Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 23
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Duan, Xinle Peng, Xiong Qiao, Xianfeng and Chen, Maohua 2016. Life cycle and population genetics of bird cherry-oat aphids Rhopalosiphum padi in China: an important pest on wheat crops. Journal of Pest Science,

    Wang, Hui-Min Zhao, Hong-hai and Chu, Dong 2015. Genetic structure analysis of populations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, from north China. Nematology, Vol. 17, Issue. 5, p. 591.

    Zheng, Yan Qiao, Xianfeng Wang, Kang Dorn, Silvia and Chen, Maohua 2015. Population genetics affected by pest management using fruit-bagging: a case study withGrapholita molestain China. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol. 156, Issue. 2, p. 117.

    Chu, Dong Guo, Dong Tao, Yunli Jiang, Defeng Li, Jie and Zhang, Youjun 2014. Evidence For Rapid Spatiotemporal Changes in Genetic Structure of an Alien Whitefly During Initial Invasion. Scientific Reports, Vol. 4,

    Duménil, Claire Judd, Gary Bosch, Dolors Baldessari, Mario Gemeno, César and Groot, Astrid 2014. Intraspecific Variation in Female Sex Pheromone of the Codling Moth Cydia pomonella. Insects, Vol. 5, Issue. 4, p. 705.

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza Manzari, Shahab Sahragard, Ahad Malagnini, Valeria Boykin, Laura M and Hosseini, Reza 2014. Global genetic variation in the Asian citrus psyllid,Diaphorina citri(Hemiptera: Liviidae) and the endosymbiontWolbachia: links between Iran and the USA detected. Pest Management Science, Vol. 70, Issue. 7, p. 1033.

    Opoku-Debrah, J.K. Hill, M.P. Knox, C. and Moore, S.D. 2014. Comparison of the Biology of Geographically Distinct Populations of the Citrus Pest,Thaumatotibia leucotreta(Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in South Africa. African Entomology, Vol. 22, Issue. 3, p. 530.

    Collatz, Jana and Dorn, Silvia 2013. A host-plant-derived volatile blend to attract the apple blossom weevilAnthonomus pomorum- the essential volatiles include a repellent constituent. Pest Management Science, Vol. 69, Issue. 9, p. 1092.

    Collatz, Jana and Dorn, Silvia 2013. Tritrophic consequences arising from a host shift between apple and walnut in an oligophagous herbivore. Biological Control, Vol. 65, Issue. 3, p. 330.

    Davis, Thomas Seth Garczynski, Stephen F. Stevens-Rumann, Camille and Landolt, Peter J. 2013. A test of fruit varieties on entry rate and development by neonate larvae of the codling moth,Cydia pomonella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol. 148, Issue. 3, p. 259.

    Kirk, Heather Dorn, Silvia and Mazzi, Dominique 2013. Molecular genetics and genomics generate new insights into invertebrate pest invasions. Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 6, Issue. 5, p. 842.

    Men, Qiu-Lei Chen, Mao-Hua Zhang, Ya-Lin and Feng, Ji-Nian 2013. Genetic structure and diversity of a newly invasive species, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in China. Biological Invasions, Vol. 15, Issue. 2, p. 447.

    Shin, Dongyoung Mo, Hyoung-ho Lee, Sung-Eun Park, Jung-Joon and Cho, Kijong 2013. Elucidation of the genetic differences inTrialeurodes vaporariorumpopulations under vegetable greenhouse conditions by using the allozyme approach. Entomological Research, p. n/a.

    Gund, Nadine A. Wagner, Annette Timm, Alicia E. Schulze-Bopp, Stefanie Jehle, Johannes A. Johannesen, Jes and Reineke, Annette 2012. Genetic analysis of Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations with different levels of sensitivity towards the Cydia pomonella granulovirus (CpGV). Genetica, Vol. 140, Issue. 4-6, p. 235.

    Margaritopoulos, John T. Voudouris, Costas Ch. Olivares, Jérôme Sauphanor, Benoit Mamuris, Zissis Tsitsipis, John A. and Franck, Pierre 2012. Dispersal ability in codling moth: mark-release-recapture experiments and kinship analysis. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 14, Issue. 4, p. 399.

    Mazzi, D. and Dorn, S. 2012. Movement of insect pests in agricultural landscapes. Annals of Applied Biology, Vol. 160, Issue. 2, p. 97.

    Voudouris, C.Ch. Franck, P. Olivares, J. Sauphanor, B. Mamuris, Z. Tsitsipis, J.A. and Margaritopoulos, J.T. 2012. Comparing the genetic structure of codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) from Greece and France: long distance gene-flow in a sedentary pest species. Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. 102, Issue. 02, p. 185.

    Franck, P. Ricci, B. Klein, E. K. Olivares, J. Simon, S. Cornuet, J.-M. and Lavigne, C. 2011. Genetic inferences about the population dynamics of codling moth females at a local scale. Genetica, Vol. 139, Issue. 7, p. 949.

    Piskorski, Rafal and Dorn, Silvia 2011. How the oligophage codling moth Cydia pomonella survives on walnut despite its secondary metabolite juglone. Journal of Insect Physiology, Vol. 57, Issue. 6, p. 744.

    Piskorski, Rafal Ineichen, Simon and Dorn, Silvia 2011. Ability of the Oriental Fruit Moth Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to Detoxify Juglone, the Main Secondary Metabolite of the Non-host Plant Walnut. Journal of Chemical Ecology, Vol. 37, Issue. 10, p. 1110.


Microsatellites reveal genetic differentiation among populations in an insect species with high genetic variability in dispersal, the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

  • M.H. Chen (a1) and S. Dorn (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 14 April 2009

Little is known about genetic differentiation and gene flow in populations of insect species that have a high genetic variability in dispersal but lack morphologically visible morphs that disperse. These characteristics apply to the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a major pest of fruits and nuts. Larvae were collected from three orchards each of pome fruits, stone fruits and nut trees in a major fruit growing area of Switzerland (Valais) and from six further (mainly apple) orchards throughout this country. Nine microsatellite loci were used to investigate genetic differentiation and the amount of gene flow among the sampled populations. All the loci were shown to be polymorphic in all populations. The number of alleles ranged from five to 15 over nine loci for the 15 populations. Significant genetic differentiation was noted among the populations from apple, apricot and walnut in the Valais region. Furthermore, among the eight populations sampled from apple in different geographic regions throughout Switzerland, AMOVA and pairwise FST analysis revealed significant population genetic differentiation even between populations collected from orchards ≪10 km apart. These results indicate that a distinct prevailing characteristic, in the present case the sedentary behaviour of the moth, can shape population architecture.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence Fax: +41 44 632 1171 E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

X. Bailly , A. Migeon & M. Navajas (2004) Analysis of microsatellite variation in the spider mite pest Tetranychus turkestani (Acari: Tetranychidae) reveals population genetic structure and raises questions about related ecological factors. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 82, 6978.

A.J. Bohonak (1999) Dispersal, gene flow, and population structure. Quarterly Review of Biology 74, 2145.

R. Buès , J.F. Toubon & H.S. Poitout (1995) Variabilité écophysiologique et enzymatique de Cydia pomonella L. en fonction de l'origine géographique et de la plante hôte. Agronomie 15, 221231.

M.P. Chapuis & A. Estoup (2007) Microsatellite null alleles and estimation of population differentiation. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24, 621631.

M.P. Chapuis , A. Loiseau , Y. Michalakis , M. Lecoq & A. Estoup (2005) Characterization and PCR multiplexing of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the locust Locusta migratoria. Molecular Ecology Notes 5, 554557.

F. Costantini , C. Fauvelot & M. Abbiati (2007) Genetic structuring of the temperate gorgonian coral (Corallium rubrum) across the western Mediterranean Sea revealed by microsatellites and nuclear sequences. Molecular Ecology 16, 51685182.

I. Denholm & M.W. Rowland (1992) Tactics for managing pesticide resistance in arthropods: theory and practice. Annual Review of Entomology 37, 91–112.

S. Dorn , P. Schumacher , C. Abivardi & R. Meyhöfer (1999) Global and regional pest insects and their antagonists in orchards: spatial dynamics. Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 73, 111118.

N.M. Endersby , S.W. Mckechnie , P.M. Ridland & A.R. Weeks (2006) Microsatellites reveal a lack of structure in Australian populations of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Molecular Ecology 15, 107118.

P. Franck , F. Guérin , A. Loiseau & B. Sauphanor (2005) Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 5, 99–102.

P. Franck , M. Reyes , J. Olivares & B. Sauphanor (2007) Genetic architecture in codling moth populations: comparison between microsatellite and insecticide resistance markers. Molecular Ecology 16, 35543564.

E. Fuentes-Contreras , M. Reyes , W. Barros & B. Sauphanor (2007) Evaluation of azinphosmethyl resistance and activity of detoxifying enzymes in codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from central Chile. Journal of Economic Entomology 100, 551556.

E. Fuentes-Contreras , J.L. Espinoza , B. Lavandero & C.C. Bamírez (2008) Population genetic structure of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from apple orchards in central Chile. Journal of Economic Entomology 101, 190198.

P.W. Geier (1963) The life history of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the Australian capital territory. Australian Journal of Zoology 11, 323367.

H. Gu , J. Hughes & S. Dorn (2006) Trade-off between mobility and fitness in Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Ecological Entomology 31, 6874.

G.L. Harper , N. Maclean & D. Goulson (2003) Microsatellite markers to assess the influence of population size, isolation and demographic change on the genetic structure of the UK butterfly, Polyommatus bellargus. Molecular Ecology 12, 33493357.

A.P. Hendry , P. Nosil & L.H. Rieseberg (2007) The speed of ecological speciation. Functional Ecology 21, 455464.

C. Ioriatti , M. Tasin , P.J. Charmillot , M. Reyes & B. Sauphanor (2007) Early detection of resistance to tebufenozide in field populations of Cydia pomonella L.: methods and mechanisms. Journal of Applied Entomology 131, 453459.

Y.J. Ji , D.X. Zhang , G.M. Hewitt , L. Kang & D.M. Li (2003) Polymorphic microsatellite loci for the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and some remarks on their isolation. Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 102104.

S. Keil , H. Gu & S. Dorn (2001) Response of Cydia pomonella to selection on mobility: laboratory evaluation and field verification. Ecological Entomology 26, 495501.

N. Keyghobadi , J. Roland & C. Strobeck (1999) Influence of landscape on the population genetic structure of the alpine butterfly Parnassius smintheus (Papilionidae). Molecular Ecology 8, 14811495.

N. Keyghobadi , J. Roland & C. Strobeck (2005) Genetic differentiation and gene flow among populations of the alpine butterfly, Parnassius smintheus, vary with landscape connectivity. Molecular Ecology 14, 18971909.

N. Keyghobadi , K.P. Unger , J.D. Weintraub & D.M. Fonseca (2006) Remnant populations of the regal fritillary (Speyeria idalia) in Pennsylvania: Local genetic structure in a high gene flow species. Conservation Genetics 7, 309313.

G. Li , S. Hubert , K. Bucklin , V. Ribes & D. Hedgecock (2003) Characterization of 79 microsatellite DNA markers in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Molecular Ecology Notes 3, 228232.

Y.C. Li , A.B. Korol , T. Fahima , A. Beiles & E. Nevo (2002) Microsatellites: genomic distribution, putative functions and mutational mechanisms: a review. Molecular Ecology 11, 24532465.

H.D. Loxdale , J. Hardie , S. Halbert , R. Foottit , N.A.C. Kidd & C.I. Carter (1993) The relative importance of short- and long-range movement of flying aphids. Biological Reviews 68, 291311.

E. Mani & T. Wildbolz (1977) The dispersal of male codling moths (Laspeyresia pomonella L.) in the Upper Rhine Valley. Zeitschrift für Angewandte Entomologie 83, 161168.

E. Meglécz & M. Solignac (1998) Microsatellite loci for Parnassius mnemosyne (Lepidoptera). Hereditas 128, 179180.

E. Meglécz , F. Petenian , E. Danchin , A.C. D'Acier , J.Y. Rasplus & E. Faure (2004) High similarity between flanking regions of different microsatellites detected within each of two species of Lepidoptera: Parnassius apollo and Euphydryas aurinia. Molecular Ecology 13, 16931700.

N.J. Miller , A.J. Birley , A.D.J. Overall & G.M. Tatchell (2003) Population genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.), in relation to geographic distance, gene flow and host plant usage. Heredity 91, 217223.

M. Nei (1972) Genetic distance between populations. American Naturalist 106, 283292.

L. Orsini , J. Corander , A. Alasentie & I. Hanski (2008) Genetic spatial structure in a butterfly metapopulation correlates better with past than present demographic structure. Molecular Ecology 17, 26292642.

D. Pasquier & P.J. Charmillot (2003) Effectiveness of twelve insecticides applied topically to diapausing larvae of the codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. Pest Management Science 60, 305308.

M.A. Peterson & R.F. Denno (1998) The influence of dispersal and diet breadth on patterns of genetic isolation by distance in phytophagous insects. American Naturalist 152, 428446.

P.A. Phillips & M.M. Barnes (1975) Host race formation among sympatric apple, walnut, and plum populations of the codling moth, Laspeyresia pomonella. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68, 10531060.

M.A. Rankin & J.C.A. Burchsted (1992) The cost of migration in insects. Annual Review of Entomology 37, 533559.

H. Reuveny & E. Cohen (2004) Resistance of the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lep., Tortricidae) to pesticides in Israel. Journal of Applied Entomology 128, 645651.

P.D. Schumacher , C. Weber , C. Hagger & S. Dorn (1997a) Heritability of flight distance for Cydia pomonella. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 85, 169175.

P.D. Schumacher , A. Weyeneth , C. Weber & S. Dorn (1997b) Long flights in Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) measured by a flight mill: influence of sex, mated status and age. Physiological Entomology 22, 149160.

L.J. Scott , N. Lawrence , C.L. Lange , G.C. Graham , S. Hardwick , L. Rossiter , M.L. Dillon & K.D. Scott (2006) Population dynamics and gene flow of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on cotton and grain crops in the Murrumbidgee Valley, Australia. Journal of Economic Entomology 99, 155163.

M.C. Singer , C.D. Thomas & C. Parmesan (1993) Rapid human-induced evolution of insect–host associations. Nature 366, 681683.

F. Simard , T. Lehmann , J.J. Lemasson , M. Diatta & D. Fontenille (2000) Persistence of Anopheles arabiensis during the severe dry season conditions in Senegal: an indirect approach using microsatellite loci. Insect Molecular Biology 9, 467479.

S. Subramanian & S. Mohankumar (2006) Genetic variability of the bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, occurring on different host plants. Journal of Insect Science 6, 17.

B.E. Tabashnik , N.L. Cushing & M.W. Johnson (1987) Diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) resistance to insecticides in Hawaii USA: intra-island variation and cross-resistance. Journal of Economic Entomology 80, 10911099.

R. Thaler , A. Brandstätter , A. Meraner , M. Chabicovski , W. Parson , R. Zelger , J. Dalla Via & R. Dallinger (2008) Molecular phylogeny and population structure of the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) in Central Europe: II. AFLP analysis reflects human-aided local adaptation of a global pest species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 48, 838849.

A.E. Timm , H. Geertsema & L. Warnich (2006) Gene flow among Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) geographic and host populations in South Africa. Journal of Economic Entomology 99, 341348.

A. Vallat & S. Dorn (2005) Changes in volatile emissions from apple trees and associated response of adult female codling moths over the fruit-growing season. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 40834090.

Y.H. Zhou , H. Gu & S. Dorn (2005) Isolation of microsatellite loci in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Molecular Ecology Notes 5, 226227.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *