Black, J., and Erickson, Lynda. 2003. Women Candidates and Voter Bias: Do Women Politicians Need to be Better? Electoral Studies 22 (1):81–100.
Burrell, Barbara. 1992. Women Candidates in Open-Seat Primaries for the US House: 1968-1990. Legislative Studies Quarterly 17 (4):493–508.
Caul, Miki. 2001. Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross-National Analysis. Journal of Politics 63 (4):1214–1229.
Dahlerup, Drude, and Freidenvall, Lenita. 2011. Electoral Gender Quota Systems and Their Implementation in Europe. Directorate General for Internal Policies. Available from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/studies.
Darcy, Robert, Welch, Susan, and Clark, Janet. 1994. Women, Elections, and Representation. New York: Longman.
EES. 2010. European Parliament Election Study 2009, Candidate Study, Advance Release. Technical Report. Available from www.piredeu.eu.
Griffin, John. D., Newman, Brian, and Wolbrecht, Christina. 2012. A Gender Gap in Policy Representation in the U.S. Congress? Legislative Studies Quarterly 37 (1):35–66.
Hinojosa, Magda. 2012. Selecting Women, Electing Women: Political Representation and Candidate Selection in Latin America. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2008. Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation. Annual Review of Political Science 11:479–495.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2010. Women, Work, and Politics: The Political Economy of Gender Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Kittilson, Miki C. 2006. Challenging Parties, Changing Parliaments: Women and Elected Office in Contemporary Europe. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Krook, Mona Lena. 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Worldwide. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Krook, Mona Lena, Lovenduski, Joni, and Squires, Judith. 2009. Gender Quotas and Models of Political Citizenship. British Journal of Political Science 39 (4):781.
Kunovich, Sheri L, and Paxton, Pamela. 2012. Pathways to Power: The Role of Political Parties in Women’s National Political. American Journal of Sociology 111 (2):505–552.
Matland, Richard E. 1998. Women’s Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries. Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (1):109–125.
Matland, Richard E., and Studlar, Donley T.. 1996. The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member District and Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Canada and Norway. Journal of Politics 58 (3):707–733.
Matland, Richard E., and Studlar, Donley T.. 2004. Determinants of Legislative Turnover: A Cross-National Analysis. British Journal of Political Science 34 (1):87–108.
Meserve, Stephen A., Pemstein, Daniel, and Bernhard, William T. 2008. Replication Data for: Gender, Incumbency, and Party List Nominations, doi:10.7910/DVN/GLL3UW, Harvard Dataverse, V1.
Norris, Pippa. 1985. Women’s Legislative Representation in Western Europe. West European Politics 8:90–101.
Norris, Pippa. 1987. Politics and Sexual Equality: The Comparative Position of Women in Western Democracies. Boulder, CO: Wheatsheaf Books.
Norris, Pippa. 1993. Conclusions: Comparing Legislative Recruitment. In Gender and Party Politics, edited by Joni Lovenduski and Pippa Norris, 309–330. London: Sage Publications.
Norris, Pippa. 2004. Electoral Engineering: Voting Rules and Political Behavior. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Norris, Pippa, and Lovenduski, Joni. 1993. If Only More Candidates Came Forward: Supply-Side Explanations of Candidate Selection in Britain. British Journal of Political Science 23 (3):373–408.
Pemstein, Daniel, Meserve, Stephen A., and Bernhard, William T.. 2015. Brussels Bound: Policy Experience and Candidate Selection in European Elections. Comparative Political Studies 48 (11):1421–1453.
Reynolds, Andrew. 1999. Women in Legislatures and Executives of the World: Knocking at the Highest Glass Ceiling. World Politics 51:547–572.
Rosenbluth, Frances, Salmond, Rob, and Thies, Michael F.. 2006. Welfare Works: Explaining Female Legislative Representation. Politics and Gender 2 (2):165–192.
Rule, Wilma. 1981. Why Women Don’t Run: The Critical Contextual Factors in Women’s Representation. Western Political Quarterly 34:60–77.
Rule, Wilma. 1987. Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors, and Women’s Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies. Western Political Quarterly 40 (3):477–498.
Salmond, Rob. 2006. Proportional Representation and Female Parliamentarians. Legislative Studies Quarterly 31 (2):175–204.
Samuels, David. 2001. Incumbents and Challengers on a Level Playing Field: Assessing the Impact of Campaign Finance in Brazil. The Journal of Politics 63 (2):569–584.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. 2005. The Incumbency Disadvantage and Women’s Election to Legislative Office. Electoral Studies 24 (2):27–44.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A.. 2009. Making Quotas Work: The Effect of Gender Quota Laws on the Election of Women. Legislative Studies Quarterly 34 (1):5–28.
Studlar, Donley T., and McAllister, Ian. 1991. Political Recruitment to the Australian Legislature: Toward an Explanation of Women’s Electoral Disadvantages. Western Political Quarterly 44:467–485.
Thames, Frank C., and Williams, Margaret S.. 2010. Incentives for Personal Votes and Women’s Representation in Legislatures. Comparative Political Studies 43 (12):1575–1600.
Welch, Susan, and Studlar, Donley T.. 1990. Multimember Districts and Representation of Women: Evidence from Britain and the United States. The Journal of Politics 52 (2):391–412.