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    González, Mikel López, Sergio Mullens, Bradley A. Baldet, Thierry and Goldarazena, Arturo 2013. A survey of Culicoides developmental sites on a farm in northern Spain, with a brief review of immature habitats of European species. Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 191, Issue. 1-2, p. 81.

    Rigot, Thibaud Conte, Annamaria Goffredo, Maria Ducheyne, Els Hendrickx, Guy and Gilbert, Marius 2012. Predicting the spatio-temporal distribution of Culicoides imicola in Sardinia using a discrete-time population model. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 270.

    FOXI, C. and DELRIO, G. 2010. Larval habitats and seasonal abundance of Culicoides biting midges found in association with sheep in northern Sardinia, Italy. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 24, Issue. 2, p. 199.

    USLU, U. and DIK, B. 2006. Vertical distribution of Culicoides larvae and pupae. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 350.

    WITTMANN, E.J. and BAYLIS, M. 2000. Climate Change: Effects on Culicoides -Transmitted Viruses and Implications for the UK. The Veterinary Journal, Vol. 160, Issue. 2, p. 107.

    BRAVERMAN, Y. 1978. Characteristics of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) breeding places near Salisbury, Rhodesia. Ecological Entomology, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 163.


Larval habitats of common Culicoides Latreille (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) in Kenya

  • R. Lubega (a1) and C. P. M. Khamala (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 July 2009

The larval habitats of Culicoides species were determined by examining a total of 1 476 samples collected from different ecological environments in various parts of Kenya. Immature stages were collected from suspected breeding habitats and adults were reared. Adults were also captured in emergence traps and then identified. To determine species preferences, if any, the materials yielding Culicoides were analysed for pH, organic matter and water content.

Fifty-seven percent of the samples yielded a total of 26 species of Culicoides. Sites in which Culicoides occurred were classified into eleven habitats grouped into four major systems, namely, aquatic, transitional, terrestrial and general systems. Most species were found breeding over a wide pH range in sites which were wet at least part of the time. A few species appeared to select breeding habitats with a high organic content.

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, & (). .— , –.H. F. Carter A. Ingram J. W. S. Macfie 1920 Observations on the Ceratopogonine midges of the Gold Coast with descriptions of new species. Part II Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 14 211274

C. A. Hopkins (1952). Notes on the biology of certain Culicoides studied in the British Cameroons, West Africa, together with observations on their possible rôle as vectors of Acathocheilonema perstans.— Ann. trop. Med. Parasit. 46, 165172.

C. P. M. Khamala & D. S. Kettle (1971). The Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of East Africa.— Trans. R. ent. Soc. Lond. 123, 195.

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Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
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