John 2016. Breaking up prolonged sitting time with walking does not affect appetite or gut hormone concentrations but does induce an energy deficit and suppresses postprandial glycaemia in sedentary adults. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 324.


    Brum, Jose M. Gibb, Roger D. Peters, John C. and Mattes, Richard D. 2016. Satiety effects of psyllium in healthy volunteers. Appetite, Vol. 105, p. 27.


    Cardel, M.I. Johnson, S.L. Beck, J. Dhurandhar, E. Keita, A.D. Tomczik, A.C. Pavela, G. Huo, T. Janicke, D.M. Muller, K. Piff, P.K. Peters, J.C. Hill, J.O. and Allison, D.B. 2016. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study. Physiology & Behavior, Vol. 162, p. 93.


    Debevec, Tadej Simpson, Elizabeth J. Mekjavic, Igor B. Eiken, Ola and Macdonald, Ian A. 2016. Effects of prolonged hypoxia and bed rest on appetite and appetite-related hormones. Appetite, Vol. 107, p. 28.


    Deighton, Kevin Frampton, James and Gonzalez, Javier T. 2016. Test-meal palatability is associated with overconsumption but better represents preceding changes in appetite in non-obese males. British Journal of Nutrition, p. 1.


    Fisher, Naomi Lattimore, Paul and Malinowski, Peter 2016. Attention with a mindful attitude attenuates subjective appetitive reactions and food intake following food-cue exposure. Appetite, Vol. 99, p. 10.


    Griffith, Lisa Haddad, Ella H. and Tonstad, Serena 2016. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men. Obesity Research & Clinical Practice, Vol. 10, Issue. 3, p. 264.


    Hickson, Mary Moss, Charlotte Dhillo, Waljit S. Bottin, Jeanne and Frost, Gary 2016. Increased peptide YY blood concentrations, not decreased acyl-ghrelin, are associated with reduced hunger and food intake in healthy older women: Preliminary evidence. Appetite, Vol. 105, p. 320.


    Kral, Tanja V.E. Bannon, Annika L. Chittams, Jesse and Moore, Reneé H. 2016. Comparison of the satiating properties of egg- versus cereal grain-based breakfasts for appetite and energy intake control in children. Eating Behaviors, Vol. 20, p. 14.


    Lambert, Jennifer E. Parnell, Jill A. Tunnicliffe, Jasmine M. Han, Jay Sturzenegger, Troy and Reimer, Raylene A. 2016. Consuming yellow pea fiber reduces voluntary energy intake and body fat in overweight/obese adults in a 12-week randomized controlled trial. Clinical Nutrition,


    Lesdéma, Aurélie Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès Talbot, Liliane Arlotti, Agathe Delarue, Julien Fromentin, Gilles Marcuz, Marie-Christine and Vinoy, Sophie 2016. When satiety evaluation is inspired by sensory analysis: A new approach. Food Quality and Preference, Vol. 49, p. 106.


    Li, Jia Armstrong, Cheryl and Campbell, Wayne 2016. Effects of Dietary Protein Source and Quantity during Weight Loss on Appetite, Energy Expenditure, and Cardio-Metabolic Responses. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 2, p. 63.


    Mekjavic, Igor B. Amon, Mojca Kölegård, Roger Kounalakis, Stylianos N. Simpson, Liz Eiken, Ola Keramidas, Michail E. and Macdonald, Ian A. 2016. The Effect of Normobaric Hypoxic Confinement on Metabolism, Gut Hormones, and Body Composition. Frontiers in Physiology, Vol. 7,


    Oliveira-Santos, Alécia A. Salvatori, Roberto Gomes-Santos, Elenilde Santana, João A. M. Leal, Ângela C. G. B. Barbosa, Rita A. A. Oliveira, Carla R. P. Souza, Anita H. O. Valença, Eugênia H. O. and Aguiar-Oliveira, Manuel H. 2016. Subjects with isolated GH deficiency due to a null GHRHR mutation eat proportionally more, but healthier than controls. Endocrine, Vol. 51, Issue. 2, p. 317.


    Parsons, Emma L. Stratton, Rebecca J. Cawood, Abbie L. Smith, Trevor R. and Elia, Marinos 2016. Oral nutritional supplements in a randomised trial are more effective than dietary advice at improving quality of life in malnourished care home residents. Clinical Nutrition,


    Rigamonti, Antonello Emilio Bini, Silvia Rocco, Maria Cristina Giardini, Vittorio Massimini, Diego Crippa, Maria Grazia Saluzzi, Antonella Casati, Marco Marazzi, Nicoletta Perotti, Mario Cimino, Vincenzo Grassi, Guido Sartorio, Alessandro and Pincelli, Angela Ida 2016. Post-prandial anorexigenic gut peptide, appetite and glucometabolic responses at different eating rates in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. Endocrine,


    Sargent, Charli Zhou, Xuan Matthews, Raymond Darwent, David and Roach, Gregory 2016. Daily Rhythms of Hunger and Satiety in Healthy Men during One Week of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 13, Issue. 2, p. 170.


    Sayer, R. Amankwaah, Akua Tamer, Gregory Chen, Ningning Wright, Amy Tregellas, Jason Cornier, Marc-Andre Kareken, David Talavage, Thomas McCrory, Megan and Campbell, Wayne 2016. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 21.


    Thomas, Elizabeth A. Mcnair, Bryan Bechtell, Jamie L. Ferland, Annie Cornier, Marc-Andre and Eckel, Robert H. 2016. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment. Obesity, Vol. 24, Issue. 1, p. 37.


    ×

The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings

  • R. J. Stubbs (a1), D. A. Hughes (a1), A. M. Johnstone (a1), E. Rowley (a1), C. Reid (a2), M. Elia (a3), R. Stratton (a3), H. Delargy (a4), N. King (a4) and J. E. Blundell (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114500001719
  • Published online: 01 March 2007
Abstract

This present paper reviews the reliability and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) in terms of (1) their ability to predict feeding behaviour, (2) their sensitivity to experimental manipulations, and (3) their reproducibility. VAS correlate with, but do not reliably predict, energy intake to the extent that they could be used as a proxy of energy intake. They do predict meal initiation in subjects eating their normal diets in their normal environment. Under laboratory conditions, subjectively rated motivation to eat using VAS is sensitive to experimental manipulations and has been found to be reproducible in relation to those experimental regimens. Other work has found them not to be reproducible in relation to repeated protocols. On balance, it would appear, in as much as it is possible to quantify, that VAS exhibit a good degree of within-subject reliability and validity in that they predict with reasonable certainty, meal initiation and amount eaten, and are sensitive to experimental manipulations. This reliability and validity appears more pronounced under the controlled (but more artificial) conditions of the laboratory where the signal: noise ratio in experiments appears to be elevated relative to real life. It appears that VAS are best used in within-subject, repeated-measures designs where the effect of different treatments can be compared under similar circumstances. They are best used in conjunction with other measures (e.g. feeding behaviour, changes in plasma metabolites) rather than as proxies for these variables. New hand-held electronic appetite rating systems (EARS) have been developed to increase reliability of data capture and decrease investigator workload. Recent studies have compared these with traditional pen and paper (P&P) VAS. The EARS have been found to be sensitive to experimental manipulations and reproducible relative to P&P. However, subjects appear to exhibit a significantly more constrained use of the scale when using the EARS relative to the P&P. For this reason it is recommended that the two techniques are not used interchangeably.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings
      Your Kindle email address
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr R. James Stubbs, fax +44 (0) 1224 715349, email J.Stubbs@rri.sari.ac.uk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J de Castro and DK Elmore (1988) Subjective hunger relationships with meal patterns in the spontaneous feeding behaviour of humans, evidence for a casual connection. Physiology and Behaviour 43, 159165.

C De Graaf , A Schreurs and GH Blauw (1993) Short term effects of different amounts of sweet and non sweet carbohydrates on satiety and energy intake. Physiology and Behaviour 54, 833843.

HE Drummond , S Ghosh , A Ferguson , D Brackenridge and B Tiplady (1995) Electronic quality of life questionnaires: a comparison of pen-based electronic questionnaires with conventional paper in a gastrointestinal study. Quality of Life Research 4, 2126.

MT Freyd (1923) The graphic rating scale. Journal of Educational Psychology 14, 83102.

P Leathwood and P Pollet (1988) Effects of slow release carbohydrates in the form of bean flakes on the evolution of hunger and satiety in man. Appetite 10, 111.

R Mattes (1990) Hunger ratings are not a valid proxy measure of reported food intake in humans. Appetite 15, 103113.

EE Ohnhaus and R Alder (1975) Methodological problems in the measurement of pain: a comparison between the verbal rating scale and the visual analogue scale. Pain 1, 379384.

X Pi-Sunyer , HR Kissileff , J Thornton and GP Smith (1982) C-terminal octopeptide of cholescystokinin decreases food intake in obese men. Physiology and Behaviour 29, 627630.

BJ Rolls , M Hetherington and LJ Laster (1988) Comparison of the effects of aspartame and sucrose on appetite and food intake. Appetite 11, 6267.

TA Speigel , AJ Stunkard , EE Shrager , CP O'Brian , MF Morrison and E Stellar (1987) Effect of naltrexone on food intake, hunger and satiety in obese men. Physiology and Behaviour 40, 135141.

RJ Stratton , RJ Stubbs , DA Hughes , N King , JE Blundell and M Elia (1998) Comparison of the traditional paper visual analogue scales questionnaires with an Apple Newton electronic rating system (EARS) in free living subjects feeding. ad libitum. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 52, 737741.

RJ Stubbs , AM Johnstone , CG Harbron and C Reid (1998) Covert manipulation of the mixed energy density diets: effect on. ad libitum food intake in "pseudo free-living" humans. International Journal of Obesity 22, 980987.

DA Thompson and RG Campbell (1977) Hunger in humans induced by 2 deoxy-D-glucose glucoprivic control of taste p and food intake. Science 198, 10651068.

DA Thompson , Sl Welle , U Lilavivat , L Penicaud and RG Campbell (1982) Opiate receptor blockade in man reduces 2-deoxy-D-glucose induced food intake but not hunger, thirst, and hypothermia. Life Sciences 31, 847852.

E Trenchard and T Silverstone (1983) Naloxone reduces the food intake of normal human volunteers. Appetite 4, 4350.

MR Yeomans , RW Gray , CJ Mitchell and S True (1997) Independent effects of palatability and within meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers. Appetite 29, 6176.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: