Hostname: page-component-7dc689bd49-6fmns Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-21T01:45:34.311Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Cacao pollination: Microdiptera of cacao plantations and some of their breeding places

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 July 2009

John A. Winder
Division of Entomology, Cacao Research Centre/CEPLAC, itabuna, Bahia, Brazil
Pedrito Silva
Division of Entomology, Cacao Research Centre/CEPLAC, itabuna, Bahia, Brazil


Counts were made of Microdiptera hatching in emergence traps from samples of organic substrates from cacao plantations in Bahia, Brazil. Rotten cacao pods provided the best substrate with regard to species diversity and total numbers of insects collected, and also for the subgenus Thyridomyia. Leaf-litter was found to be an important breeding place for the subgenus Forcipomyia, especially F. {F.} genualis (Lw.), and for Atrichopogon species. Epiphytic bromeliads may be an important breeding place for the pollinating subgenus Proforcipomyia.

Original Articles
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1972

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Bagnouls, F. & Gaussen, H. (1957). Les climats biologiques et leurs classifications.—Annis. Géogr. 66, 193220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barroga, S. F. (1964). Progress report on the study of insects, particularly midges associated with pollination of Theobroma cacao, April, 1963.—Philipp. J. Pl. Ind. 29, 123133.Google Scholar
Billes, D. J. (1942). Pollination of Theobroma cacao L. in Trinidad, B.W.I.—Trop. Agric., Trin. 18, 151156.Google Scholar
Dessart, P. (1962). Contribution à l'étude des Ceratopogonidae (Diptera). IV. Les Forcipomyia pollinasateurs du cacaoyer (2).—Revue Zool. Bot. afr. 65, 139148.Google Scholar
Dessart, P. (1963). Contribution à l'étude des Ceratopogonidae (Diptera). Remarques sur quelques espèces du genre Forcipomyia.—Bull. Annls Soc. r. ent. Belg. 99, 182188.Google Scholar
Hernandez, B. J. (1965). Insect pollination of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in Costa Rica.—Ph.D. Thesis University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
Kieffer, J. J. (1912). Nouveaux Chiromides(Tendipedidae) de Ceylan.—Spolia zeylan. 8, 124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Koppen, W. (1948). Climatologia. Traduzido da 2a ed. em Alemão por P. R. Perez.—478 pp. Buenos Aires, F.C.E.Google Scholar
Posnette, A. F. & Entwistle, H. M. (1958). The pollination of cocoa flowers.—Rep. Proc. Cocoa Conf. 6669.Google Scholar
Saunders, L. G. (1957). Revision of the genus Forcipomyia based on characters of all stages(Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).—Can. J. Zool. 34, 657705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Saunders, L. G. (1959). Methods for studying Forcipomyia midges, with special reference to cacao-pollinating species (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae).—Can. J. Zool. 37, 3351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Soria, V. S. de J. (1970). Studies on Forcipomyia spp. midges (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) related to the pollination of Theobroma cacao L.—142 pp. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
Winder, J. A. & Silva, P. (1969). Entomofilia do cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L.). Revisão bibliográfica a pesquisas na Bahia. In Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia. Resumos da II Reunião Anual, Recife, Pernambuco, 1–6 dezembro. 1969, 105106.Google Scholar