Skip to main content Accessibility help

An entomological review of invasive mosquitoes in Europe

  • J.M. Medlock (a1), K.M. Hansford (a1), V. Versteirt (a2), B. Cull (a1), H. Kampen (a3), D. Fontenille (a4), G. Hendrickx (a2), H. Zeller (a5), W. Van Bortel (a5) and F. Schaffner (a2)...

Among the invasive mosquitoes registered all over the world, Aedes species are particularly frequent and important. As several of them are potential vectors of disease, they present significant health concerns for 21st century Europe. Five species have established in mainland Europe, with two (Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus) becoming widespread and two (Ae. albopictus and Aedes aegypti) implicated in disease transmission to humans in Europe. The routes of importation and spread are often enigmatic, the ability to adapt to local environments and climates are rapid, and the biting nuisance and vector potential are both an ecomonic and public health concern. Europeans are used to cases of dengue and chikungunya in travellers returning from the tropics, but the threat to health and tourism in mainland Europe is substantive. Coupled to that are the emerging issues in the European overseas territorities and this paper is the first to consider the impacts in the remoter outposts of Europe. If entomologists and public health authorities are to address the spread of these mosquitoes and mitigate their health risks they must first be prepared to share information to better understand their biology and ecology, and share data on their distribution and control successes. This paper focusses in greater detail on the entomological and ecological aspects of these mosquitoes to assist with the risk assessment process, bringing together a large amount of information gathered through the ECDC VBORNET project.

Corresponding author
* Author for correspondence Phone: 01980 612100 E-mail:
Hide All
Adhami, J. & Reiter, P. (1998) Introduction and establishment of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) in Albania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 14, 340343.
Aitken, T.H., Test, R.B., Beaty, B.J. & Rosen, L. (1979) Transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus by mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 28(1), 119121.
Akahata, W., Yang, Z.Y., Andersen, H., Sun, S., Holdaway, H.A., Kong, W.P., Lewis, M.G., Higgs, S., Rossmann, M.G., Rao, S. & Nabel, G.J. (2010) A virus-like particle vaccine for epidemic Chikungunya virus protects nonhuman primates against infection. Nature Medicine 16(93), 334338.
Almeida, A.P.G., Goncalves, Y.M., Novo, M.T., Sousa, C.A., Melim, M. & Gracio, A.J.S. (2007) Vector monitoring of Aedes aegypti in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal. Eurosurveillance 12(46), pii = 3311.
Alto, B.W. (2011) Interspecific larval competition between invasive Aedes japonicus and native Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) and adult longevity. Journal of Medical Entomology 48(2), 232242.
Andreadis, T.G. & Wolfe, R.J. (2010) Evidence for reduction of native mosquitoes with increased expansion of invasive Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in the northeastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 47(1), 4352.
Andreadis, T.G., McKnight, S. & Ferrandino, F.J. (2012) Aedes japonicus japonicus and associated woodland species attracted to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps baited with carbon dioxide and the Traptech mosquito lure. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 28(3), 184191.
Angelini, R., Finarelli, A.C., Angelini, P., Po, C., Petropulacos, K., Macini, P., Fiorentini, C., Fortuna, C., Venturi, G., Romi, R., Majori, G., Nicoletti, L., Rezza, G. & Cassone, A. (2007 a) An outbreak of chikungunya fever in the province of Ravenna, Italy. Eurosurveillance 12(9), 3260.
Angelini, R., Finarelli, A.C., Angelini, P., Po, C., Petropulacos, K., Silvi, G., Macini, P., Fortuna, C., Venturi, G., Magurano, F., Fiorentini, C., Marchi, A., Benedetti, E., Bucci, P., Boros, S., Romi, R., Majori, G., Ciufolini, M.G., Nicoletti, L., Rezza, G. & Cassone, A. (2007 b) Chikungunya in north-eastern Italy: a summing up of the outbreak. Eurosurveillance 12(11), E071122.2.
Apperson, C.S., Hassan, H.K., Harrison, B.A., Savage, H.M., Aspen, S.E., Farajollahi, A., Crans, W., Daniels, T.J., Falco, R.C., Benedicts, M., Anderson, M., McMillen, L. & Unnasch, T.R. (2004) Host feeding patterns of established and potential mosquito vectors of West Nile virus in the eastern United States. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 4(1), 7182.
Aranda, C., Eritja, R. & Roiz, D. (2006) First record and establishment of the mosquito Aedes albopictus in Spain. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 20(1), 150152.
Armistead, J.S., Nishimura, N., Escher, R.L. & Lounibos, L.P. (2008) Larval competition between Aedes japonicus and Aedes atropalpus (Diptera: Culicidae) in simulated rock pools. Journal of Vector Ecology 33(2), 238246.
Armistead, J.S., Nishimura, N., Arias, J.R. & Lounibos, L.P. (2012) Community ecology of container mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Virginia following invasion by Aedes japonicus . Journal of Medical Entomology 49(6), 13181327.
ARS [Agence Régionale de Santé] (2014) Présence d'un cas autochtone de dengue dans les Bouches-du-Rhȏne. Communique de Press. Available online at
Bagny, L., Freulon, M. & Delatte, H. (2009) Première mention d‘Aedes albopictus, vecteur d'arbovirus, dans les îles Éparses du canal du Mozambique et actualisation de l'inventaire de la faune culicidienne. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 102(3), 192198.
Bagny, L., Arnoux, S., Delatte, H., Lajoie, G. & Fontenille, D. (2012) Spread of invasive Aedes albopictus and decline of resident Aedes aegypti in urban areas of Mayotte 2007–2010. Biological Invasions 14, 16231633.
Balenghien, T., Cardinale, E., Chevalier, V., Elissa, N., Failloux, A.-B., Nipomichene, T.N.J.J., Nicolas, G., Rakotoharinome, V.M., Roger, M. & Zumbo, B. (2013) Towards a better understanding of Rift Valley fever epidemiology in the south-west of the Indian Ocean. Veterinary Research 44, 78.
Barrera, R., Amador, M., Diaz, A., Smith, J., Munoz-Jordan, J.L. & Rosario, Y. (2008) Unusual productivity of Aedes aegypti in septic tanks and its implications for dengue control. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 22(1), 6269.
Bartlett-Healy, K., Unlu, I., Obenauer, P., Hughes, T., Healy, S., Crepeau, T., Farajollahi, A., Kesavaraju, B., Fonseca, D., Schoeler, G., Gaugler, R. & Strickman, D. (2012) Larval mosquito habitat utilization and community dynamics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 49(4), 813824.
Beaman, J.R. & Turell, M.J. (1991) Transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by strains of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in North and South America. Journal of Medical Entomology 28(1), 161164.
Becker, N., Huber, K., Pluskota, B. & Kaiser, A. (2011) Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus – a newly established neozoon in Germany and a revised list of the German mosquito fauna. European Mosquito Bulletin 29, 99102.
Becker, N., Geier, M., Balczun, C., Bradersen, U., Huber, K., Kiel, E., Krüger, A., Lühken, R., Orendt, C., Plenge-Bönig, A., Rose, A., Schaub, G.A. & Tannich, E. (2013) Repeated introduction of Aedes albopictus into Germany, July to October 2012. Parasitology Research 112(4), 17871790.
Belkin, J.N. (1962) The Mosquitoes of the South Pacific (Diptera, Culicidae), vol. 1. Berkeley, University of California Press.
Benedict, M.Q., Levine, R.S., Hawley, W.A. & Philip, L. (2007) Spread of the Tiger: global risk of invasion by the mosquito Aedes albopictus . Vector Borne & Zoonotic Disease 7(1), 7685.
Bhatt, S., Gething, P.W., Brady, O.J., Messina, J.P., Farlow, A.W., Moyes, C.L., Drake, J.M., Brownstein, J.S., Hoen, A.G., Sankoh, O., Myers, M.F., George, D.B., Jaenisch, T., Wint, G.R.W., Simmons, C.P., Scott, T.W., Farrar, J.J. & Hay, S.I. (2013) The global distribution and burden of dengue. Nature 496, 504507.
Bocková, E., Kočišová, A. & Letková, V. (2013) First record of Aedes albopictus in Slovakia. Acta Parasitologica 58(4), 603606.
Bonilauri, P., Bellini, R., Calzolari, M., Angelini, R., Venturi, L., Fallacara, F., Cordioli, P., Angelini, P., Venturelli, C., Merialdi, G. & Dottori, M. (2008) Chikungunya virus in Aedes albopictus, Italy. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14(5), 852854.
Bonizzoni, M., Gasperi, G., Chen, X. & James, A.A. (2013) The invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus: current knowledge and future perspectives. Trends in Parasitology 29(9), 460468.
Boorman, J.P.T. & Porterfield, J.S. (1956) A simple technique for infection of mosquitoes with viruses; transmission of Zika virus. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 50(3), 238242.
Boussès, P., Dehecq, J.S., Brengues, C. & Fontenille, D. (2013) Inventaire actualisé des moustiques (Diptera: Culicidae) de l’île de La Réunion, Océan Indien. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique 106(2), 113125.
Brown, J.E., Scholte, E.J., Dik, M., Den Hartog, W., Beeuwkes, J. & Powell, J.R. (2011) Aedes aegypti mosquitoes imported into the Netherlands, 2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(12), 23352337.
Buhagiar, J.A. (2009) A second record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta. European Mosquito Bulletin 27, 6567.
Calzolari, M., Bonilauri, P., Bellini, R., Albieri, A., Defilippo, F., Maioli, G., Galletti, G., Gelati, A., Barbieri, I., Tamba, M., Lelli, D., Carra, E., Cordioli, P., Angelini, P. & Dottori, M. (2010) Evidence of simultaneous circulation of West Nile and Usutu viruses in mosquitoes sampled in Emilia-Romagna region (Italy) in 2009. PLoS ONE 5(12), e14324.
Cameron, E.C., Wilkerson, R.C., Mogi, M., Miyagi, I., Toma, T., Kim, H.C. & Fonseca, D.M. (2010) Molecular phylogenetics of Aedes japonicus, a disease vector that recently invaded Western Europe, North America, and the Hawaiian islands. Journal of Medical Entomology 47(4), 527535.
Caminade, C., Medlock, J.M., Ducheyne, E., McIntyre, K.M., Leach, S., Baylis, M. & Morse, A.P. (2012) Suitability of European climate for the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus: recent trends and future scenarios. Journal of the Royal Society Interface 9(75), 27082717.
Cancrini, G., Frangipane di Regalbono, A., Ricci, I., Tessarin, C., Grabrielli, S. & Pietrobelli, M. (2003 a) Aedes albopictus is a natural vector of Dirofilaria immitis in Italy. Veterinary Parasitology 118(3–4), 195202.
Cancrini, G., Romi, R., Gabrielli, S., Toma, L., di Paolo, M. & Scaramozzino, P. (2003 b) First finding of Dirofilaria repens in a natural population of Aedes albopictus . Medical & Veterinary Entomology 17(4), 448451.
Capela, R.A. (1981) Contribution to the study of mosquitoes (Diptera Culicidae) from the archipelagos of Madeira and the Salvages. I. Madeira. Arquivos do Museu Bocage A 1, 4566.
Capelli, G., Drago, A., Martini, S., Montarsi, F., Soppelsa, M., Delai, N., Ravagnan, S., Mazzon, L., Schaffner, F., Mathis, A., Di Luca, M., Romi, R. & Russo, F. (2011) First report in Italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae. Parasites & Vectors 4, 188.
Carpenter, S.J. & LaCasse, W.J. (1955) Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). University of California Press Berkeley and Los Angeles, California.
Carrieri, M., Albieri, A., Angelini, P., Baldacchini, F., Venturelli, C., Zeo, S.M. & Bellini, R. (2011) Surveillance of the chikungunya vector Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy): organizational and technical aspects of a large scale monitoring system. Journal of Vector Ecology 36(1), 108116.
Colebunders, R. (2001) Imported case of confirmed Yellow fever detected in Belgium. Eurosurveillance 5(47), pii=2058.
Contini, C. (2007) Aedes albopictus in Sardinia: reappearance of widespread colonization? Parassitologia 49(1–2), 3335.
Corriveau, R., Philippon, B. & Yébakima, A. (2003) Dengue in Martinique, Guadeloupe and French Guiana. Montpellier, IRD Editions.
Cotteaux-Lautard, C., Berenger, J.M., Fusca, F., Chardon, H., Simon, F. & Pagès, F. (2013) A new challenge for hospitals in southeast France: monitoring local populations of Aedes albopictus to prevent nosocomial transmission of dengue or chikungunya. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 29(1), 8183.
Coulson, S.J. (2007) Terrestrial and freshwater invertebrate fauna of the High Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. Zootaxa 1448, 4158.
Da Cunha Ramos, H. & Ribeiro, H. (1980) Description of the male, pupa and fourth instar larva of Culiseta (Culiseta) atlantica (Edwards, 1932) (Diptera: Culicidae), an endemic species of the Azores Archipelago. Mosquito Systematics 12(3), 320332.
Damiens, D., Ayrinhac, A., Van Bortel, W., Versteirt, V., Dekoninck, W. & Hance, T. (2014) Invasive process and repeated cross-sectional surveys of the mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus establishment in Belgium. PLoS ONE 9(4), e89358.
Darsie, R.F. & Ward, R.A. (1989) Review of the new Nearctic mosquito distributional records north of Mexico, wiht notes on additionals and taxonomic changes of the fauna, 1982–1989. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 5(4), 552557.
Demeulemeester, J., Deblauwe, I., De Witte, J., Jansen, F., Hendy, A. & Madder, M. (2014) First interception of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Lucky bamboo shipments in Belgium. Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association 32, 1416.
Depoortere, E. & Coulombier, D. (2006) Chikungunya risk assessment for Europe: recommendations for action. Eurosurveillance 11(19), pii=2956.
Derraik, J.G.B. (2004) Exotic mosquitoes in New Zealand: a review of species intercepted, their pathways and ports of entry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 28(5), 433444.
Diallo, M., Laganier, R. & Nangouma, A. (2010) First record of Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) in Central African Republic. Tropical Medicine and International Health 15(10), 11851189.
Dieng, H., Saifur, R.G.M., Hassan, A.A., Salmah, M.R.C., Boots, M., Satho, T., Jaal, Z. & AbuBakar, S. (2010) Indoor-breeding of Aedes albopictus in northern peninsular Malaysia and its potential epidemiological implications. PLoS One 27(5), e11790.
Drago, A. (2003) Education, information and public awareness in vector control. in Presentation to the 14th European Conference of the Society of Vector Ecology, 3–6 September 2003, Bellinzona, Switzerland.
Dunphy, B.M., Tucker, B.J., Petersen, M.J., Blitvich, B.J. & Bartholomay, L.C. (2009) Arrival and establishment of Aedes japonicus japonicus in Iowa. Journal of Medical Entomology 46(6), 12821289.
Dupont-Rouzeyrol, M., Caro, V., Guillaumot, L., Vazeille, M., D'Ortenzio, E., Thiberge, J.M., Baroux, N., Gourinat, A.C., Grandadam, M. & Failloux, A.-B. (2012) Chikungunya virus and the mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in New Caledonia (South Pacific Region). Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 12(12), 10361041.
Dusfour, I., Carinci, R., Issaly, J., Gaborit, P. & Girod, R. (2013) A survey of adult anophelines in French Guiana: enhanced descriptions of species distribution and biting responses. Journal of Vector Ecology 38(2), 203209.
ECDC (2006) Consultation on Chikungunya Risk Assessment for Europe. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2007) Meeting Report: Consultation on Vector-Related Risk for Chikungunya Virus Transmission in Europe. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2009) Development of Aedes Albopictus Risk Maps. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2012) Technical Report. The climatic suitability for dengue transmission in continental Europe. Available online at
ECDC (2013 a) Communicable disease threat report: week 2, 6–12 January 2013. Available online at
ECDC (2013 b) Mission Report. Dengue Outbreak in Madeira, Portugal, March 2013. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2014 a) Dengue in France. Communicable Disease Threats Report, 30 August 2014. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2014 b) Rapid Risk Assessment. Chikungunya outbreak in Caribbean Region, 25 June 2014. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2014 c) E3 Geoportal. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
ECDC (2014 d) Rapid Risk Assessment: Zika Virus Infection Outbreak, French Polynesia. Stockholm, ECDC. Available online at
Edwards, F.W. (1917) Notes on Culicidae with descriptions of new species. Bulletin of Entomological Research 7(3), 201229.
Effer, P.V., Pang, L., Kitsutani, P., Vorndam, V., Nakata, M., Ayers, T., Elm, J., Tom, T., Reiter, P., Rigau-Perez, J.G., Hayes, J.M., Mills, K., Napier, M., Clark, G.G. & Gubler, D.J. (2005) Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 742749.
Eritja, R., Escosa, R., Lucientes, J., Marques, E., Roiz, D. & Ruiz, S. (2005) Worldwide invasion of vector mosquitoes: present European distribution and challenges in Spain. Biological Invasions 7(1), 8797.
Estrada-Franco, J.G. & Craig, G.B. (1995) Biology, Disease Relationships, and Control of Aedes Albopictus. Technical Paper No. 42. Washington, DC, Pan American Health Organisation.
Falco, R.C., Daniels, T.J. & Slameck, M.C. (2002) Prevalence and distribution of Ochlerotatus japonicus in two counties in southern New York State. Journal of Medical Entomology 39(6), 920925.
Feng, L.C. (1938) The tree hole species of mosquitoes of Peiping, China. Chinese Medical Journal (Engl.) Supplement 2, 503525.
Fernández Mdel, M.C., Jean, S.Y., Callaba, C.A. & López, L.S. (2012) The first report of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus in Haiti. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 107(2), 279281.
Fischer, D., Thomas, S.M., Niemitz, F., Reineking, B. & Beierkuhnlein, C. (2011) Projection of climatic suitability for Aedes albopictus Skuse (Culicidae) in Europe under climate change conditions. Global and Planetary Change 78(1–2), 5464.
Fischer, D., Thomas, S.M., Suk, J.E., Sudre, B., Hess, A., Tjaden, N.B., Beierkuhnlein, C. & Semenza, J.C. (2013) Climate change effects on Chikungunya transmission in Europe: geospatial analysis of vector's climatic suitability and virus' temperature requirements. International Journal of Health Geographics 12, 51.
Fischer, D., Thomas, S.M., Neteler, M., Tjaden, N.B. & Beierkuhnlein, C. (2014) Climatic suitability of Aedes albopictus in Europe referring to climate change projections: comparison of mechanistic and correlative niche modelling approaches. Eurosurveillance 19(6), 20696.
Fonseca, D.M., Widdel, A.K., Hutchinson, M., Spichiger, S.E. & Kramer, L.D. (2010) Fine-scale spatial and temporal population genetics of Aedes japonicus, a new US mosquito, reveal multiple introductions. Molecular Ecology 19, 15591572.
Fontenille, D., Diallo, M., Mondo, M., Ndiaye, M. & Thonnon, J. (1997) First evidence of natural vertical transmission of yellow fever virus in Aedes aegypti, its epidemic vector. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91, 533535.
Frank, C., Schoneberg, I. & Stark, K. (2011) Trends in imported chikungunya virus infections in Germany, 2006–2009. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 11(6), 631636.
Freier, J.E. & Beier, J.C. (1984) Oral transmission of La Crosse virus by Aedes atropalpus . American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 33(4), 708714.
Ganushkina, L.A., Tanygina, E., Bezzhonova, O.V. & Sergiev, V.P. (2012) Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus Skus. mosquitoes in the Russian Federation. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni (1), 34 [Article in Russian].
Ganushkina, L.A., Bezzhonova, O.V., Patraman, I.V., Tanygina, E. & Sergiev, V.P. (2013) Distribution of Aedes (stegomyia) aegypti L. and Aedes (stegomyia) albopictus Skus. mosquitoes on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia i Parazitarnye Bolezni (1), 4546 [Article in Russian].
Gaspar, J.P., McKay, T. & Huss, M.J. (2012) First report of Aedes japonicus in natural and artificial habitats in northeastern Arkansas. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 28(1), 3842.
Gatt, P., Deeming, J.C. & Schaffner, F. (2009) First records of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta. European Mosquito Bulletin 27, 5664.
Gatt, P., Schaffner, F. & Cassai, F. (2010) Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta, the first winter. European Mosquito Bulletin 28, 225229.
Genchi, C., Rinaldi, L., Mortarino, M., Genchi, M. & Giuseppe, C. (2009) Climate and dirofilaria infection in Europe. Veterinary Parasitology 163(4), 268292.
Gerhardt, R.R., Gottfried, K.L., Apperson, C.S., Davis, B.S., Erwin, P.C., Smith, B., Panella, N.A., Powell, E.E. & Nasci, R.S. (2001) First isolation of La Crosse virus from naturally infected Aedes albopictus . Emerging Infectious Diseases 7(5), 807811.
Giangaspero, A., Marangi, M., Latrofa, M.S., Martinelli, D., Traversa, D., Otranto, D. & Genchi, C. (2013) Evidences of increasing risk of dirofilarioses in southern Italy. Parasitology Research 112(3), 13571361.
Giatropoulos, A., Emmanouel, N., Koliopoulos, G. & Michaelakis, A. (2012) A study on distribution and seasonal abundance of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) population in Athens, Greece. Journal of Medical Entomology 49(2), 262269.
Girod, R. & Le Goff, G. (2006) Inventaire actualisé des moustiques (Diptera : Culicidae) des îlots français de Europa, Juan-de-Nova et Grande-Glorieuse (Canal du Mozambique, océan Indien). Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 99(2), 122128.
Gjenero-Margan, I., Aleraj, B., Krajcar, D., Lesnikar, V., Klobučar, A., Pem-Novosel, I., Kurečić-Filipović, S., Komparak, S., Martić, R., Duričić, S., Betica-Radić, L., Okmadžić, J., Vilibić-Čavlek, T., Babić-Erceg, A., Turković, B., Avsić-Županc, T., Radić, I., Ljubić, M., Sarac, K., Benić, N. & Mlinarić-Galinović, G. (2011) Autochthonous dengue fever in Croatia, August-September 2010. Eurosurveillance 16(9), 19805.
Gonçalves, Y., Silva, J. & Biscotto, M. (2008) On the presence of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti Linnaeus, 1762 (Insecta, Diptera, Culicidae) in the island of Madeira (Portugal). Boletim do Museu Municipal do Funchal 58(322), 5359.
Gould, E.A. & Higgs, S. (2009) Impact of climate change and other factors on emerging arbovirus diseases. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 130(2), 109121.
Gould, E.A., Gallian, P., De Lamballerie, X. & Charrel, R.N. (2010) First cases of autochthonous dengue fever and chikungunya fever in France: from bad dream to reality! Clinical Microbiology & Infection 16(12), 17021704.
Grandadam, M., Caro, V., Plumet, S., Thiberge, J.M., Souares, Y., Failloux, A.B., Tolou, H.J., Budelot, M., Cosserat, D., Leparc-Goffart, I. & Desprès, P. (2011) Chikungunya virus, southeastern France. Emerging Infectious Diseases 17(5), 910913.
Grard, G., Caron, M., Mombo, I., Nkoghe, D., Ondo, S., Jiolle, D., Fontenille, D., Paupy, C. & Leroy, E. (2014) Zika virus in Gabon (Central Africa) – 2007: a new threat from Aedes albopictus? PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8(2), e2681.
Gratz, N.G. (2004) Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus . Medical and Veterinary Entomology 18, 215227.
Grimstad, P.R., Kobayashi, J.F., Zhang, M.B. & Craig, G.B. (1989) Recently introduced Aedes albopictus in the United States: potential vector of La Crosse virus (Bunyaviridae: California serogroup). Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 5(3), 422427.
Gubler, D.J. (1997) Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever: its history and resurgence as a global public health problem. pp. 122 in Gubler, D.J. & Kuno, G. (Eds) Dengue and Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. Wallingford, CAB International.
Guillaumot, L., Ofanoa, R., Swillen, L., Singh, N., Bossin, H.C. & Schaffner, F. (2012) Distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) in southwestern Pacific countries, with a first report from the Kingdom of Tonga. Parasites & Vectors 5, 247.
Gutsevich, A.V., Monchadskii, A.S. & Stackelberg, A.A. (1970) Fauna of the USSR. Dipteran Insects [In Russian]. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Zoological Institute, Leningrad 3, 1384.
Haddad, N., Harbach, R.E., Chamat, S. & Bouharoun-Tayoun, H. (2007) Presence of Aedes albopictus in Lebanon and Syria. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 23(2), 226228.
Haddad, N., Mousson, L., Vazeille, M., Chamat, S., Tayeh, J., Osta, M.A. & Failloux, A.B. (2012) Aedes albopictus in Lebanon, a potential risk of arboviruses outbreak. BMC Infectious Diseases 12, 300.
Hardstone, M.C. & Andreadis, T.G. (2012) Weak larval competition between the invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) and three resident container-inhabiting mosquitoes in the laboratory. Journal of Medical Entomology 49(2), 277285.
Hardy, J.L., Rosen, L., Reeves, W.C., Scrivani, R.P. & Preser, S.B. (1984) Experimental transovarial transmission of St Louis encephalitis virus by Culex and Aedes mosquitoes. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 33(1), 166175.
Hawley, W.A. (1988) The biology of Aedes albopictus . Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association Supplement 1, 139.
Hayes, E.B. (2009) Zika virus outside Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15(9), 13471350.
Ho, C. (1931) Study of the adult Culicidae of Peiping. Bulletin of the Fan Memorial Institute of Biology 11, 107175.
Holick, J., Kyle, A., Ferraro, W., Delaney, R.R. & Iwaseczko, M. (2002) Discovery of Aedes albopictus infected with West Nile virus in southeastern Pennsylvania. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 18(2), 131.
Holstein, M. (1967) Dynamics of Aedes aegypti distribution, density and seasonal prevalence in the Mediterranean area. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 36(4), 541543.
Honorio, N.A., Codeco, C.T., Alves, F.C., Magalhaes, M.A. & Lourenco-de-Oliveira, R. (2009) Temporal distribution of Aedes aegypti in different districts of Rio De Janeiro, Brazil, measured by two types of traps. Journal of Medical Entomology 46(5), 10011014.
Huber, K., Pluskota, B., Jöst, A., Hoffmann, K. & Becker, N. (2012) Status of the invasive species Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in southwest Germany in 2011. Journal of Vector Ecology 37(2), 462465.
Ibaňez-Justicia, A., Kampen, H., Braks, M., Schaffner, F., Steeghs, M., Werner, D., Zielke, D., Den Hartog, W., Brooks, M., Dik, M., van de Vossenberg, B. & Scholte, E.J. (2014) First report of established population of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) in the Netherlands. Journal of the European Mosquito Control Association 32, 913.
Indra, A. (2013) Stechmücken-Surveillance in der Steiermark. Report to the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety. Vienna, Österreichische Agentur für Gesundheit und Ernährungssicherheit AGES. Available online at
ISSG (2009) Global Invasive Species Database – Aedes albopictus. Available online at (accessed 26 August 2010).
Izri, A., Bitam, I. & Charrel, R.N. (2011) First entomological documentation of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) in Algeria. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 17(7), 11161118.
Jansen, C.C. & Beebe, N.W. (2010) The dengue vector Aedes aegypti: what comes next? Microbes and Infection 12(4), 272279.
Jelinek, T. (2009) Trends in the epidemiology of dengue fever and their relevance for importation to Europe. Eurosurveillance 14(25), pii: 19250.
Juliano, S.A. & Lounibos, P.L. (2005) Ecology of invasive mosquitoes: effects of resident species and on human health. Ecology Letters 8(5), 558574.
Kamimura, K. (1976) On the Japanese species of the family Culicidae. pp. 150188 in Sasa, M., Kurihara, T. & Kamimura, K. (Eds) Science of Mosquitoes. Hokuryukan, Japan.
Kampen, H. & Werner, D. (2014) Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive. Parasites & Vectors 7, e59.
Kampen, H., Zielke, D. & Werner, D. (2012) A new focus of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) distribution in Western Germany: rapid spread or a further introduction event? Parasites & Vectors 5, 284.
Kampen, H., Kronefeld, M., Zielke, D. & Werner, D. (2013) Further specimens of the Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera, Culicidae) trapped in southwest Germany. Parasitology Research 112(2), 905907.
Kaplan, L., Kendell, D., Robertson, D., Livdahl, T. & Khatchikian, C. (2010) Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Bermuda: extinction, invasion, invasion and extinction. Biological Invasions 12(9), 32773288.
Kaufman, M.G. & Fonseca, D.M. (2014) Invasion biology of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae). Annual Review of Entomology 59, 3149.
Kaufman, M.G., Stanuszek, W.W., Brouhard, E.A., Knepper, R.G. & Walker, E.D. (2012) Establishment of Aedes japonicus japonicus and its colonization of container habitats in Michigan. Journal of Medical Entomology 49(6), 13071317.
KCDC = Korean Centre for Disease Control (2007) Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis in Korea. National Document for Certification. National Institute of Health. Republic of Korea, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health and Welfare, pp. 1149.
Kiehl, W. (1999) Suspected case of haemorrhagic fever confirmed as yellow fever in Germany. Eurosurveillance 3(33), pii: 1350.
Kim, C.H., Lee, K.W., Richards, R.S., Schleich, S.S., Herman, W.E. & Klein, T.A. (2003) Seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes collected from light traps in Korea (1999–2000). Korean Journal of Entomology 33, 916.
Kim, C.H., Chong, S.T., Collier, B.W. & Klein, T.A. (2009) Seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes collected from light traps in the Republic of Korea, 2005. Entomological Research 39, 7077.
Kim, M.K., Kim, C.H., Yeom, B.W., Park, S.W., Choi, S.Y. & Choi, S.J. (2001) The first human case of hepatic dirofilariasis. Journal of Korean Medical Science 17(5), 686690.
Knudsen, A.B., Romi, R. & Majori, G. (1996) Occurrence and spread in Italy of Aedes albopictus, with implications for its introduction into other parts of Europe. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 12(2 Pt 1), 177183.
Kobayashi, M., Nihei, N. & Kurihara, T. (2002) Analysis of northern distribution of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Japan by geographical information system. Journal of Medical Entomology 39(1), 411.
Laird, M., Calder, L., Thornton, R.C., Syme, R., Holder, P.W. & Mogi, M. (1994) Japanese Aedes albopictus among four mosquito species reaching New Zealand in used tires. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 10(1), 1423.
Lamballerie, X., Leroy, E., Charrel, R.N., Ttsetsarkin, K., Higgs, S. & Gould, E.A. (2008) Chikungunya virus adapts to tiger mosquito via evolutionary convergence: a sign of things to come? Virology Journal 5(33): doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-5-33.
Lampman, R., Hanson, S. & Novak, R. (1997) Seasonal abundance and distribution of mosquitoes at a rural waste tire site in Illinois. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13(2), 193200.
LaPointe, D.A. (2007) Current and potential impacts of mosquitoes and the pathogens tghey vector in the Pacific region. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 39, 7581.
Larsen, J.R. & Ashley, R.F. (1971) Demonstration of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus in tissues of Aedes aegypti . The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 20(5), 754760.
La Ruche, G., Souares, Y., Armengaud, A., Peloux-Petiot, F., Despres, P., Lenglet, A., Jourdain, F., Leparc-Goffart, I., Charlet, F., Ollier, L., Mantey, K., Mollet, T., Fournier, J.P., Torrents, R., Leitmyer, K., Hilairet, P., Zeller, H., Van Bortel, W., Dejour-Salamanca, D., Grandadam, M. & Gastellu-Etchegorry, M. (2010) First two autochthonous dengue virus infections in metropolitan France, September 2010. Eurosurveillance 15(39): 19676.
Ledrans, M. & Dejour Salamanca, D. (2008) Cas importés de chikungunya et de dengue en France métropolitaine. Saint-Maurice, Institut de veille sanitaire, p. 28. Available online at
Le Goff, G., Brengues, C. & Robert, V. (2013) Stegomyia mosquitoes in Mayotte, taxonomic study and description of Stegomyia pia n. sp. Parasite 20, 31.
Le Goff, G., Goodman, S.M., Elguero, E. & Robert, V. (2014) Survey of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of Mayotte. PLoS ONE 9(7), e100696.
Leisnham, P.T. & Juliano, S.A. (2012) Impacts of climate, land use, and biological invasion on the ecology of immature Aedes mosquitoes: implications for La Crosse emergence. EcoHealth 9(2), 217228.
Lorenz, A.R., Walker, E.D. & Kaufman, M.G. (2013) Does autocthonous primary production influence oviposition by Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) in container habitats? Journal of Medical Entomology 50(1), 6978.
Lernout, T., Giry, C., Binder, P., Zumbo, B., Durquety, E., Lajoinie, G., D'Ortenzio, E. & Filleul, L. (2011) Emergence of dengue virus serotype 3 on Mayotte Island, Indian Ocean. East 8(2), 155156.
Madon, M.B., Mulla, M.S., Shaw, M.W., Kluh, S. & Hazelrigg, J.E. (2002) Introduction of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in southern California and potential for its establishment. Journal of Vector Ecology 27(1), 149154.
Marchand, E., Prat, C., Jeannin, C., Lafont, E., Bergmann, T., Flusin, O., Rizzi, J., Roux, N., Busso, V., Deniau, J., Noel, H., Vaillant, V., Leparc-Goffart, I., Six, C. & Paty, M.C. (2013) Autochthonous case of dengue in France, October 2013. Eurosurveillance 18(50), 20661.
Marchette, N.J., Garcia, R. & Rudnick, A. (1969) Isolation of zika virus from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Malaysia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 18(3), 411415.
Mavale, M., Parashar, D., Sudeep, A., Gokhale, M., Ghodke, Y., Geevarghese, G., Arankalle, V. & Mishra, A.C. (2010) Venereal transmission of chikungunya virus by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83(6), 12421244.
Medeiros, A.S., Marcondes, C.B., De Azevedo, P.R.M., Jeronimo, S.M.B., e Silva, V.P. & Ximenes, Mde F. (2009) Seasonal variation of potential flavivirus vectors in an urban biological reserve in northeastern Brazil. Journal of Medical Entomology 46(6), 14501457.
Medlock, J.M., Avenell, D., Barrass, I. & Leach, S. (2006) Analysis of the potential for survival and seasonal activity of Aedes albopictus in the United Kingdom. Journal of Vector Ecology 31(2), 292304.
Medlock, J.M., Hansford, K.M., Schaffner, F., Versteirt, V., Hendrickx, G., Zeller, H. & Van Bortel, W. (2012) A review of the invasive mosquitoes in Europe: ecology, public health risks, and control options. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 12(6), 435447.
Messersmith, D.H. (1971) Extension of the distributional range of Aedes triseriatus (Say) to Greenland. Mosquito Systematic Newsletter 3(1), 7.
Mikov, O., Nikolov, G., Schaffner, F. & Mathis, A. (2013) First record and establishment of Aedes albopictus in Bulgaria. in VBORNET-EMCA Joint Meeting ‘Invasive mosquitoes and public health in the European context’, Antwerp, Belgium, 28–29 November 2013 (Conference paper).
Miles, J.A.R. (1964) Some ecological aspects of the problems of arthropodborne animal viruses in the Western Pacific and South East Asia regions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 30, 197210.
Mitchell, C.J. (1995) Geographic spread of Aedes albopictus and potential for involvement in arbovirus cycles in the Mediterranean basin. Journal of Vector Ecology 20, 4458.
Mitchell, C.J., Niebylski, M.L., Smith, G.C., Karabatsos, N., Martin, D., Mutebi, J.P., Craig, G.B. & Mahler, M.J. (1992) Isolation of eastern equine encephalitis virus from Aedes albopictus in Florida. Science 257(5069), 526527.
Molaei, G., Andreadis, T.G., Armstrong, P.M. & Diuk-Wasser, M. (2008) Host-feeding patterns of potential mosquito vectors in Connecticut, U.S.A.: molecular analysis of bloodmeals from 23 species of Aedes, Anopheles, Culex, Coquillettidia, Psorophora and Uranotaenia . Journal of Medical Entomology 45(6), 11431151.
Molaei, G., Farajollahi, A., Scott, J.J., Gaugler, R. & Andreadis, T.G. (2009) Human bloodfeeding by the recently introduced Aedes japonicus japonicus, and public health implications. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 25(2), 210214.
Monath, T.P. & Cetron, M.S. (2002) Prevention of yellow fever in persons traveling to the tropics. Clinical Infectious Diseases 34(10), 13691378.
Montarsi, F., Martini, S., Dal Pont, M., Delai, N., Ferro Milone, N., Mazzucato, M., Soppelsa, F., Cazzola, L., Cazzin, S., Ravagnan, S., Ciocchetta, S., Russo, F. & Capelli, G. (2013) Distribution and habitat characterization of the recently introduced invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica], a new potential vector and pest in north-eastern Italy. Parasites & Vectors 6, 292.
Montarsi, F., Ciocchetta, S., Ravagnan, S., Simonato, G., Mutinelli, F., Camuffo, S., Frangipane di Regalbono, A. & Capelli, G. (2014) Laboratory evidence on vector competence of the invasive mosquito Aedes koreicus [Hulecoeteomyia koreica] for Dirofilria immitis . Parasites & Vectors 7 (Suppl 1), O34.
Moore, C.G. & Mitchell, C.J. (1997) Aedes albopictus in the United States: ten-year presence and public health implications. Emerging Infectious Diseases 3(3), 329334.
Morens, D.M. & Fauci, A.S. (2014) Chikungunya at the Door – Déjà Vu All Over Again? New England Journal of Medicine 371(10), 885887.
Mori, A., Oda, T. & Wada, Y. (1981) Studies on the egg diapause and overwintering of Aedes albopictus in Nagasaki. Tropical Medicine 23, 7990.
Mou, Y., Plichart, C., Legrand, A.M., Mallet, H.P., Cerf, N. & Nguyen, L.N. (2009). Evaluation de la prévalence de la filariose lymphatique en 2008 en Polynésie française. Bull. Epidemiologie Hebdomadaire. 48-49-50, 504507.
Moutailler, S., Barre, H., Vazeille, M. & Failloux, A.B. (2009) Recently introduced Aedes albopictus in Corsica is competent to Chikungunya virus and in a lesser extent to dengue virus. Tropical Medicine and International Health 14(9), 11051109.
Mulyatno, K.C., Yamanaka, A., Yotopranoto, S. & Konishi, E. (2012) Vertical transmission of dengue virus in Aedes aegypti collected in Surabaya, Indonesia, during 2008–2011. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases 65(3), 274276.
Musso, D., Nilles, E.J. & Cao-Lormeau, V.M. (2014) Rapid spread of emerging Zika virus in the Pacific area. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 20(10): O595–6. Doi: 10.1111/1469-0691.12707.
Nawrocki, S.J. and Craig, G.B. Jr. (1989) Further extension of the range of the rock pool mosquito, Aedes atropalpus, via tire breeding. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 5, 110114.
Oter, K., Gunay, F., Tuzer, E., Linton, Y.M., Bellini, R. & Alten, B. (2013) First record of Stegomyia albopicta in Turkey determined by active ovitrap surveillance and DNA barcoding. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 13(10), 753761.
Pampiglione, S., Rivasi, F., Angeli, G. & Boldorini, R. (2001) Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Italy, an emergent zoonosis: report of 60 new cases. Histopathology 38, 344354.
Paty, M.C., Six, C., Charlet, F., Heuzé, G., Cochet, A., Wiegandt, A., Chappert, J.L., Dejour-Salamanca, D., Guinard, A., Soler, P., Servas, V., Vivier-Darrigol, M., Ledrans, M., Debruyne, M., Schaal, O., Jeannin, C., Helynck, B., Leparc-Goffart, I. & Coignard, B. (2014) Large number of imported chikungunya cases in mainland France, 2014: a challenge for surveillance and response. Eurosurveillance 19(28), pii = 20856. Available online at
Paupy, C., Delatte, H., Bagny, L., Corbel, V. & Fontenille, D. (2009) Aedes albopictus, an arbovirus vector: from the darkness to the light. Microbes and Infections 11(14–15), 11771185.
Pierre, V., Thiria, J., Rachou, E., Sissoko, D., Lassalle, C. & Renault, P. (2005) Epidémie de dengue 1 à la Réunion en 2004. Paris, Journées de veille sanitaire, Abstract book pp64. Available online at
Pluskota, B., Storch, V., Braunbeck, T., Beck, M. & Becker, N. (2008) First record of Stegomyia albopicta (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) in Germany. European Mosquito Bulletin 26, 15.
Prioteasa, F.L., Sorin Dinu, S., Fălcută, E. & Ceianu, C.S. (2013) Established population of Aedes albopictus detected in Romania in 2012–2013. in VBORNET-EMCA Joint Meeting ‘Invasive mosquitoes and public health in the European context’, Antwerp, Belgium, 28–29 November 2013 (Conference paper).
Pumpuni, C.B., Knepler, J. & Craig, G.B. (1992) Influence of temperature and larval nutrition on the diapause inducing photoperiod of Aedes albopictus . Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 8, 223227.
Qualls, W.A., Xue, R.D., Beier, J.C. & Müller, G.C. (2013) Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence. Parasitology Research 112(6), 23132318.
Ramchurn, S.K., Moheeput, K. & Goorah, S.S. (2009) An analysis of a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius. Eurosurveillance 14(34). pii 19314.
Reinert, J.F. (2000) New classification for the composite genus Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini), elevation of subgenus Ochlerotatus to generic rank, reclassification of the other subgenera, and notes on certain subgenera and species. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 16, 175188.
Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E. & Kitching, I.J. (2004) Phylogeny and classification of Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae), based on morphological characters of all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 142, 289368.
Reinert, J.F., Harbach, R.E. & Kitching, I.J. (2006) Phylogeny and classification of Finlaya and allied taxa (Diptera: Culicidae: Aedini) based on morphological data from all life stages. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 148(1), 1101.
Reiter, P. (2010) Yellow Fever and dengue: a threat to Europe? Eurosurveillance 15(10): 19509.
Renault, P., Balleydier, E., D'Ortenzio, E., Bâville, M. & Filleul, L. (2012) Epidemiology of Chikungunya infection on Reunion Island, Mayotte, and neighboring countries. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses 42(3), 93101.
Rezza, G., Nicoletti, L., Angelini, R., Romi, R., Finarelli, A.C., Panning, M., Cordiolo, P., Fortuna, C., Boros, S., Magurano, F., Silvi, G., Angelini, P., Dottori, M., Ciufolini, M.G., Majori, G.C. & Cassone, A. (2007) Infection with chikungunya virus in Italy: an outbreak in a temperate region. The Lancet 370(9602), 18401846.
Rogers, D.J., Suk, J.E. & Semenza, J.C. (2014) Using global maps to predict the risk of dengue in Europe. Acta Tropica 129, 114.
Roiz, D., Rosa, R., Arnoldi, D. & Rizzoli, A. (2010) Effects of temperature and rainfall on the activity and dynamics of host-seeking Aedes albopictus females in Northern Italy. Vector-Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 10(8), 811816.
Roiz, D., Neteler, M., Castellani, C., Arnoldi, D. & Rizzoli, A. (2011) Climatic factors driving invasion of the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) into new areas of Trentino, northern Italy. PLoS ONE 16(4), e14800.
Roiz, D., Vázquez, A., Rosso, F., Arnoldi, D., Girardi, M., Cuevas, L., Perez-Pastrana, E., Sánchez-Seco, M.P., Tenorio, A. & Rizzoli, A. (2012) Detection of a new insect flavivirus and isolation of Aedes flavivirus in Northern Italy. Parasites & Vectors 5, 223.
Romi, R., Sabatinelli, G., Savelli, L.G., Raris, M., Zago, M. & Malatesta, R. (1997) Identification of a North American mosquito species Aedes atropalpus in Italy. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 13(3), 245246.
Romi, R., Di Luca, M. & Majori, G. (1999) Current status of Aedes albopictus and Aedes atropalpus in Italy. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 15(3), 425427.
Romi, R., Severini, F. & Toma, L. (2006) Cold acclimation and overwintering of female Aedes albopictus in Roma. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 22(1), 149151.
Rosen, L. (1986) Dengue in Greece in 1927 and 1928 and the pathogenesis of DHF: new data and a different conclusion. The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 35(3), 642653.
Roth, A., Mercier, A., Lepers, C., Hoy, D., Duituturaga, S., Benyon, E., Guillaumot, L. & Souarès, Y. (2014) Concurrent outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika virus infections – an unprecedented epidemic wave of mosquito-borne viruses in the Pacific 2012–2014. Eurosurveillance 19(41), pii = 20929.
Ryabova, T.Y., Yunicheva, Y.V., Markovich, N.Y., Ganushkina, L.A., Orabei, V.G. & Sergiev, V.P. (2005) Detection of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti L. mosquitoes in Sochi. Meditsinskaia parazitologiia i parazitarnye bolezni 3, 35.
Sabatini, A., Raineri, V., Trovato, G. & Coluzzi, M. (1990) Aedes albopictus in Italy and possible diffusion of the species into the Mediterranean area. Parassitologia 32(3), 301304.
Saifur, R.G.M., Dieng, H., Hassan, A.A., Salmah, M.R.C., Satho, T., Miake, F. & Hamdan, A. (2012) Changing domesticity of Aedes aegypti in northern peninsular Malaysia: reproductive consequences and potential epidemiological implications. PLoS ONE 7(2), e30919.
Sambri, V., Cavrini, F., Rossini, G., Pierro, A. & Landini, M.P. (2008) The 2007 epidemic outbreaks of Chikungunya virus infection in the Romagna region of Italy: a new perspective for the possible diffusion of tropical diseases in temperate areas? New Microbiologica 31, 303304.
Sardelis, M.R. & Turell, M.J. (2001) Ochlerotatus j. japonicus in Frederick County, Maryland: discovery, distribution and vector competence for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 17(2), 137141.
Sardelis, M.R., Dohm, D.J., Pagac, B., Andre, R.G. & Turell, M.J. (2002 a) Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j japonicus . Journal of Medical Entomology 39(3), 480484.
Sardelis, M.R., Turell, M.J. & Andre, R.G. (2002 b) Laboratory transmission of La Crosse virus by Ochlerotatus j. japonicus . Journal of Medical Entomology 39(4), 635639.
Sardelis, M.R., Turell, M.J., O'Guinn, M.L., Andre, R.G. & Roberts, D.R. (2002 c) Vector competence of three North American strains of Aedes albopictus for West Nile virus. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 18(4), 284289.
Sardelis, M.R., Turell, M.J. & Andre, R.G. (2003) Experimental transmission of St Louis encephalitis virus by Ochlerotatus j japonicus . Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(2), 159162.
Schaffner, F. & Karch, S. (2000) First report of Aedes albopictus in metropolitan France. Comptes Rendus de l'Academie des sciences. Serie III 323(4), 373375.
Schaffner, F. & Mathis, A. (2014) Dengue and dengue vectors in the WHO European region: past, present, and scenarios for the future. Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(12): 1271–80. August 27, 2014.
Schaffner, F., Chouin, S. & Guilloteau, J. (2003) First report of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus in metropolitan France. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(1), 15.
Schaffner, F., Van Bortel, W. & Cooseman, M. (2004) First record of Aedes albopictus in Belgium. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 20(2), 10601065.
Schaffner, F., Kaufmann, C., Hegglin, D. & Mathis, A. (2009) The invasive mosquito Aedes japonicus in Central Europe. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 23(4), 448451.
Schaffner, F., Vazeille, M., Kaufmann, C., Failloux, A. & Mathis, A. (2011) Vector competence of Aedes japonicus for chikungunya and dengue viruses. European Mosquito Bulletin 29, 141142.
Schaffner, F., Bellini, R., Petrić, D., Scholte, E.-J., Zeller, H. & Marrama Rakotoarivony, L. (2013 a) Development of guidelines for the surveillance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. Parasites & Vectors 6, 209. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-6-209.
Schaffner, F., Medlock, J.M. & Van Bortel, W. (2013 b) Public health significance of invasive mosquitoes in Europe. Clinical Microbiology & Infection 19(8), 685692.
Schneider, K. (2011) Breeding of Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) 80 km north of its known range in southern Germany. European Mosquito Bulletin 29, 129132.
Scholte, E.J. & Schaffner, F. (2007) Waiting for the tiger: establishment and spread of the Aedes albopictus mosquito in Europe. Chapter 14. pp. 241260 in Takken, W. & Knols, B.G.J. (Eds) Emerging Pests and Vector-borne Diseases in Europe. Ecology and Control of Vector-borne Diseases, volume 1. Wageningen, The Netherlands, Wageningen Academic Publishers.
Scholte, E.J., Dijkstra, E., Ruijs, H., Jacobs, F., Takken, W., Hofhuis, A., Reusken, C., Koopmans, M. & de Boer, A. (2007) The asian tiger mosquito in the Netherlands: should we worry? Proceedings of the Section Experimental and Applied Entomology – Netherlands Entomological Society 18, 131136.
Scholte, E.J., Dijkstra, E., Blok, H., de Vries, A., Takken, W., Hofhuis, A., Koopmans, M., de Boer, A. & Reusken, C. (2008) Accidental importation of the mosquito Aedes albopictus into the Netherlands: a survey of mosquito distribution and the presence of dengue virus. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 22, 352358.
Scholte, E.J., Hartog, W.D., Braks, M., Reusken, C., Dik, M. & Hessels, A. (2009) First report of a North American invasive mosquito species Ochlerotatus atropalpus in the Netherlands, 2009. Eurosurveillance 14(45). pii: 19400.
Scholte, E.J., Den Hartog, W., Dik, M., Schoelitsz, B., Brooks, M., Schaffner, F., Foussadier, R., Braks, M. & Beeuwkes, J. (2010) Introduction and control of three invasive mosquito species in the Netherlands, July–October 2010. Eurosurveillance 15(45), 19710.
Šebesta, O., Rudolf, I., Betášová, L., Peško, J. & Hubálek, Z. (2012) An invasive mosquito species Aedes albopictus found in the Czech Republic, 2012. Eurosurveillance 17(43), 20301.
Seidel, B., Duh, D., Nowotny, M. & Allerberger, F. (2012) Erstnachweis der Stechmücken Aedes (Ochlerotatus) japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) in Österreich und Slowenien in 2011 und für Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1895) in Österreich 2012 (Diptera: Culicidae). Entomologische Zeitschrift 122, 223226.
Severini, F., Di Luca, M., Toma, L. & Romi, R. (2008) Aedes albopictus in Rome: results and perspectives after 10 years of monitoring. Parassitologica 50(1–2), 121123.
Shestakov, V.I. & Mikheeva, A.L. (1966) Contribution to study of Japanese encephalitis vectors in Primorye region. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia I Parazitarnye Bolezni 35, 545550.
Soumahoro, M.K., Fontenille, D., Turbelin, C., Pelat, C., Boyd, A., Flahault, A. & Hanslik, T. (2010) Imported chikungunya virus infection. Emerging Infectious Diseases 16(1), 162163.
Sousa, C.A., Clairouin, M., Seixas, G., Viveiros, B., Novo, M.T., Silva, A.C., Escoval, M.T. & Economopoulou, A. (2012) Ongoing outbreak of dengue type 1 in the Autonomous Region of Madeira, Portugal: preliminary report. Eurosurveillance 17(49), 20333.
Staples, J.E., Breiman, R.F. & Powers, A.M. (2009) Chikungunya fever: an epidemiological review of a re-emerging infectious disease. Clinical Infectious Diseases 15(6), 942948.
Straetemans, M. (2008) Vector-related risk mapping of the introduction and establishment of Aedes albopictus in Europe. Eurosurveillance 13(7). pii: 8040.
Surtees, G., Hill, M.N. & Broadfoot, J. (1971) Survival and development of a tropical mosquito, Aedes aegypti in Southern England. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 44(5), 707709.
Takashima, I. & Rosen, L. (1989) Horizontal and vertical transmission of Japanese encephalitis virus by Aedes japonicus . Journal of Medical Entomology 26, 454458.
Tanaka, K., Mizusawa, K. & Saugstad, E.S. (1979) A revision of the adult and larval mosquitoes of Japan (including the Ryukyu Archipelago and the Ogasawara islands) and Korea (Diptera: Culicidae). Contributions of the American Entomological Institute 16, 1987.
Thavara, U., Tawatsin, A., Pengsakul, T., Bhakdeenuan, P., Chanama, S., Anantapreecha, S., Molito, C., Chompoosri, J., Thammapalo, S., Sawanpanyalert, P. & Siriyasatien, P. (2009) Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health 40(5), 951962.
Thomas, S.M., Obermayr, U., Fischer, D., Kreyling, J. & Beierkuhnlein, C. (2012) Low-temperature threshold for egg survival of a post-diapause and non-diapause European aedine strain, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasites & Vectors 5, 100.
Tilston, N., Skelly, C. & Wienstein, P. (2009) Pan-European Chikungunya surveillance: designing risk stratified surveillance zones. International Journal of Health Geographics 8(61). doi: 10.1186/1476-072X-8-61.
Toma, L., Severini, F., Di Luca, M., Bella, A. & Romi, R. (2003) Seasonal patterns of oviposition and egg hatching rate of Aedes albopictus in Rome. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 19(1), 1922.
Turell, M.J. & Beaman, J.R. (1992) Experimental transmission of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus by a strain of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) from New Orleans, Louisiana. Journal of Medical Entomology 29(5), 802805.
Turell, M.J., Beaman, J.R. & Neely, G.W. (1994) Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology 31(2), 287290.
Turell, M.J., Dohm, D.J., Sardelis, M.R., O'Guinn, M.L., Andreadis, T.G. & Blow, J.A. (2005) An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus. Journal of Medical Entomology 42(1), 5762.
Turell, M.J., Byrd, B.D. & Harrison, B.A. (2013) Potential for populations of Aedes j. japonicus to transmit Rift Valley fever virus in the USA. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 29(2), 133137.
Utrio, P. (1979) Geographic distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera, Culicidae) in eastern Fennoscandia. Notulae Entomologicae 59, 105123.
Valerio, L., Marini, F., Bongiorno, G., Facchinelli, L., Pombi, M., Caputo, B., Maroli, M. & Della Torre, A. (2009) Host-feeding patterns of Aedes albopictus in urban and rural contexts within Rome Province, Italy. Vector Borne & Zoonotic Diseases 10(3), 291294.
Van Bortel, W., Dorleans, F., Rosine, J., Blateau, A., Rousset, D., Matheus, S., Leparc-Goffart, I., Flusin, O., Prat, C., Cesaire, R., Najioullah, F., Ardillon, V., Balleydier, E., Carvalho, L., Lemaître, A., Noel, H., Servas, V., Six, C., Zurbaran, M., Leon, L., Guinard, A., van den Kerkhof, J., Henry, M., Fanoy, E., Braks, M., Reimerink, J., Swaan, C., Georges, R., Brooks, L., Freedman, J., Sudre, B. & Zeller, H. (2014) Chikungunya outbreak in the Caribbean region, December 2013 to March 2014, and the significance for Europe. Eurosurveillance 19(13). pii: 20759.
Vazeille, M., Jeannin, C., Martin, E., Schaffner, F. & Failloux, A.B. (2008) Chikungunya: a risk for Mediterranean countries? Acta Tropica 105(2), 200202.
VBN NL2 -VBORNET Thematic report “Mosquitoes”, January 2010. Available online at (accessed 26 August 2010).
Vega-Rua, A., Zouache, K., Caro, V., Diancourt, L., Delauney, P., Grandadam, M. & Failloux, A.-B. (2013) High efficiency of temperate Aedes albopictus to transmit chikungunya and dengue viruses in the southeast of France. Plos ONE 8(3); e59716. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059716.
Versteirt, V., Schaffner, F., Garros, C., Dekoninck, W., Coosemans, M. & Van Bortel, W. (2009) Introduction and establishment of the exotic mosquito species Aedes japonicus japonicus in Belgium. Journal of Medical Entomology 46(6), 14641467.
Versteirt, V., De Clercq, E.M., Fonseca, D.M., Pecor, J., Schaffner, F., Coosemans, M. & Van Bortel, W. (2012) Bionomics of the established exotic mosquito species Aedes koreicus in Belgium, Europe. Journal of Medical Entomology 49(6), 12261232.
Wang, K.C. (1966) Observations on the influence of photoperiod on egg diapause in Aedes albopictus . Acta Entomologica Sinica 15, 7577.
Weaver, S.C. & Reisen, W.K. (2009) Present and future arboviral threats. Antiviral Research 85(2), 328345.
Werner, D. & Kampen, H. (2013) The further spread of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera, Culicidae) towards northern Germany. Parasitology Research 112(10), 36653668.
Werner, D., Kronefeld, M., Schaffner, F. & Kampen, H. (2012) Two invasive mosquito species, Aedes albopictus and Aedes japonicus japonicus, trapped in south-west Germany, July to August 2011. Eurosurveillance 17(4). pii: 20067.
Westby, K., Fritzen, C., Huang, J., Jaske, E., Paulsen, D., Jones, C. & Moncayo, A.C. (2011) La Crosse encephalitis in Eastern Tennessee: evidence of invasive mosquito (Aedes albopictus and Ochlerotatus japonicus) involvement in the transmission of an indigenous disease. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 85(Suppl), 374.
WHO [World Health Organization] (2014) Global Alert and Response: Chikungunya - France. 23 October 2014 (accessed 26 August 2010).
Wheeler, A.W. & Petrie, W.D. (2007) An overview of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus control in the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands. Eurosurveillance 12(47), pii = 3314.
Wichmann, O. & Jelinek, T. (2003) Surveillance of imported dengue infections in Europe. Eurosurveillance 7(32).
Wymann, M.N., Flacio, E., Radczuweit, S., Patocchi, N. & Luthy, P. (2008) Asian tiger mosquito – a threat for Switzerland? Eurosurveillance 13(10). pii: 8058.
Yamada, S. (1927) An experimental study on twenty-four species of Japanese mosquitoes regarding their suitability as intermediate host for Filaria bancrofti Cobbold. Scientific Report of the Government Institute of Infectious Diseases 6, 559622.
Yee, D.A. (2008) Tires as habitats for mosquitoes: a review of studies within the eastern United States. Journal of Medical Entomology 45(4), 581593.
Yunicheva, Y.U., Ryabova, T.E., Markovich, N.Y., Bezzhonova, O.V., Ganushkina, L.A., Semenov, V.B., Tarkhov, G.A., Vasilenko, L.E., Guzeeva, T.M., Shevereva, T.V. & Sergiev, V.P. (2008) First data on the presence of breeding populations of the Aedes aegypti L. mosquito in Greater Sochi and various cities of Abkhazia. Meditsinskaia Parazitologiia I Parazitarnye Bolezni (3), 4043.
Zayed, A., Awash, A.A., Esmail, M.A., Al-Mohamadi, H.A., Al-Salwai, M., Al-Jasari, A., Medhat, I., Morales-Betoulle, M.E. & Mnzava, A. (2012) Detection of Chikungunya virus in Aedes aegypti during 2011 outbreak in Al Hodayda, Yemen. Acta Tropica 123(1), 6266.
Zielke, D.E., Werner, D., Kampen, H., Schaffner, F. & Fonseca, D.M. (2014) Unexpected patterns of admixture in German populations of Aedes japonicus japonicus (Diptera: Culicidae) underscore the importance of human intervention. PLoS One 9(7), e99093.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed