Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 73
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Davies, Craig Coetzee, Maureen and Lyons, Candice L. 2016. Effect of stable and fluctuating temperatures on the life history traits of Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus under conditions of inter- and intra-specific competition. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,

    Lyons, C. L. Oliver, S. V. Hunt, R. H. and Coetzee, M. 2016. The Influence of Insecticide Resistance, Age, Sex, and Blood Feeding Frequency on Thermal Tolerance of Wild and Laboratory Phenotypes ofAnopheles funestus(Diptera: Culicidae). Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 53, Issue. 2, p. 394.

    Mamai, W. Simard, F. Couret, D. Ouedraogo, G. A. Renault, D. Dabiré, K. R. and Mouline, K. 2016. Monitoring Dry Season Persistence ofAnopheles gambiaes.l. Populations in a Contained Semi-Field System in Southwestern Burkina Faso, West Africa. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 53, Issue. 1, p. 130.

    Meyer Steiger, Dagmar B. Ritchie, Scott A. and Laurance, Susan G. W. 2016. Mosquito communities and disease risk influenced by land use change and seasonality in the Australian tropics. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 9, Issue. 1,

    Thomas, Shalu Ravishankaran, Sangamithra Justin, Johnson A. Asokan, Aswin Mathai, Manu T. Valecha, Neena Thomas, Matthew B. and Eapen, Alex 2016. Overhead tank is the potential breeding habitat of Anopheles stephensi in an urban transmission setting of Chennai, India. Malaria Journal, Vol. 15, Issue. 1,


    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline D. Parham, Paul E. Saddler, Adam Koella, Jacob C. and Basáñez, María-Gloria 2015. Larval and adult environmental temperatures influence the adult reproductive traits of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline Erguler, Kamil Shek, Chee Basáñez, María-Gloria and Parham, Paul 2015. Modelling Anopheles gambiae s.s. Population Dynamics with Temperature- and Age-Dependent Survival. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Vol. 12, Issue. 6, p. 5975.

    Farajzadeh, Manuchehr Halimi, Mansour Ghavidel, Yousef and Delavari, Mahdi 2015. Spatiotemporal Anopheles Population Dynamics, Response to Climatic Conditions: The Case of Chabahar, South Baluchistan, Iran. Annals of Global Health, Vol. 81, Issue. 5, p. 694.

    GIMONNEAU, GEOFFREY BAYIBEKI, ALBERT N. BALDET, THIERRY AWONO-AMBENE, PARFAIT H. and SIMARD, FRÉDÉRIC 2015. Life history consequences of larval foraging depth differ between two competing Anopheles mosquitoes. Ecological Entomology, Vol. 40, Issue. 2, p. 143.

    Hidalgo, Kevin Dujardin, Jean-Pierre Mouline, Karine Dabiré, Roch K. Renault, David and Simard, Frederic 2015. Seasonal variation in wing size and shape between geographic populations of the malaria vector, Anopheles coluzzii in Burkina Faso (West Africa). Acta Tropica, Vol. 143, p. 79.

    Johnson, Leah R. Ben-Horin, Tal Lafferty, Kevin D. McNally, Amy Mordecai, Erin Paaijmans, Krijn P. Pawar, Samraat and Ryan, Sadie J. 2015. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach. Ecology, Vol. 96, Issue. 1, p. 203.

    Lee, Keun Young Chung, Namil and Hwang, Suntae 2015. Application of an artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting mosquito abundances in urban areas. Ecological Informatics,

    Parham, P. E. and Hughes, D. A. 2015. Climate influences on the cost-effectiveness of vector-based interventions against malaria in elimination scenarios. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 370, Issue. 1665, p. 20130557.

    Yu, Weiwei Mengersen, Kerrie Dale, Pat Ye, Xiaofang Guo, Yuming Turner, Lyle Wang, Xiaoyu Bi, Yan McBride, William J. H. Mackenzie, John S. and Tong, Shilu 2015. Projecting Future Transmission of Malaria Under Climate Change Scenarios: Challenges and Research Needs. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 45, Issue. 7, p. 777.

    Zhu, Lin Qualls, Whitney A Marshall, John M Arheart, Kris L DeAngelis, Donald L McManus, John W Traore, Sekou F Doumbia, Seydou Schlein, Yosef Müller, Günter C and Beier, John C 2015. A spatial individual-based model predicting a great impact of copious sugar sources and resting sites on survival of Anopheles gambiae and malaria parasite transmission. Malaria Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Zhu, Lin Marshall, John M. Qualls, Whitney A. Schlein, Yosef McManus, John W. Arheart, Kris L. Hlaing, WayWay M. Traore, Sekou F. Doumbia, Seydou Müller, Günter C. and Beier, John C. 2015. Modelling optimum use of attractive toxic sugar bait stations for effective malaria vector control in Africa. Malaria Journal, Vol. 14, Issue. 1,

    Arjunan, Nareshkumar Kadarkari, Murugan Pari, Madhiyazhagan Thiyagarajan, Nataraj and Kumar, Shobana 2014. Impact of climate change on filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus and control using bacterial pesticide, spinosad. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Vol. 4, p. S87.

    Christiansen-Jucht, Céline Parham, Paul E Saddler, Adam Koella, Jacob C and Basáñez, María-Gloria 2014. Temperature during larval development and adult maintenance influences the survival of Anopheles gambiae s.s.. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1,

    Ciota, Alexander T. Matacchiero, Amy C. Kilpatrick, A. Marm and Kramer, Laura D. 2014. The Effect of Temperature on Life History Traits ofCulexMosquitoes. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 55.


Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • M.N. Bayoh (a1) and S.W. Lindsay (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40°C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28°C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32°C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26°C. No adults emerged below 18°C or above 34°C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa.

Corresponding author
*Fax: +44 (0)191 3741179 E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

G. Abrami (1972) Optimum mean temperature for plant growth calculated by a new method of summation. Ecology 53, 893900.

M.T. Ali Niazee (1976) Thermal unit requirements for determining adult emergence of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Williamette Valley of Oregon. Environmental Entomology 5, 397402.

G.L. Baskerville & P. Emin (1969) Rapid estimation of heat accumulation from maximum and minimum temperatures. Ecology 50, 514517.

W.E. Bradshaw (1980) Thermoperiodism and the thermal environment of the pitcher plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Oecologia 46, 1317.

J.F. Briere & P. Pracros (1998) Comparison of temperature-dependent growth models with the development of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology 27, 94101.

A.R. Cossins & K. Bowler (1987) Temperature biology of animals. London, Chapman and Hall,

M.H. Craig , R.W. Snow & D. Le Suer (1999) A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa. Parasitology Today 15, 105111.

C.J. Eckenrode & R.K. Chapman (1972) Seasonal adult cabbage maggot populations in the field in relation to thermal-unit accumulation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 65, 151156.

C. Garett-Jones (1964) Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of mosquitoes vectorial capacity. Nature 204, 1173.

D.W. Hagstrum & E.B. Workman (1971) Interaction of temperature and feeding rate in determining the rate of development of larval Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64, 668671.

C.B. Huffaker (1944) The temperature relations of the immature stages of the malarial mosquito An. quadrimaculatus Say, with a comparison of the developmental power of constant and variable temperatures in insect metabolism. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 37, 127.

M. Jalil (1971) Effect of temperature on larval growth of Aedes triseriatus. Journal of Economic Entomology 65, 625626.

S.E. Korochkina , A.V. Gordadze , S.O. Zakharkin & H. Benes (1997) Differential accumulation and tissue distribution of mosquito hexamerins during metamorphosis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 813824.

R.S. Kovats , D.H. Campbell-Lendrum , A.J. McMichael , A. Woodward & J.S.H. Cox (2001) Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne diseases? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 356, 10571068.

M. Lassiter , C. Apperson & R. Roe (1995) Juvenile hormone metabolism during the fourth stadium and pupal stage of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 869876.

S.W. Lindsay , L. Parson & C.J. Thomas (1998) Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265, 847854.

J.A. Logan , D.J. Wollkind , S.C. Hoyt & L.K. Tanigoshi (1976) An analytical model for description of temperature dependent rate phenomena in arthropods. Environmental Entomology 5, 11331140.

E.O. Lyimo & W. Takken (1993) Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7, 328332.

E.O. Lyimo , W. Takken & J.C. Koella (1992) Effects of rearing temperature and larval density on larval survival, age at pupation and adult size of Anopheles gambiae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63, 265271.

M. Mogi (1992) Temperature and photoperiod effects on larval and ovarial development on New Zealand strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85, 5866.

G. Petavy , J.R. David , P. Gibert & B. Moreteau (2001) Viability and rate of development at different temperatures in Drosophila: a comparison of constant and alternating thermal regimes. Journal of Thermal Biology 26, 2939.

T.A. Royer , K.L. Giles , S.D. Kindler & N.C. Elliott (2001) Developmental responses of three geographic isolates of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 30, 637641.

V. Sevacherian , V.M. Stern & A.J. Mueller (1977) Heat accumulation for timing Lygus control measures on a safflower-cotton complex. Journal of Economic Entomology 70, 399402.

G.T. Shute (1956) A method of maintaining colonies of East African strains of Anopheles gambiae. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 50, 92.

D.A. Stacey & D.E. Fellowes (2002) Temperature and the development rates of thrips: evidence for a constraint on local adaptation. European Journal of Entomology 99, 399404.

C.A. Tauber , M.J. Tauber & J.R. Nechols (1987) Thermal requirements for development in Chrysops oculata–geographically stable trait. Ecology 68, 14791487.

M. Trips (1972) Development and predatory behaviour of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to temperature. Environmental Entomology 1, 537546.

W. Tun-Lin , T.R. Burkot & B.H. Kay (2000) Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14, 3137.

T.L. Wagner , H. Wu , J.H. Sharpe , R.M. Schoolfield & R. Coulson (1984) Modelling insect development rates: a literature review and application of a biopysical model. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 77, 208225.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *