Skip to main content

Effect of temperature on the development of the aquatic stages of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae)

  • M.N. Bayoh (a1) and S.W. Lindsay (a1)

Global warming may affect the future pattern of many arthropod-borne diseases, yet the relationship between temperature and development has been poorly described for many key vectors. Here the development of the aquatic stages of Africa's principal malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Giles, is described at different temperatures. Development time from egg to adult was measured under laboratory conditions at constant temperatures between 10 and 40°C. Rate of development from one immature stage to the next increased at higher temperatures to a peak around 28°C and then declined. Adult development rate was greatest between 28 and 32°C, although adult emergence was highest between 22 and 26°C. No adults emerged below 18°C or above 34°C. Non-linear models were used to describe the relationship between developmental rate and temperature, which could be used for developing process-based models of malaria transmission. The utility of these findings is demonstrated by showing that a map where the climate is suitable for the development of aquatic stages of A. gambiae s.s. corresponded closely with the best map of malaria risk currently available for Africa.

Corresponding author
*Fax: +44 (0)191 3741179 E-mail:
Hide All
Abrami G. (1972) Optimum mean temperature for plant growth calculated by a new method of summation. Ecology 53, 893900.
Ali Niazee M.T. (1976) Thermal unit requirements for determining adult emergence of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Williamette Valley of Oregon. Environmental Entomology 5, 397402.
Bar-Zeev M. (1958) The effect of temperature on the growth rate and survival of the immature stages of Aedes aegypti (L.). Bulletin of Entomological Research 49, 157163.
Baskerville G.L. & Emin P. (1969) Rapid estimation of heat accumulation from maximum and minimum temperatures. Ecology 50, 514517.
Bradley D.J. (1993) Human tropical diseases in a changing environment. pp. 146170 in Environmental Change and Human Health: Ciba Foundation Symposium 175. Wiley, Chichester.
Bradshaw W.E. (1980) Thermoperiodism and the thermal environment of the pitcher plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii. Oecologia 46, 1317.
Briere J.F. & Pracros P. (1998) Comparison of temperature-dependent growth models with the development of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Environmental Entomology 27, 94101.
Brust R.A. (1967) Weight and development time of different stadia of mosquitoes reared at various constant temperatures. Canadian Entomologist 99, 986993.
Chambers G.M. & Klowden M.J. (1990) Correlation of nutritional reserves with a critical weight for pupation in larval Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 6, 394399.
Clements A.N. (1992) The biology of mosquitoes. Volume 1. Development, nutrition and reproduction. London, Chapman & Hall.
Corbett J.D. & O'Brien R.F. (1997) The spatial characterization tool – Africa. Texas, Texas A & M University.
Cossins A.R. & Bowler K. (1987) Temperature biology of animals. London, Chapman and Hall,
Craig M.H., Snow R.W. & Le Suer D. (1999) A climate-based distribution model of malaria transmission in sub-saharan Africa. Parasitology Today 15, 105111.
Eckenrode C.J. & Chapman R.K. (1972) Seasonal adult cabbage maggot populations in the field in relation to thermal-unit accumulation. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 65, 151156.
Garett-Jones C. (1964) Prognosis for interruption of malaria transmission through assessment of mosquitoes vectorial capacity. Nature 204, 1173.
Hagstrum D.W. & Workman E.B. (1971) Interaction of temperature and feeding rate in determining the rate of development of larval Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 64, 668671.
Howe R.W. (1967) Temperature effects on embryonic development in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 10, 1542.
Huffaker C.B. (1944) The temperature relations of the immature stages of the malarial mosquito An. quadrimaculatus Say, with a comparison of the developmental power of constant and variable temperatures in insect metabolism. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 37, 127.
Jalil M. (1971) Effect of temperature on larval growth of Aedes triseriatus. Journal of Economic Entomology 65, 625626.
Jepson W.F., Moutia A. & Courtois C. (1947) The malaria problem in Mauritius: the bionomics of Mauritian anophelines. Bulletin of Entomological Research 38, 177208.
Korochkina S.E., Gordadze A.V., Zakharkin S.O. & Benes H. (1997) Differential accumulation and tissue distribution of mosquito hexamerins during metamorphosis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 27, 813824.
Kovats R.S., Campbell-Lendrum D.H., McMichael A.J., Woodward A. & Cox J.S.H. (2001) Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne diseases? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 356, 10571068.
Lassiter M., Apperson C. & Roe R. (1995) Juvenile hormone metabolism during the fourth stadium and pupal stage of the southern house mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus Say. Journal of Insect Physiology 41, 869876.
Lindsay S.W. & Birley M.H. (1996) Climate change and malaria transmission. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 90, 573588.
Lindsay S.W., Parson L. & Thomas C.J. (1998) Mapping the ranges and relative abundance of the two principal African malaria vectors, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and An. arabiensis, using climate data. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 265, 847854.
Liu C. (1990) [Comparative studies on the role of Anopheles anthropophagus and Anopheles sinensis in malaria transmission in China]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 11, 360363.
Logan J.A., Wollkind D.J., Hoyt S.C. & Tanigoshi L.K. (1976) An analytical model for description of temperature dependent rate phenomena in arthropods. Environmental Entomology 5, 11331140.
Lyimo E.O. & Takken W. (1993) Effects of adult body size on fecundity and the pre-gravid rate of Anopheles gambiae females in Tanzania. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 7, 328332.
Lyimo E.O., Takken W. & Koella J.C. (1992) Effects of rearing temperature and larval density on larval survival, age at pupation and adult size of Anopheles gambiae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 63, 265271.
Martens P. (1998) Health and climate change. London, Earthscan.
Mogi M. (1992) Temperature and photoperiod effects on larval and ovarial development on New Zealand strains of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 85, 5866.
Petavy G., David J.R., Gibert P. & Moreteau B. (2001) Viability and rate of development at different temperatures in Drosophila: a comparison of constant and alternating thermal regimes. Journal of Thermal Biology 26, 2939.
Rogers D.J. & Randolph S.E. (2000) The global spread of malaria in a future, warmer world. Science 289, 17631766.
Royer T.A., Giles K.L., Kindler S.D. & Elliott N.C. (2001) Developmental responses of three geographic isolates of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Hymenoptera: Aphididae). Environmental Entomology 30, 637641.
Sevacherian V., Stern V.M. & Mueller A.J. (1977) Heat accumulation for timing Lygus control measures on a safflower-cotton complex. Journal of Economic Entomology 70, 399402.
Shelton R.M. (1973) The effect of temperatures on the development of eight mosquito species. Mosquito News 33, 112.
Shute G.T. (1956) A method of maintaining colonies of East African strains of Anopheles gambiae. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 50, 92.
Speight M.R., Hunter M.D. & Watt A.D. (1999) Ecology of insects: concepts and applications. Oxford, Blackwell Science Ltd.
Stacey D.A. & Fellowes D.E. (2002) Temperature and the development rates of thrips: evidence for a constraint on local adaptation. European Journal of Entomology 99, 399404.
Sutherst R.W., Maywald G.F. & Skarratt D.B. (1995) Predicting insect distributions in a changed climate. pp. 5961in Harrington R. & Stork N.E. (Eds.) Insects in a changing environment. London, Academic Press.
Tauber C.A., Tauber M.J. & Nechols J.R. (1987) Thermal requirements for development in Chrysops oculata–geographically stable trait. Ecology 68, 14791487.
Trimble R.M. & Lund C.T. (1983) Intra- and interpopulation variation in the thermal characteristics of preadult development of two latitudinally diverse populations of Toxorhynchites rutilus septentrionalis (Diptera: Culicidae). Canadian Entomologist 115, 659662.
Trips M. (1972) Development and predatory behaviour of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to temperature. Environmental Entomology 1, 537546.
Tun-Lin W., Burkot T.R. & Kay B.H. (2000) Effects of temperature and larval diet on development rates and survival of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in north Queensland, Australia. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 14, 3137.
Wagner T.L., Wu H., Sharpe J.H., Schoolfield R.M. & Coulson R. (1984) Modelling insect development rates: a literature review and application of a biopysical model. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 77, 208225.
WHO (1975) Manual on practical entomology in malaria. Geneva, World Health Organization.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 126 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 609 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.