Skip to main content Accessibility help

Seasonal migration of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) over the Bohai Sea in northern China

  • X.-W. Fu (a1), C. Li (a1), H.-Q. Feng (a2), Z.-F. Liu (a3), J.W. Chapman (a4) (a5), D.R. Reynolds (a4) (a6) and K.-M. Wu (a1)...

The rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée), is a serious insect pest of rice with a strong migratory ability. Previous studies on the migration of C. medinalis were mostly carried out in tropical or subtropical regions, however, and what the pattern of seasonal movements this species exhibits in temperate regions (i.e. Northern China, where they cannot overwinter) remains unknown. Here we present data from an 11-year study of this species made by searchlight trapping on Beihuang Island (BH, 38°24′N; 120°55′E) in the centre of the Bohai Strait, which provides direct evidence that C. medinalis regularly migrates across this sea into northeastern agricultural region of China, and to take advantage of the abundant food resources there during the summer season. There was considerable seasonal variation in number of C. medinalis trapped on BH, and the migration period during 2003–2013 ranged from 72 to 122 days. Some females trapped in June and July showed a relatively higher proportion of mated and a degree of ovarian development suggesting that the migration of this species is not completely bound by the ‘oogenesis-flight syndrome’. These findings revealed a new route for C. medinalis movements to and from Northeastern China, which will help us develop more effective management strategies against this pest.

Corresponding author
*Author for correspondence Phone: 0086-10-82105551 E-mail:
Hide All
Bühler, A., Lanzrein, B. & Wille, H. (1983) Influence of temperature and carbon dioxide concentration on juvenile hormone titre and dependent parameters of adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Journal of Insect Physiology 29, 885893.
Chang, S.-S., Lo, Z.-C., Keng, C.-G., Li, G.-Z., Chen, X.-L. & Wu, X.-W. (1980) Studies on the migration of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée. Acta Entomologica Sinica 23, 130140.
China Agricultural Yearbook Editing Committee (2012) China Agriculture Yearbook. Beijing, China Agricultural Press.
Cusson, M., Mcneil, J.N. & Tobe, S.S. (1990) In vitro biosynthesis of juvenile hormone by corpora allata of Pseudaletia unipuncta virgin females as a function of age, environmental conditions, calling behaviour and ovarian development. Journal of Insect Physiology 36, 139146.
Dingle, H. & Drake, V.A. (2007) What is migration? BioScience 57, 113121.
Feng, H.-Q. & Wu, K.-M. (2010) Vertical-pointing searchlight trap. Patent no. CN201020229775.3, Beijing, China.
Feng, H.-Q., Wu, K.-M., Ni, Y.-X., Cheng, D.-F. & Guo, Y.-Y. (2005) Return migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) during autumn in northern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research 95, 361370.
Feng, H.-Q., Wu, K.-M., Ni, Y.-X., Cheng, D.-F. & Guo, Y.-Y. (2006) Nocturnal migration of dragonflies over the Bohai Sea in northern China. Ecological Entomology 31, 511520.
Feng, H.-Q., Wu, X.-F., Wu, B. & Wu, K.-M. (2009) Seasonal migration of Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) over the Bohai Sea. Journal of Economic Entomology 102, 95104.
Geng, J.-G., Zhang, J.-X., Zhang, X.-X., Magor, J.I. & Pender, J. (1990) Trajectory analysis on ship captures of rice leaf roller southward migration. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University 13, 4853.
Greenbank, D.O., Schaefer, G.W. & Rainey, R.C. (1980) Spruce budworm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) moth flight and dispersal: new understanding from canopy observations, radar, and aircraft. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada 110, 149.
Heinrich, B. (1993) The Hot-Blooded Insects: Strategies and Mechanisms of Thermoregulation. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
Irwin, M.E. (1999) Implications of movement in developing and deploying integrated pest management strategies. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 97, 235248.
Johnson, C.G. (1963) Physiological factors in insect migration by flight. Nature 198, 423427.
Kawazu, K., Setokuchi, O., Kohno, K., Takahashi, K., Yoshiyasu, Y. & Tatsuki, S. (2001) Sex pheromone of the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): synthetic Indian and Philippine blends are not attractive to male C. medinalis, but are attractive to C. pilosa in the South-Western islands in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology 36, 471474.
Kennedy, J.S. (1961) A turning point in the study of insect migration. Nature 189, 785791.
Kisimoto, R. (1984) Insect pests of the rice plant in Asia. Protection Ecology 7, 83104.
Liu, H.-Q., Liu, Z.-J. & Zhu, W.-H. (1983) Results of net-trapping of brown planthoppers on China Seas. Acta Entomologica Sinica 26, 109113.
Luo, S.-J. (2010) Occurrence of rice leaf roller in China and its identification and prevention. Plant Diseases and Pests 1, 1318.
Miyahara, Y., Wada, T. & Kobayashi, M. (1981) Appearance of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée in early planted rice fields in Chikugo. Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology & Zoology 25, 2632.
Mochida, O. (1974) Long distance movement of Sogatella furcifera and Nilaparvata lugens (Homoptera: Delphacidae) across the East China Sea. Rice Entomology Newsletter 1, 1822.
Nathan, S.S. (2006) Effects of Melia azedarach on nutritional physiology and enzyme activities of the rice leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology 84, 98108.
Nathan, S.S., Kalaivani, K., Murugan, K. & Chung, P.G. (2005) Efficacy of neem limonoids on Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) the rice leaffolder. Crop Protection 24, 760763.
National Coordinated Research Team on Rice Leafroller (1981) Advances in studies on the migration of rice leafroller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée in China. Scientia Agricultura Sinica 5, 18.
Otuka, A., Dudhia, J., Watanabe, T. & Furuno, A. (2005 a) A new trajectory analysis method for migratory planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), using an advanced weather forecast model. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 7, 19.
Otuka, A., Watanabe, T., Suzuki, Y., Matsumura, M., Furuno, A. & Chino, M. (2005 b) Real-time prediction system for migration of rice planthoppers Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) and Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae). Applied Entomology and Zoology 40, 221229.
Otuka, A., Watanabe, T., Suzuki, Y., Matsumura, M., Furuno, A., Chino, M., Kondo, T. & Kamimuro, T. (2006) A migration analysis of Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) using hourly catches and a three-dimensional simulation model. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 8, 3647.
Otuka, A., Matsumura, M., Watanabe, T. & Dinh, T.V. (2008) A migration analysis for rice planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) and Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Homoptera: Delphacidae), emigrating from northern Vietnam from April to May. Applied Entomology and Zoology 43, 527534.
Otuka, A., Huang, S.H., Sanada-Morimura, S. & Matsumura, M. (2012) Migration analysis of Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) from the Philippines to Taiwan under typhoon-induced windy conditions. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47, 263271.
Oya, S. & Hirao, J. (1982) Catches of migrating rice planthoppers on the East China Sea and northern Kyushu, Japan in late June 1981. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu 28, 117121.
Padmavathi, C., Katti, G., Padmakumari, A.P., Voleti, S.R. & Subba Rao, L.V. (2012) The effect of leaffolder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Homoptera: Delphacidae) injury on the plant physiology and yield loss in rice. Journal of Applied Entomology 137, 249256.
Pateman, R.M., Hill, J.K., Roy, D.B., Fox, R. & Thomas, C.D. (2012) Temperature-dependent alterations in host use drive rapid range expansion in a butterfly. Science 336, 10281030.
Pathak, M.D. & Khan, Z.R. (1994) Insect Pests of Rice. Manila, International Rice Research Institute.
Pöyry, J., Luoto, M., Heikkinen, R.K., Kuussaari, M. & Saarinen, K. (2009) Species traits explain recent range shifts of Finnish butterflies. Global Change Biology 3, 732743.
Rhainds, M. & Kettela, E.G. (2013) Oviposition threshold for flight in an inter-reproductive migrant moth. Journal of Insect Behavior 26, 850859.
Riley, J.R., Reynolds, D.R., Smith, A.D., Edwards, A.S., Zhang, X.-X., Cheng, X.-N., Wang, H.-K., Cheng, J.-Y. & Zhai, B.-P. (1995) Observations of the autumn migration of the rice leaf roller Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and other moths in eastern China. Bulletin of Entomological Research 85, 397414.
Robertson, C., Nelson, T.A., Jelinski, D.E., Wulder, M.A. & Boots, B. (2009) Spatial-temporal analysis of species range expansion: the case of the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae. Journal of Biogeography 8, 14461458.
SAS Institute (1990) SAS/STAT User's Guide. Cary, SAS Institute Inc.
Serafim, J.M., Lansac-Tôha, F.A., Paggi, J.C., Velho, L.F.M. & Robertson, B. (2003) Cladocera fauna composition in a river-lagoon system of the Upper Paraná River floodplain, with a new record for Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 63, 349356.
Showers, W.B. (1997) Migratory ecology of the black cutworm. Annual Review of Entomology 42, 393425.
Sun, B.-B., Zhang, L., Jiang, X.-F. & Luo, L.-Z. (2013) Effects of temperature on reproduction in the rice leaf roller. Chinese Journal of Applied Entomology 50, 622628.
Syobu, S.I. & Otuka, A. (2012) Annual fluctuations in the immigrant density of rice planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera and Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in the Kyushu district of Japan, and associated meteorological conditions. Applied Entomology and Zoology 47, 399412.
Tang, J.-Y., Cheng, J.-A. & Norton, G.A. (1994) HOPPER: an expert system for forecasting the risk of white-backed planthopper attack in the first crop season in China. Crop Protection 13, 463473.
Wada, T., Ogawa, Y. & Nakasuga, T. (1988) Geographical difference in mated status and autumn migration in the rice leaf roller moth, Cnophalocrocis medinalis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 46, 141148.
Wang, F.-Y., Zhang, X.-X. & Zhai, B.-P. (2010) Flight and re-migration capacity of the rice leaffolder moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Acta Entomologica Sinica 53, 12651272.
Wang, X., Hu, L.-C., Zhou, G.-X., Cheng, J.-A. & Lou, Y.-G. (2011) Salicylic acid and ethylene signaling pathways are involved in production of rice trypsin proteinase inhibitors induced by the leaf folder Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée). Chinese Science Bulletin 56, 23512358.
Wilson, R.J., Gutiérrez, D., Gutiérrez, J., Martínez, D., Aguado, R. & Montserrat, V.J. (2005) Changes to the elevational limits and extent of species ranges associated with climate change. Ecology Letters 8, 11381146.
Wu, K.-M. & Guo, Y.-Y. (2005) The evolution of cotton pest management practices in China. Annual Review of Entomology 50, 3152.
Wu, Y., Price, B., Isenegger, D., Fischlin, A., Allgöwer, B. & Nuesch, D. (2006) Real-time 4D visualization of migratory insect dynamics within an integrated spatiotemporal system. Ecological Informatics 1, 179187.
Yadava, C.P., Santaram, G., Israel, P. & Kalode, M.B. (1972) Life-history of rice leaf-roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its reaction to some varieties and grasses. International Journal of Agricultural Science 42, 520523.
Yang, R.-M., Zhu, Y.-Q., Diao, C.-Y. & Zhang, F. (2004) Causes of the outbreak of Cnaphalocrocisi medinalis in Jiangsu province in 2003 and its control strategies. China Plant Protection 24, 1114.
Zanuncio, J.C., Mezzomo, J.A., Guedes, R.N.C. & Oliveira, A.C. (1998) Influence of strips of native vegetation on Lepidoptera associated with Eucalyptus cloeziana in Brazil. Forest Ecology and Management 108, 8590.
Zhai, B.-P. & Cheng, J.-A. (2006) Summary of symposium about two migration of rice insects in 2006. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology 43, 585588.
Zhang, C.-Q. & Tang, Y.-T. (1984) Studies on the overwinter patterns of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée in China. Entomological Knowledge 3, 102106.
Zhang, X.-X., Lu, Z.-Q. & Geng, J.-G. (1979) Application of ovarian dissection of female Cnaphalocrocis medinalis moths in prediction and forecasting system. Entomological Knowledge 16, 9799.
Zhang, X.-X., Geng, J.-G. & Zhou, W.-J. (1981) Studies of the migration patterns of rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée, in China. Journal of Nanjing Agricultural University 3, 4354.
Zhao, X.-C., Feng, H.-Q., Wu, B., Wu, X.-F., Liu, Z.-F., Wu, K.-M. & McNeil, J.N. (2009) Does the onset of sexual maturation terminate the expression of migratory behaviour in moths? A study of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata. Journal of Insect Physiology 55, 10391043.
Zhu, H.-W., Gu, S.-G., Yao, Y.-G., Zhang, R.-L. & Jing, W. (2009) Ovarain dissection technique of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Shanghai Agricultural Science and Technology 6, 137.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bulletin of Entomological Research
  • ISSN: 0007-4853
  • EISSN: 1475-2670
  • URL: /core/journals/bulletin-of-entomological-research
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed