MARSCHALEK, DANIEL A. DEUTSCHMAN, DOUGLAS H. STRAHM, SPRING and BERRES, MARK E. 2016. Dynamic landscapes shape post-wildfire recolonisation and genetic structure of the endangered Hermes copper (Lycaena hermes) butterfly. Ecological Entomology, Vol. 41, Issue. 3, p. 327.
Saarinen, Emily V. Reilly, Patrick F. Austin, James D. and Packer, Laurence 2016. Conservation genetics of an endangered grassland butterfly (Oarisma poweshiek ) reveals historically high gene flow despite recent and rapid range loss. Insect Conservation and Diversity, Vol. 9, Issue. 6, p. 517.
Habel, Jan Christian Brückmann, Sabrina V. Krauss, Jochen Schwarzer, Julia Weig, Alfons Husemann, Martin and Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf 2015. Fragmentation genetics of the grassland butterfly Polyommatus coridon: Stable genetic diversity or extinction debt?. Conservation Genetics, Vol. 16, Issue. 3, p. 549.
Pecsenye, Katalin Bereczki, Judit Juhász, Edit Tartally, András and Varga, Zoltán 2015. Contrasting genetic structure in cuckoo and predatory Maculinea butterflies. Conservation Genetics, Vol. 16, Issue. 4, p. 939.
Sekar, Sandhya and Karanth, K. Praveen 2015. Does size matter? Comparative population genetics of two butterflies with different wingspans. Organisms Diversity & Evolution, Vol. 15, Issue. 3, p. 567.
Pecsenye, Katalin Rácz, Rita Bereczki, Judit Bátori, Edit and Varga, Zoltán 2014. Loss of genetic variation in declining populations of Aricia artaxerxes in Northern Hungary. Journal of Insect Conservation, Vol. 18, Issue. 2, p. 233.
Habel, Jan Christian Rödder, Dennis Lens, Luc and Schmitt, Thomas 2013. The genetic signature of ecologically different grassland Lepidopterans. Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 2401.
BUCKLEY, JAMES BUTLIN, ROGER K. and BRIDLE, JON R. 2012. Evidence for evolutionary change associated with the recent range expansion of the British butterfly,Aricia agestis, in response to climate change. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 21, Issue. 2, p. 267.
Francis, Ardath Darbyshire, Stephen J. Légère, Anne and Simard, Marie-Josée 2012. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. 151.Erodium cicutarium(L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, Vol. 92, Issue. 7, p. 1359.
Habel, Jan Christian and Schmitt, Thomas 2012. The burden of genetic diversity. Biological Conservation, Vol. 147, Issue. 1, p. 270.
Habel, Jan Christian Engler, Jan O. Rödder, Dennis and Schmitt, Thomas 2012. Contrasting genetic and morphologic responses on recent population decline in two burnet moths (Lepidoptera, Zygaenidae). Conservation Genetics, Vol. 13, Issue. 5, p. 1293.
KEYSER, RIEN DE SHREEVE, TIM G. BREUKER, CASPER J. HAILS, ROSEMARY S. and SCHMITT, THOMAS 2012. Polyommatus icarus butterflies in the British Isles: evidence for a bottleneck. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 107, Issue. 1, p. 123.
BERECZKI, Judit TOTH, Janos P. TOTH, Andrea BATORI, Edit PECSENYE, Katalin and VARGA, Zoltan 2011. The genetic structure of phenologically differentiated Large Blue (Maculinea arion) populations (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in the Carpathian Basin. European Journal of Entomology, Vol. 108, Issue. 4, p. 519.
Engelhardt, Christine HM Haase, Peter and Pauls, Steffen U 2011. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera). Frontiers in Zoology, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 10.
Pratt, Gordon F. Ballmer, Gregory R. and Wright, David M. 2011. Allozyme-Based Phylogeny of North AmericanCallophrys(s. l.) (Lycaenidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society, Vol. 65, Issue. 4, p. 205.
ZIMMERMANN, KAMIL FRIC, ZDENEK JISKRA, PETR KOPECKOVA, MICHALA VLASANEK, PETR ZAPLETAL, MICHAL and KONVICKA, MARTIN 2011. Mark-recapture on large spatial scale reveals long distance dispersal in the Marsh Fritillary, Euphydryas aurinia. Ecological Entomology, Vol. 36, Issue. 4, p. 499.
Habel, Jan Christian Junker, Marius and Schmitt, Thomas 2010. High dispersal ability and low genetic differentiation in the widespread butterfly species Melanargia galathea. Journal of Insect Conservation, Vol. 14, Issue. 5, p. 467.
Stevens, Virginie M. Turlure, Camille and Baguette, Michel 2010. A meta-analysis of dispersal in butterflies. Biological Reviews, p. no.
Many studies in population ecology have shown that related species have different dispersal behaviours. Species with sedentary and migratory behaviour exist in butterflies. While the genetic responses to population isolation are well studied, the effects of different dispersal behaviours of species are widely unknown. Therefore, we analysed 19 allozyme loci of two lycaenid butterflies, Cupido minimus as a sedentary butterfly and Aricia agestis as a mobile and expansive species. We collected 594 individuals (280 of C. minimus and 314 of A. agestis) in a western German study region with adjacent areas in Luxembourg and northeastern France. The genetic differentiation among populations of A. agestis (FST=3.9%) was lower than in C. minimus (FST=5.6%). Both species built up an isolation-by-distance system, which is more pronounced in A. agestis than in C. minimus. The genetic diversity in C. minumus populations (e.g. Ptot=73.5%) is higher for all analysed parameters than in A. agestis (e.g. Ptot=52.1%). Both species show specific genetic characteristics fitting with their different dispersal behaviours and respective ecological strategies. In the light of conservation genetics, we deduce that highly fragmented populations do not necessarily have a high extinction probability, but this risk depending much more on specific population genetic structures. In the studied species, C. minimus preserves a complex genetic constitution by high population densities. The patchily distributed A. agestis represents less rare alleles, present only in some populations, and holds up genetic diversity by high mobility.
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