Hostname: page-component-594f858ff7-jtv8x Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-06-09T02:53:10.091Z Has data issue: false Feature Flags: { "corePageComponentGetUserInfoFromSharedSession": true, "coreDisableEcommerce": false, "corePageComponentUseShareaholicInsteadOfAddThis": true, "coreDisableSocialShare": false, "useRatesEcommerce": true } hasContentIssue false

Managed Hearts and Wallets: Ethical Issues in Emotional Influence By and Within Organizations

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  23 January 2015


Increasing research attention to the ways that firms seek to influence the emotions of employees, consumers, and other stakeholders has not been accompanied by systematic attention to the ethical dimensions of emotion management. In this article we review and discuss research that informs the morality of influencing and regulating the emotions of others. What are the moral limits of the use of emotion as a management tool for shaping workplace behavior and influencing the thoughts and actions of consumers? Do the ethics of emotional labor and emotional appeals (e.g., in consumer advertising) depart from moral rules that apply in “non-emotional” contexts? To explore these questions we examine research on the means by which individuals’ emotions are shaped and on the organizationally relevant consequences of individual emotional experience. We then discuss a number of potential ethical issues that are implicit or explicit in the organizationally sanctioned use of emotion management, incorporating existing literature in management and business ethics that has addressed the moral obligations of organizations in this context, and highlighting areas where there is yet work to be done. We conclude by discussing the implications of our analysis.

Copyright © Society for Business Ethics 2009

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


Aristotle. 2004. Rhetoric (Roberts, W. R., Trans.). Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. (Original work written around 350 BCE.)Google Scholar
Ashforth, B. E., and Humphrey, R. H. 1993. Emotional labor in service roles: The influence of identity. Academy of Management Review, 18: 88115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Avolio, B. J., Walumba, F. O., & Weber, T. J. 2009. Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60: 421–49.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bagozzi, R. P., GopinathM. H,. M. H,., & Nyer, P. U. 1999. The role of emotions in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27: 184206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bandura, A. 1999. Moral disengagement in the perpetration of inhumanities. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 3: 193209.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barger, P. B., & Grandey, A. A. 2006. “Service with a smile” and encounter satisfaction: Emotional contagion and appraisal mechanisms. Academy of Management Journal, 49: 1229–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bargh, J. A. 2002. Losing consciousness: Automatic influences on consumer judgment, behavior, and motivation. Journal of Consumer Research, 29: 280–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baron, R. A. 1990. Environmentally induced positive affect: Its impact on self-efficacy, task performance, negotiation, and conflict. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20: 368–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barry, B. 1999. The tactical use of emotion in negotiation. In Bies, R. J., Lewicki, R. J., and Sheppard, B. J. (Eds.), Research on Negotiation in Organizations: 93121. Stamford, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
Barry, B., Fulmer, I. S., and Goates, N. 2006. Bargaining with feeling: Emotionality in and around negotiation. In Thompson, L. (Ed.), Negotiation Theory and Research: 99127. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Bass, B. M., & Steidlmeier, P. 1999. Ethics, character, and authentic transformational leadership behavior. The Leadership Quarterly, 10: 181217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baumeister, R. F., Vohs, K. D., & Tice, D. M. 2006. Emotional influences on decision making. In Forgas, J. P. (Ed.), Affect in social thinking and behavior: 143–59. New York: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Bazerman, M. H., & Moore, D. A. 2009. Judgment in managerial decision making, 7th ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
Beyer, J. M. 1999. Taming and promoting charisma to change organizations. Leadership Quarterly, 10: 307–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bishop, J. D. 2000. Is self-identity image advertising ethical? Business Ethics Quarterly, 10: 371–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bless, H. 2001. Mood and the use of general knowledge structures. In Martin, L. L. and Clore, G. L. (Eds.), Mood and social cognition: Contrasting theories: 926). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
Bono, J. E. & Ilies, R. 2006. Charisma, positive emotions, and mood contagion. Leadership Quarterly, 17: 317–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bower, G. H. 1981. Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36: 129–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Brader, T. 2005. Striking a responsive chord: How political ads motivate and persuade voters by appealing to emotions. American Journal of Political Science, 49: 388405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brader, T. 2006. Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Brenkert, G. G. 1998. Marketing to inner-city blacks: Powermaster and moral responsibility. Business Ethics Quarterly, 8: 118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brotheridge, C. M., & Grandey, A. A. 2002. Emotional labor and burnout: Comparing two perspectives of “people work.” Journal of Vocational Behavior, 60: 1739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Broyles, S. J. 2006. Subliminal advertising and the perpetual popularity of playing to peoples’ paranoia. The Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40: 392406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Budd, J. W. 2004. Employment with a human face: Balancing efficiency, equity, and voice. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
Buss, S. 2005. Valuing autonomy and respecting persons: Manipulation, seduction, and the basis of moral constraints. Ethics, 115: 192235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carnevale, P. J. D., & Isen, A. M. 1986. The influence of positive affect and visual access on the discovery of integrative solutions in bilateral negotiation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 37: 113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Carr, A. Z. 1968. Is business bluffing ethical? Harvard Business Review, Jan./Feb.: 143–53.Google Scholar
Chang, C. 2006. Beating the news blues: Mood repair through exposure to advertising. Journal of Communication, 56: 198217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cherulnik, P. D., Donley, K. A., Wiewel, T., & Miller., S. R. 2006. Charisma is contagious: The effect of leaders’ charisma on observers’ affect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31: 2149–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Connelly, S., Helton-Fauth, W., & Mumford, M. D. 2004. A managerial in-basket study of trait emotions on ethical choice. Journal of Business Ethics, 51: 245–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cote, S. 2005. A social interaction model of the effects of emotion regulation on work strain. Academy of Management Review, 30: 509–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crisp, R. 1987. Persuasive advertising, autonomy, and the creation of desire. Journal of Business Ethics, 6: 413–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cryder, C. E., Lerner, J. S., Gross, J. J., & Dahl., R. E. 2008. Misery is not miserly: Sad and self-focused individuals spend more. Psychological Science, 19: 525–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Curtis, M. B. 2006. Are audit-related ethical decisions dependent upon mood? Journal of Business Ethics, 68, 191209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Damasio, A. R. 1994. Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
DeCelles, K. A., & Pfarrer, M. D. 2004. Heroes or villains? Corruption and the charismatic leader. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11: 6777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
DeDreu, C. K. W., Baas, M., & Nijstad, B. A. 2008. Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link: Toward a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94: 739–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Raeve, L. 2002. The modification of emotional responses; A problem for trust in nurse-patient relationships? Nursing Ethics, 9: 465–71.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
De Sousa, R. 1987. The rationality of emotions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
Desteno, D., Petty, R. E., Wegener, D. T., & Rucker, D. D. 2000. Beyond valence in the perception of likelihood: The role of emotion specificity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78: 397416.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Detert, J. R., Trevino, L. K., & Sweitzer, V. L. 2008. Moral disengagement in ethical decision-making: A study of antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 374–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dillard, J. P., & Nabi, R. L. 2006. The persuasive influence of emotion in cancer prevention and detection messages. Journal of Communication, 56: S123S139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillard, J. P., & Peck, E. 2000. Affect and persuasion: Emotional responses to public service announcements. Communication Research, 27: 461–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Dillard, J. P., Plotnick, C. A., Godbold, L. C., Freimuth, V. S., & Edgar, T. 1996. The multiple affective outcomes of AIDS PSAs: Fear appeals do more than scare people. Communication Research, 23: 4472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doherty, R. W. 1997. The emotional contagion scale: A measure of individual differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21: 131–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Drumwright, M. E., & Murphy, P. E. 2004. How advertising practitioners view ethics: Moral muteness, moral myopia, and moral imagination. Journal of Advertising, 33: 724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. 1993. The psychology of attitudes. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
Edell, J. A., & Burke, M. C. 1987. The power of feelings in understanding advertising effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 421–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edmans, A., Garcia, D., & Norli, O. 2007. Sports sentiment and stock returns. The Journal of Finance, 62: 1967–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Eisenberg, N. 2000. Emotion, regulation, and moral development. Annual Review of Psychology, 51: 665–97.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ekman, P. 1971. Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion. In Cole, J. (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: 207–83). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
Elfenbein, H. A. 2007. Emotion in organizations. In The Academy of Management Annals, 1: Chap. 7, 315–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Elster, J. 1998. Emotions and economic theory. Journal of Economic Literature, 36: 4774.Google Scholar
Ellsworth, P. C., & Smith, C. A. 1988. From appraisal to emotion: Differences among unpleasant feelings. Motivation and Emotion, 12: 271302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Erez, A., Misangyi, V. F., Johnson, D. E., LePine, M. A., & Halverson, K. C. 2008. Stirring the hearts of followers: Charismatic leadership as the transferral of affect. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93: 602–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escalas, J. E. 2004. Narrative processing: Building consumer connections to brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14: 168–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escalas, J. E., Moore, M. C., & Britton, J. E. 2004. Fishing for feelings? Hooking viewers helps! Journal of Consumer Psychology, 14: 105–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Escalas, J. E., & Stern, B. B. 2003. Sympathy and empathy: Emotional response to advertising dramas. Journal of Consumer Research, 29: 566–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Finucane, M. L., Alhakami, A., Slovic, P., & Johnson, S. M. 2000. The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 13: 117.3.0.CO;2-S>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. 1991. Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
Forgas, J. P., & George, J. M. 2001. Affective influences on judgments and behavior in organizations: An information processing perspective. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86: 334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fowler, J. H., & Christakis, N. A. In press. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. British Medical Journal.Google Scholar
Fridlund, A. J. 1994. Human Facial Expression: An Evolutionary View. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
Fulmer, I. S., & Barry, B. 2004. The “smart” negotiator: Cognitive ability and emotional intelligence in negotiation. International Journal of Conflict Management, 15: 245–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fulmer, I. S., Barry, B., & Long, A. In press. Lying and smiling: Informational and emotional deception in negotiation. Journal of Business Ethics.Google Scholar
Fulmer, I. S., Gerhart, B., & Scott, K. 2003. Are the 100 best better? An empirical investigation of the relationship between being a “Great Place to Work” and firm performance. Personnel Psychology, 56: 965–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gasper, K., & Clore, G. L. 2000. Do you have to pay attention to your feelings to be influenced by them? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26: 698711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gaudine, A., & Thorne, L. 2001. Emotion and ethical decision-making in organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 31: 175–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gilovich, T., Griffin, D., & Kahneman, D. 2002. Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Glaser, J., & Salovey, P. 1998. Affect in electoral politics. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2: 156–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Glomb, T. M., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., & Rotundo, M. 2004. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89: 700–14.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Goffman, E. 1959. The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Anchor Books (Random House).Google Scholar
Gohm, C. L., & Clore, G. L. 2000. Individual differences in emotional experience: Mapping available scales to processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26: 679–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grandey, A. A. 2003. When “the show must go on”: Surface acting and deep acting as determinants of emotional exhaustion and peer-rated service delivery. Academy of Management Journal, 46: 8696.Google Scholar
Grandey, A. A., & Brauburger, A. L. 2002. The emotion regulation behind the customer service smile. In Lord, R., Klimoski, R., & Kanfer, R. (Eds.), Emotions in the workplace: 260–94. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., Mattila, A. S., Jansen, K. J., & Sideman, L. A. 2005. Is “service with a smile” enough? Authenticity of positive displays during service encounters. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 96: 3855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Grandey, A. A., Fisk, G. M., & Steiner, D. D. 2005. Must “service with a smile” be stressful? The moderating role of personal control for American and French employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 893904.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gratz, J. E. 1984. The ethics of subliminal communication. Journal of Business Ethics, 3: 181–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Greene, J. D., Sommerville, R. B., Nystrom, L. E., Darley, J. M., & Cohen, J. D. 2001. An fMRI investigation of emotional engagement in moral judgment. Science, 293, 2105–08.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Griner, L. A., & Smith, C. A. 2000. Contributions of motivational orientation to appraisal and emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 727–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gross, J. J. 1998. Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 224–37.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gross, J. J., & Levenson, R.W. 1997. Hiding feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 95103.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gross, K. 2008. Framing persuasive appeals: Episodic and thematic framing, emotional response, and policy opinion. Political Psychology, 29: 169–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Haidt, J. 2001. The emotional dog and its rational tail: A social intuitionist approach to moral judgment. Psychological Review, 108: 814–34.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harmon-Jones, E., & Devine, P. G. 2003. Introduction to the special section on social neuroscience: Promise and caveats. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85: 589–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Harris, L. C. 2002. The emotional labour of barristers: An exploration of emotional labor by status professionals. Journal of Managerial Studies, 39: 553–84.Google Scholar
Hartman, E. M. 2008. Reconciliation in business ethics: Some advice from Aristotle. Business Ethics Quarterly, 18: 253–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. 1994. Emotional contagion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
Hochschild, A. R. 1979. Emotion work, feeling rules, and social structure. American Journal of Sociology, 85: 551–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hochschild, A. R. 1983. The managed heart: Commercialization of feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Hochschild, A. R. 2003. The managed heart: Commercialization of feeling. Twentieth anniversary edition. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Holbrook, M. B., & Batra, R. 1987. Assessing the role of emotions as mediators of consumer responses to advertising. Journal of Consumer Research, 14: 404–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howell, J. M., & Avolio, B. J. 1992. The ethics of charismatic leadership: Submission or liberation? Academy of Management Executive, 6: 4354.Google Scholar
Howell, J. M., & Shamir, B. 2005. The role of followers in the charismatic leadership process: Relationships and their consequences. Academy of Management Review, 30: 96112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Howard, D. J., & Gengler, C. 2001. Emotional contagion effects on product attitudes. Journal of Consumer Research, 28: 189201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hullett, C. R. 2005. The impact of mood on persuasion: A meta-analysis. Communication Research, 32: 423–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyman, M. R., & Tansey, R. 1990. The ethics of psychoactive ads. Journal of Business Ethics, 9: 105–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hyman, M. R., Tansey, R., & Clark, J. W. 1994. Research on advertising ethics: Past, present, and future. Journal of Advertising, 23: 515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ilies, R. I., Wagner, D. T., & Morgeson, F. 2007. Explaining affective linkages in teams: Individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92: 1140–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isen, A. M., & Daubman, K. A. 1984. The influence of affect on categorization. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 47: 1206–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Isen, A. M., Daubman, K. A., & Nowicki, G. P. 1987. Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52: 1122–31.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Isen, A. M., & Gorgoglione, J. M. 1983. Some specific effects of four affect-induction procedures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9: 136–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Janiszewski, C. 1993. Preattentive mere exposure effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 20: 376–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, C. 2006. Lay puts hopes in optimism: The Enron founder is likely to testify he never deceived but saw events in a positive light. Los Angeles Times, April 24: C2.Google Scholar
Johnson, E. J., & Tversky, A. 1983. Affect generalization and the perception of risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45: 2031.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Johnson, S. K. 2008. I second that emotion: Effects of emotional contagion and affect at work on leader and follower outcomes. Leadership Quarterly, 19: 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kahneman, D., Slovic, P., & Tversky, A. 1982. Judgment under uncertainty: Heuristics and biases. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kelly, J. R., & Barsade, S. G. 2001. Mood and emotions in small groups and work teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 86: 99130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenning, P., Plassmann, H., & Ahlert, D. (2007). Applications of functional magnetic resonance imaging for market research. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 10: 135–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klein, S. 2002. The head, the heart, and business virtues. Journal of Business Ethics, 39: 347–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Krosnick, J. A., Betz, A. L., Jussim, L. J., & Lynn, A. R. 1992. Subliminal conditioning of attitudes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18: 152–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lazarus, R. S. 1984. On the primacy of cognition. American Psychologist, 39: 124–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Leith, K. P., & Baumeiser, R. F. 1996. Why do bad moods increase self-defeating behavior? Emotion, risk-taking, and self-regulation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71: 1250–67.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lerner, J. S., & Keltner, D. 2001. Fear, anger, and risk. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81: 146–59.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lerner, J. S., Small, D. A., & Loewenstein, G. 2004. Heart strings and purse strings: Carryover effects of emotions on economic decisions. Psychological Science, 15: 337–41.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Loewenstein, G. F. 2000. Emotions in economic theory and economic behavior. The American Economic Review, 90: 426–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Loewenstein, G. F., Weber, E. U., Hsee, C. K., & Welch, N. 2001. Risk as feelings. Psychological Bulletin, 127: 267–86.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lurie, Y. 2004. Humanizing business through emotions: On the role of emotions in ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 49: 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Marci, C. D. 2008. Minding the gap: The evolving relationships between affective neuroscience and advertising research. International Journal of Advertising, 27: 473–75.Google Scholar
Marcus, G. E. 2000. Emotions in politics. Annual Review of Political Science, 3: 221–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Martin, K. D., & Smith, N. C. 2008. Commercializing social interaction: The ethics of stealth marketing. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 27: 4556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Melillo, W. 2006. Inside the consumer mind. Adweek, 47: 12–15.Google Scholar
Meloy, M. G. 2000. Mood-driven distortion of product information. Journal of Consumer Research, 27: 345–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Monahan, J. L., Murphy, S. T., & Zajonc, R. B. 2000. Subliminal mere exposure: Specific, general, and diffuse effects. Psychological Science, 11: 462–66.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. 1996. The dimensions, antecedents, and consequences of emotional labor. Academy of Management Review, 21: 9861010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morris, J. A., & Feldman, D. C. 1997. Managing emotions in the workplace. Journal of Managerial Issues, 9: 257–74.Google Scholar
Mujtaba, B., & Jue, A. L. 2005. Deceptive and subliminal advertising in corporate America: Value adder or value destroyer? Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship, 10: 5982.Google Scholar
Muraven, M., Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. 1998. Self-control as a limited resource: Regulatory depletion patterns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 774–89.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Murphy, S. T., & Zajonc, R. B. 1993. Affect, cognition, and awareness: Affective priming with optimal and suboptimal stimulus exposures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64:, 723–39.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Näraing, G., & van Deroffelaar, A. 2007. Incorporation of emotional labor in the demand-control-support model: The relation with emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in nurses. Research on Emotion in Organizations, 3: 221–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nelson, M. R. 2008. The Hidden Persuaders: Then and now. Journal of Advertising, 37: 113–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neumann, R., & Strack, F. 2000. Mood contagion: The automatic transfer of mood between persons. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79: 211–23.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Nofsinger, J. R. 2005. Social mood and financial economics. The Journal of Behavioral Finance, 6: 144–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Opotow, S. 1990. Moral exclusion and injustice: An introduction. Journal of Social Issues, 56, 120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Parrott, W. G. 2001. Emotions in social psychology: Volume overview. In Parrott, W. G. (Ed.), Emotions in social psychology, 119. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
Petty, R. E., DeSteno, D., & Rucker, D. D. 2001. The role of affect in attitude change. In Forgas, J. P. (Ed.), Handbook of affect and social cognition, 212–33. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
Phelps, E. A. 2006. Emotion and cognition: Insights from studies of the human amygdala. Annual Review of Psychology, 57: 2753.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Phillips, B. J. 1997. In defense of advertising: A social perspective. Journal of Business Ethics, 16: 109–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Plato. 1987. The Republic (Lee, H. D. P., Trans.). London: Penguin Books. (Original work written around 375 BCE.)Google Scholar
Pratt, M. G. 2000. The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: Managing identification among Amway distributors. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 456–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pugh, S. D. 2001. Service with a smile: Emotional contagion in the service encounter. Academy of Management Journal, 44: 1018–27.Google Scholar
Richards, J. M., & Gross, J. J. 1999. Composure at any cost? The cognitive consequences of emotional suppression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25: 1033–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rottenstreich, Y., & Hsee, C. K. 2001. Money, kisses, and electric shocks: On the affective psychology of risk. Psychological Science, 12: 185–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ruby, P., & Decety, J. 2004. How would you feel versus how do you think she would feel? A neuroimaging study of perspective-taking with social emotions. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16: 988–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rupp, D. E., & Spencer, S. 2006. When customers lash out: The effects of customer interactional justice on emotional labor and the mediating role of discrete emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91: 971–78.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruys, K. I., & Stapel, D. A. 2008a. Emotion elicitor or emotion messenger? Subliminal priming reveals two faces of facial expressions. Psychological Science, 19: 593600.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruys, K. I., & Stapel, D. A. 2008b. How to heat up from the cold: Examining the preconditions for (unconscious) mood effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94: 777–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Ruys, K. I., & Stapel, D. A. 2008c. The secret life of emotions. Psychological Science, 19, 385–91.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Santilli, P. C. 1983. The informative and persuasive functions of advertising: A moral appraisal. Journal of Business Ethics, 2: 2733.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Scherer, K. R., Schorr, A., & Johnstone, T. (Eds.). 2001. Appraisal processes in emotion. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Schwarz, N. 2000. Emotion, cognition, and decision making. Cognition and Emotion, 14: 433–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Schwarz, N., & Clore, G. L. 2003. Mood as information: 20 years later. Psychological Inquiry, 14: 294301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Seo, M., & Barrett, L. F. 2007. Being emotional during decision making—Good or bad? An empirical investigation. Academy of Management Journal, 50: 923–40.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Shapiro, S., & Spence, M. T. 2005. Mind over matter? The inability to counteract contrast effects despite conscious effort. Psychology & Marketing, 2: 225–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Singer, A. E., Lysonski, S., Singer, M., & Hayes, D. 1991. Ethical myopia: The case of “framing” by framing. Journal of Business Ethics, 10: 2936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sluss, D. M., & Ashforth, B. E. 2008. How relational and organizational identification converge: Processes and conditions. Organization Science, 19: 807–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. 1985. Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48: 813–38.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Smith, P., & Lorentzon, M. 2005. Is emotional labour ethical? Nursing Ethics, 12: 638–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stapel, D. A., Koomen, W., & Zeelenberg, M. 1998. The impact of accuracy motivation on interpretation, comparison, and correction processes: Accuracy X knowledge accessibility effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74: 878–93.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Sutton, R. I., & Rafaeli, A. 1988. Untangling the relationship between displayed emotions and organizational sales: The case of convenience stores. Academy of Management Journal, 31: 461–87.Google Scholar
Tangney, J. P., Stuewig, J., & Mashek, D. J. 2007. Moral emotions and moral behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 58: 345–72.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Taylor, C. 1991. The ethics of authenticity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
Theus, Kathryn T. 1994. Subliminal advertising and the psychology of processing unconscious stimuli: A review of research. Psychology & Marketing, 11: 271–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tomkins, S. S. 1962. Affect, Imagery, Consciousness, Vol. 1. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
Trappey, C. 1996. A meta-analysis of consumer choice and subliminal advertising. Psychology and Marketing, 13: 517–30.3.0.CO;2-C>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Verbeke, W. 1998. Individual differences in emotional contagion of salespersons: Its effect on performance and burnout. Psychology and Marketing, 14: 617–36.3.0.CO;2-A>CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Vetlesen, A. J. 1994. Perception, empathy, and judgment. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press.Google Scholar
Virkki, T. 2007. Emotional capital in caring work. Research on Emotion in Organizations, 3: 265–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. 1994. Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66: 1034–48.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. 1995. Flexible correction processes in social judgments: The role of naive theories in corrections for perceived biases. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 3651.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Smith, S. M. 1995. Positive mood can increase or decrease message scrutiny: The hedonic contingency view of mood on message processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69: 515.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. 1996. Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and consequences of affective experiences at work. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18: 174.Google Scholar
Westen, D. 2007. The political brain: The role of emotion in deciding the fate of the nation. New York: Public Affairs.Google Scholar
Wilk, S. L., & Moynihan, L. M. 2005. Display rule “regulators”: The relationship between supervisors and worker emotional exhaustion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90: 917–27.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, T. D., & Brekke, N. 1994. Mental contamination and mental correction: Unwanted influences on judgments and evaluations. Psychological Bulletin, 116: 117–42.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Wilson, T. D., Centerbar, D. B., & Brekke, N. 2002. Mental contamination and the debiasing problem. In Gilovich, T., Griffin, D., and Kahneman, D. (Eds.), Heuristics and biases: The psychology of intuitive judgment, 185200. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Winkielman, P., & Berridge, K. C. 2004. Unconscious emotion. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13: 120–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witte, K., & Allen, M. 2000. A meta-analysis of fear appeals: Implications for effective public health campaigns. Health Education & Behavior, 27: 591615.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Woike, B. A. 1994. Vivid recollection as a technique to arouse implicit motive-related affect. Motivation and Emotion, 18: 335–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajonc, R. B. 1980. Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35: 151–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zajonc, R. B. 1984. On the primacy of affect. American Psychologist, 39: 117–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zinkhan, G. M. 1994. Advertising ethics: Emerging methods and trends. Journal of Advertising, 23: 14.Google Scholar