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Competitive Boosterism: How Milwaukee Lost the Braves

  • Glen Gendzel (a1)

Abstract

By any measure, major-league baseball in North America surely qualifies as big business. The national pastime is a vital component of today's urban political economy, and baseball teams resemble other high-prestige businesses in that cities must compete for the privilege of hosting them—whatever their true worth. This article analyzes the transfer of the Milwaukee Braves baseball franchise to Atlanta in 1965 as the outcome of “competitive boosterism,” or the active participation of local elites in luring trade, industry, and investment from other cities for the purpose of economic development.

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1 Growing cynicism toward the baseball business can be glimpsed in William Oscar Johnson, “For Sale: The National Pastime,” Sports Illustrated (17 May 1993): 32-39; John Underwood, “From Baseball and Apple Pie to Greed and Sky Boxes,” New York Times, 31 Oct. 1993, Sec. 8, 11; Sands, Jack and Gammons, Peter, Coming Apart at the Seams: How Baseball Owners, Players, and Television Executives Have Led Our National Pastime to the Brink of Disaster (New York, 1993); Helyar, John, Lords of the Bealm: The Real History of Baseball (New York, 1994); and Claire Smith, “Game Is in Dire Need of Positive Spin,” New York Times, 8 June 1995, B15.

2 Goodman, Robert, The Last Entrepreneurs: America's Regional Wars for Jobs and Dollars (New York, 1979); Watson, Douglas J., The New Civil War: Government Competition for Economic Development (Westport, Conn., 1995). For introductions to the voluminous economic development literature, see Stone, Clarence N. and Sanders, Heywood T., eds., The Politics of Urban Development (Lawrence, Ks., 1987); Eisenger, Peter, The Rise of the Entrepreneurial State: State and Local Economic Development Policy in the United States (Madison, Wise, 1988); and Bingham, Richard D. and Mier, Robert, eds., Theories of Local Economic Development: Perspectives from Across the Disciplines (Newbury Park, Calif., 1993).

3 Glaab, Charles N., “Historical Perspective on Urban Development Schemes,” in Schnore, Leo F. and Fagin, Henry, eds., Urban Research and Policy Planning (Beverly Hills, Calif., 1967), 197; Cooper, James Fenimore, Home as Found; a Sequel to Homeward Bound (New York, 1900; orig. pub. 1838); Twain, Mark and Warner, Charles Dudley, The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today (Hartford, Conn., 1873); Lewis, Sinclair, Babbitt (New York, 1922); Boorstin, Daniel J., The Americans: The National Experience (New York, 1965); Wade, Richard C., The Urban Frontier: The Rise of Western Cities, 1790-1830 (Cambridge, Mass., 1959); Gates, Paul Wallace, “The Role of the Land Speculator in Western Development,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 66 (1942): 330. For examples of the growing boosterism literature, see Abbott, Carl, Boosters and Businesssmen: Papular Economic Thought and Urban Growth in the Antebellum Middle West (Westport, Conn., 1981), and Cronon, William, “Booster Dreams,” in Nature's Metropolis: Chicago and the Great West (New York, 1991), 3141.

4 Fulton, William, “Desperately Seeking Sports Teams,” Governing 1 (1988): 3440; Miller, James Edward, The Baseball Business: Pursuing Pennants and Profits in Baltimore (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1990), 297; Zimbalist, Andrew, Baseball and Billions: A Probing Look Inside the Big Business of Our National Pastime (New York, 1992), 138; Allen Barra, “How to Save Yankee Stadium,” New York Times, 21 Oct. 1993, A27; Thompson quoted in Chicago Tribune, 29 May 1988; Richard Corliss, “Build It, and They Might Come,” TIME (24 Aug. 1992): 50–52; Randall Lane, “Bread and Circuses,” Forbes (6 June 1994): 62–64.

5 Gene Budig quoted in Bob Nightengale, “Baseball Must Get Basic Before Anything Else,” The Sporting News (15 June 1995): 17; Marcia Berss, “Big League Blackmail,” Forbes (11 May 1992): 45; Tim Crothers, “The Shakedown,” Sports Illustrated (19 June 1995): 78.

6 Johnson, Arthur T., “Municipal Administration and the Sports Franchise Relocation Issue,” Public Administration Review 43 (1983): 519523; Pelissero, John, Henschen, Beth, and Sidlow, Edward, “Community Development or Business Promotion? A Look at Sports-Led Economic Development,” in Fasenfest, David, ed., Community Economic Development (New York, 1993), 172; Euchner, Charles C., Playing the Field: Why Sports Teams Move and Cities Fight to Keep Them (Baltimore, Md., 1993), 184; Shropshire, Kenneth L., The Sports Franchise Game: Cities in Pursuit of Sports Franchises, Events, Stadiums, and Arenas (Philadelphia, Penn., 1995), 21, 61; Baade, Robert A. and Dye, Richard F., “Sports Stadiums and Area Development: A Critical Review,” Economic Development Quarterly 2 (1988): 265275; Okner, Benjamin A., “Subsidies of Stadiums and Arenas,” in Noll, Roger G., ed. Government and the Sports Business (Washington, D.C., 1974); Baim, Dean V., The Sports Stadium as a Municipal Investment (Westport, Conn., 1994), 163.

7 Howard Cosell testimony in 97th Cong., 1st and 2d Sess., House of Reps., Antitrust Policy and Professional Sports (Washington, D.C., 1984), 139; Veeck, Bill with Ed Linn, , The Hustler's Handbook (New York, 1965), 332. For a more cursory treatment of the Braves episode, see Sethi, S. Prakash, Up Against the Corporate Wall: Modern Corporations and Social Issues of the Seventies (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), 267280.

8 Kaese, Harold and Lynch, R. G., The Milwaukee Braves (New York, 1954), 283; Perini quoted in ibid., 255; Meany, Tom and Others, Milwaukee's Miracle Braves (New York, 1954), 7; quoted, Gilloly in Buege, Bob, The Milwaukee Braves: A Baseball Eulogy (Milwaukee, 1988) 16; sportswriter quoted in Kaese and Lynch, Milwaukee Braves, 283.

9 R. G. Lynch, “The Miracle,” in Meany, Milwaukee's Miracle Braves, 19–38; Veeck, Bill, Veeck—As in Wreck (New York, 1962), 279; Lynch testimony in 82nd Cong., 1st Sess., House of Reps., Study of Monopoly Power (Washington, D.C., 1952), 798823; Milwaukee Journal, “Stadium Edition,” 8 April 1953; Benson, Michael, Ballparks of North America (Jefferson, N.C., 1989), 233234; Anderson, Harry H., “Recreation, Entertainment, and Open Space: Park Traditions of Milwaukee County,” in Aderman, Ralph M., ed., Trading Post to Metropolis: Milwaukee County's First 150 Years (Milwaukee, Wise, 1987); Dishon, Robert L., The Silent Partners (Milwaukee, Wise, 1965), 11; Tim Cohane, None But the Braves,” LOOK (25 Aug. 1953): 87.

10 Sam Levy, “Milwaukee, with Brand New Park, Willing and Waiting for Big League Berth,” The Sporting News (26 Nov. 1952); Perini quoted in Kaese and Lynch, Milwaukee Braves, 284–285; “Braves Ride Again,” Business Week (3 Oct. 1953): 122; Milwaukee Journal, 8 April, 19 March 1953; “Major League Baseball Comes to Milwaukee,” Milwaukee Commerce (26 March 1953); Miller quoted in Cohane, “None But the Braves,” 87; Randall quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 15 March, 8 April 1953.

11 Arthur Daley in Milwaukee Journal, 12 July 1964; Buege, Milwaukee Braves, 15; Eddie Mathews, “Foreword,” in ibid., 5; Warren Spahn, “I Say Milwaukee Will Win The Pennant,” Saturday Evening Post (20 April 1957): 100; Gilbert Millstein, “More Brooklyn Than Brooklyn,” New York Times Magazine (5 July 1953): 28; Wells, Robert W., This is Milwaukee (Garden City, N.Y., 1970), 239240; unidentified merchant quoted in “Sausages, Sauerbraten, and Sympathy,” LIFE (6 July 1953): 39.

12 Milwaukee Commerce, 30 Oct. 1953; Hansbury, Patricia C., “Miracle in Milwaukee: A Study of the Impact of Major League Baseball on a City” (master's thesis, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 1972), 84; Powell, Douglas S., “Is Big League Baseball Good Municipal Business?American City 72 (1957): 113; Emerson quoted in Milwaukee Commerce, 20 Oct. 1953; Milwaukee Journal, 12 Nov. 1953; brewer and banker quoted in William Barry Furlong, “That ‘Big League’ Yearning,” New York Times Magazine (16 June 1957): 14, 16; Heinz, “Baseball Players' Dream Town,” 90.

13 Sports Illustrated (16 Aug. 1954); Aaron, Henry, with Wheeler, Lonnie, I Had a Hammer: The Hank Aaron Story (New York, 1991), 130; Arthur Dailey in Milwaukee Journal, 12 July 1964; “Strangers in Paradise,” Sports Illustrated (14 Oct. 1957): 31; “Big Leaguers at Last,” TIME (7 Oct. 1957): 54; “October's Hero,” TIME (21 Oct. 1957): 82; “The Series Sends Milwaukee on a Wild Baseball Bender,” LIFE (14 Oct. 1957): 38–40; Wells, This is Milwaukee, 241; Zeidler quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 1 Oct. 1958.

14 Heinz, “Baseball Players' Dream Town,” 93; McHale, quoted in Bisher, Furman, Miracle in Atlanta: The Atlanta Braves Story (Cleveland, Ohio, 1966), 25; Greenwood, Barbara, “Majors Return to Milwaukee,” Wisconsin Then and Now 16 (July 1970): 8; Milwaukee Journal, 16 Nov. 1962. Attendance and profit figures in Arthur Anderson & Co., “Audit Report on Milwaukee/Atlanta Braves, Inc.,” 12 Dec. 1965, Exhibit #436, State of Wisconsin v. Milwaukee Braves, et al, Milwaukee County Circuit Court, Civil Division, Branch 9, Case No. 332–626, copy in the Records of Stafford, Rosenbaum, Rieser, and Hansen, 1953–1966, Milwaukee Records Center, State Historical Society of Wisconsin (hereafter “SRRH Records”).

15 Perini quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 17 Nov. 1962; Bartholomay quoted in Atlanta Constitution, 18 Jan. 1970; “Brief Biographical Sketch of Interim Buying Group,” Milwaukee Braves Press Release, 16 Nov. 1962, copy in SRRH Records; New York Times, 17 Nov. 1962, 19; Bill Veeck with Ed Linn, “Another Gone With the Wind,” Sports Illustrated (7 June 1965): 34, 39.

16 Milwaukee Braves, Inc., “Preliminary Prospectus, 115,000 Shares Common Stock,” 11 Feb. 1963, copy in SRRH Records; Veeck, “Another Gone With the Wind,” 34, 39; O'Hanlon, Thomas, “The Business of Baseball,” Dun's Review and Modern Industry 83 (May 1964): 45, 87; Bartholomay in “Minutes of Special Meeting of the Board of Directors of Milwaukee Braves, Inc.,” 21 Oct. 1964, copy in Papers of Ralph L. Andreano, 1963–1971, State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison [hereafter “Andreano Papers”].

17 Loan Agreement between the Milwaukee Braves, Inc., and the First Wisconsin National Bank of Milwaukee, 20 Dec. 1962, Exhibit #422, Wisconsin v Braves, copy in SRRH Records; McHale telegram to National League owners, 23 Sept. 1963, copy in SRRH Records; McHale and Bartholomay quoted in Milwaukee Sentinel, 16 Oct. 1964; “Braves Shift Needs Only O.K. by N.L.,” The Sporting News (11 July 1964); New York Times, 3 July 1964, 15.

18 “Decision Made Not to Sponsor Braves Broadcasts,” Schlitz Brewing Company press release, 9 Dec. 1964, Exhibit #461, copy in SRRH Records; Bartholomay quoted in Milwaukee Sentinel, 16 Oct. 1964; Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 92; Edmund Fitzgerald quoted in Astor, “Home Are the Braves,” 65; letter quoted in Huston Horn, “Bravura Battle for the Braves,” Sports Illustrated (2 Nov. 1964): 66; Rice quoted in Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 96–97; Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors, Milwaukee County (21 Oct. 1964): 1325.

19 Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors, Milwaukee County (16 June 1965): 1119–1121; New York Times, 17 June 1965, 38; Anderson Audit Report; fan quoted in Wall Street Journal, 27 Aug. 1965; Buege, The Milwaukee Braves, 392; “Milwaukee Braves,” Sports Illustrated (19 April 1965): 63; Daley in New York Times, 10 June 1965, 25.

20 John McHale telegram to Ford Frick, Commissioner of Baseball, 10 Feb. 1965, Exhibit #90, copy in SRRH Records; “Homes of the Braves,” The Economist (12 March 1966): 1007; Horace Stoneham, San Francisco Giants owner, quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 25 July 1966; Zablocki in 89th Cong., 1st Sess., Cong. Record, Appendix, 111 (5 Aug. 1965): A4363; New York Times, 4 Aug. 1965, 27; Sethi, Up Against the Corporate Wall, 274–275.

21 Federal Baseball Club v National League, 259 U.S. 200 (1922); “Wail of Two Cities,” TIME (4 Feb. 1966): 81–82; Steven M. Lovelady, “Baseball at Bat: Antitrust Suits May Profoundly Change Game,” Wall Street Journal, 22 March 1966, 18; Kuhn, Bowie, Hardball: The Education of a Baseball Commissioner (New York, 1987), 21. On the origin of baseball's anti-trust exemption, see Roberts, Gary R., “Professional Sports and the Antitrust Laws,” in Staudohar, Paul D. and Mangan, James A., eds., The Business of Professional Sports (Urbana, Ill., 1991).

22 Defendant's opening statement in Wisconsin v Braves, Transcript of Proceedings, 1 March 1966, 330, copy in SRRH Records; Milwaukee Braves, Inc., “Presentation to National League,” 22 Oct. 1964, Exhibit #110, 3–4, copy in Andreano Papers; Braves officials quoted in Wall Street Journal, 22 March 1966; “Minutes of Special Meeting,” copy in Andreano Papers; McHale quoted in Memorandum from Joseph W. Simpson, Jr., Vice President of First Wisconsin National Bank of Milwaukee, to William G. Brumder, Chairman of the Board, 23 Oct. 1964, copy in SRRH Records; “Presentation to National League,” 10; Judge Roy Hofheinz, owner of the Houston Astros, quoted in Buege, The Milwaukee Braves, 393.

23 “Baseball Tries to Keep Its Bounce,” Business Week (20 April 1963): 148; Leary testimony quoted in State of Wisconsin v Milwaukee Braves, Inc., 1966 Trade Cas. (CCH) 71,738 at 82,391; fan quoted in Jack Mann, “Meanwhile, Consider Poor Milwaukee,” Sports Illustrated (6 Sept. 1965): 18. On attendance effects, see Porter, Philip K., “The Role of the Fan in Professional Baseball,” in Sommers, Paul M., ed., Diamonds Are Forever: The Business of Baseball (Washington, D.C., 1992); Scully, Gerald W., The Business of Major League Baseball (Chicago, Ill., 1989), 101116; Hanson, Hal and Gauthier, Roger, “Factors Affecting Attendance at Professional Sports Events,” Sociology of Sport Journal 3 (1989): 1519. On the team's personnel shifts, see Buege, The Milwaukee Braves, 340, 395. On declining attendance for all teams in the early 1960s, see “Baseball: Another Business Facing Change,” U.S. News & World Report (12 Aug. 1963): 57.

24 Wisconsin v Braves, 1966 Trade Cas. (CCH) 71,738 at 82,390–82,391.

25 Grobschmidt quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 10 July 1964; Proceedings of the Board of Supervisors, Milwaukee County (24 Sept. 1964): 1312–1318; “Proposed Financial Baseball Package for Milwaukee County,” memorandum from John L. Doyne to James E. Held, 30 June 1965, Exhibit #161, Wisconsin v Braves, copy in SRRH Records; Wisconsin v Braves, 1966 Trade Cas. (CCH) 71,738 at 82,390.

26 Television Age (2 March 1964): 24–25; Bill Veeck, “To Survive, Baseball Must Win New Fans,” Publisher's Newspaper Syndicate press release, 7 March 1964, copy in SRRH Records; Wrigley quoted in “The Business of Baseball,” Newsweek (26 April 1965): 69. On baseball's continued opposition to revenue sharing, see Zimbalist, Baseball Business, 163–164, 173; and Harris Collingwood, “The NFL Saw the Light. Will Baseball?” Business Week (11 Jan. 1993): 39.

27 Clark, Joe, “Analysis of Economic and Business Factors Relating to the Decision to Move the Braves From Milwaukee to Atlanta,” unpublished report prepared for the Milwaukee Braves and the National League by Arthur D. Little, Inc., Consulting Economists, 1966, 3739, copy in SRRH Records; “Baseball's Tab Up $2 Million,” Broadcasting (20 Feb. 1967): 38; Uihlein quoted in Milwaukee Sentinel, 16 April 1965; Doyne to Held memo; Milwaukee Journal, 3 July 1964; Parente, Donald E., “A History of Television and Sports” (Ph.D. dissertation, University of Illinois, 1974), 102. Other such references to the Braves case include Horowitz, Ira, “Sports Broadcasting,” in Noll, Roger G., ed., Government and the Sports Business (Washington, D.C., 1974), 298; Klatell, David A. and Marcus, Norman, Sports for Sale: Television, Money, and the Fans (New York, 1988), 124; Roberts, Randy and Olson, James S., Winning Is the Only Thing: Sports in America Since 1945 (Baltimore, Md., 1989), 140.

28 Wells, This is Milwaukee, 236; M. Donald Grant, digest of deposition, 21 Jan. 1966, 5, 15, copy in SRRH Records; Jacobson, “Analysis of Milwaukee Market,” 50, 15, 19; Proxmire testimony in 89th Cong., 1st Sess., U.S. Senate, Professional Sports Antitrust Bill—1965 (Washington, D.C., 1965), 104.

29 Willard Stafford, unpublished manuscript in possession of Kathy Stafford Schneyer, 296; “Teams, Inc., Report,” press release, 25 Jan. 1966, copy in SRRH Records; Hansbury, “Miracle in Milwaukee,” 57–58; Allan H. Selig, “Presentation to the National League,” undated, copy in SRRH Records; “Major League Baseball in Wisconsin,” speech by Allan H. “Bud” Selig, President of the Milwaukee Brewers, delivered at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin Founder's Day Celebration, Marc Plaza Hotel, Milwaukee, 19 Feb. 1987.

30 Selig, “Major League Baseball in Wisconsin;” New York Times, 8 March, 3 Dec. 1965; Fitzgerald quoted in Wall Street Journal, 27 Aug. 1965; New York Times, 7 Nov. 1967; Milwaukee Journal, 22 March 1970; Pat Jordan, “Buddy's Boys and Their $100 Million Toys,” New York Times Magazine (18 Sept. 1994): 49–50; Peter Carry, “Milwaukee is Falling in Love Quietly This Time,” Sports Illustrated (27 April 1970): 50–52.

31 Reynolds, Thomas testimony in Wisconsin v Braves, Transcript, 24 March 1966, 4650; State of Wisconsinv Milwaukee Braves, 31 Wis. (2d) 699, cert, denied 385 U.S. 990 (1966), pet. for rehearing denied 385 U.S. 1044 (1967); Rudolph A. Shoenecker to Edmund Fitzgerald, et al., 16 March 1965, Exhibit #497, Wisconsin v Braves, copy in SRRH Records; Frick quoted in Ed Rumill, “World's Worst Way,” Christian Science Monitor (5 Aug. 1965): 12; Selig, “Major League Baseball in Wisconsin.”

32 Wall Street Journal, 27 Aug. 1965; “Address of Honorable S. Ernest Vandiver, Governor of Georgia,” Minutes of the Governor's Conference on Trade and Commerce (Atlanta, 1961): 2; Allen, Ivan Jr, with Hemphill, Paul, MAYOR: Notes on the Sixties (New York, 1971), 145; Garofalo, Charles, “The Atlanta Spirit: A Study in Urban Ideology,” South Atlantic Quarterly 74 (1975): 3444; O'Hara, Scarlett quoted in Sibley, Celestine, Peachtree Street, U.S.A. (Garden City, NY, 1963), 10; Hartshorn, Truman A. et al. , Metropolis in Georgia: Atlanta's Rise as a Major Transaction Center (Cambridge, Mass., 1976), 5, 10; Brownell, Blaine A., The Urban Ethos in the South, 1920–1930 (Baton Rouge, La., 1975), 137; Zwingle, Earl, “Atlanta: Energy and Optimism in the New South,” National Geographic 174 (1988): 7; Peter Applebome, “Boosterism Isn't Gone with the Wind,” New York Times, 27 Jan. 1994, A8.

33 Baas, Jacob C., “The Southeastern Fair and the ‘Chamber of Commerce Movement’ in Atlanta, 1915 to 1929,” Atlanta Historical Bulletin 21 (1977): 38; Allen, MAYOR, 239; Atlanta Constitution, 18 Jan. 1970; “Atlanta: Great Market in the Heart of the Southland,” Printer's: Ink (30 March 1962): 25–35; “Promoting a City's Spirit with Facts,” Printer's Ink (17 July 1964): 37–38. On Allen's booster regime, see Stone, Clarence N., Regime Politics: Governing Atlanta, 1946–1988 (Lawrence, Kans., 1989), 5576.

34 Abbott, Carl, The New Urban America: Growth and Politics in Sunbelt Cities (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1981), 247; Hartsfield, William B., “The End of An Era-1961,” in Lankevich, George J., ed., Atlanta: A Chronological and Documentary History, 1813–1976 (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1978), 127; Carter, Jimmy, Why Not the Best? (Nashville, 1975), 115; Allen, MAYOR, 148; Hein, Virginia H., “The Image of ‘A City Too Busy to Hate’: Atlanta in the 1960s,” Phylon 33 (1972): 205221; Burman, Stephen, “The Illusion of Progress: Bace and Politics in Atlanta, Georgia,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 2 (1979): 441454; Shavin, Norman and Galphin, Bruce, Atlanta: Triumph of a People (Atlanta, 1982; 2d rev. ed., 1985), 282.

35 Rice, Bradley R., “If Dixie Were Atlanta,” in Bernard, Richard M. and Rice, Bradley R., eds., Sunbelt Cities: Politics and Growth Since World War II (Austin, Tex., 1983), 38; Allen, Ivan Jr, “A New Mayor for Atlanta,” in Lankevich, George J., ed., Atlanta: A Chronological and Documentary History, 1813–1976 (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1978), 133; Allen, deposition in Wisconsin v Braves, Transcript, 14 March 1966, 2387; Atlanta Pitches for the Big Leagues,” Atlanta Magazine 3 (Nov. 1963): 5556; Alderman John White quoted in Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 53; Haverty, Rawson, “The Atlanta Story,” Atlanta Economic Review 17 (June 1967): 15; Allen deposition, Wisconsin v Braves, Transcript, 14 March 1966, 2397; Baim, Sports Stadium as Municipal Investment, 204–206.

36 Trillin quoted in Abbott, The New Urban America, 143; Allen quoted in Atlanta Constitution, 22 Oct. 1964; Furman Bisher in Atlanta Constitution, 18 Jan. 1970; Watters, Pat, The South and the Nation (New York, 1969), 195; Goldfield, David R., Cotton Fields and Skyscrapers: Southern City and Region, 1607–1980 (Baton Rouge, Louis., 1982), 196; Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 31–32.

37 Allen deposition, Wisconsin v Braves, Transcript, 14 March 1966, 2369–2374, quote from 2369, copy in SRRH Records; Reynolds deposition, Wisconsinv Braves, Transcript, 14 March 1966, 2398, copy in SRRH Records; Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 32, 67.

38 Milwaukee Journal, 12 April 1966; Milwaukee Journal, 15 April 1966; New York Times, 13 Nov. 1964, 38; Allen quoted in Astor, “Home Are the Braves,” 67; Baim, Dean V., “Sports Stadiums as Wise Investments: An Evaluation,” Heartland Policy Study No. 32 (26 Nov. 1990): 20, 9; Blass, Kimberly, “From Grassy Field to Classy Dome: A Pictorial History of Atlanta Sports Arenas,” Atlanta History 35 (1991): 44.

39 “Cold Wind from Wisconsin,” TIME (22 April 1966): 66; “Like ‘Gone With the Wind,’ Braves Take Atlanta,” LIFE (22 April 1966): 77; Allen quoted in Atlanta Constitution, 22 Oct. 1964; Allen quoted in William Leggett, “Atlanta You Can Have the Rest, Leave Us Eddie Mattress,” Sports Illustrated (26 April 1965): 143; Allen quoted in New York Times, 13 Nov. 1964; Allen quoted in Atlanta Constitution, 22 Oct. 1964; Milwaukee Journal, 13 April 1966. See also Schaffer, William A., Houser, George D., and Weinberg, Robert A., The Economic Impact of the Braves on Atlanta: 1966 (Atlanta, 1967).

40 Sale, Kirkpatrick, Power Shift: The Rise of the Southern Rim and Its Challenge to the Eastern Establishment (New York, 1975): 47; Burd, Gene, “The Selling of the Sunbelt: Civic Boosterism in the Media,” in Perry, David C. and Watkins, Alfred J., eds., The Rise of the Sunbelt Cities (Beverly Hills, Calif, 1977), 145; Bayor, Ronald H., “The Twentieth-Century Urban South and the Atlanta Experience,” Georgia Historical Quarterly 75 (1991): 565; “The Second War Between the States,” Business Week (17 May 1976): 92–114.

41 LWB [Lester W. Brann, Jr.], “The Laughing Indian,” Milwaukee Commerce (Nov. 1964), 7; Udell, Jon G., Wisconsin's Economic Development: An Analysis of the Growth, Problems and Potentials of the State of Wisconsin, Wisconsin Commerce Studies, Vol. III, No. 2 (Madison, Wise, 1965); Marchetti, Peter E., “Runaways and Takeovers: Their Effect on Milwaukee's Economy,” Urbanism Past ir Present, No. 10, 5 (1980): 111; Dishon, Silent Partners, 15–18.

42 Davis, Richard S., “Milwaukee: Old Lady Thrift,” in Allen, Robert S., Our Fair City (New York, 1947), 189; Maier, Henry W., Challenge to the Cities: An Approach to a Theory of Urban Leadership (New York, 1966), 90; Maier, Henry W., The Mayor Who Made Milwaukee Famous: An Autobiography (Lanham, Md., 1993), x; Maier, Henry W., “Mayor Henry Maier Preaches the ‘Milwaukee Idea,’ 1964,” in Lankevich, George J., ed., Milwaukee: A Chronological and Documentary History (Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1977), 134; Maier quoted in Milwaukee Sentinel, 12 April 1965.

43 Milwaukee Sentinel, 8 July, 22 July, 1 Sept. 1965; Lawrence C. Lohmann in Milwaukee Journal, 26 July 1965; Knowles quoted in 1966 Milwaukee Sentinel Third Annual Forum for Progress (Milwaukee, 1966); Milwaukee Sentinel, 22 April 1966. On Milwaukee's booster revival, see Moe, Doug, “Putting the Brakes on Corporate Flight,” Milwaukee 5 (Oct. 1980): 3842.

44 Milwaukee Journal, 20 March 1953; Gilloly quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 15 July 1964; Bisher, Miracle in Atlanta, 131; Shirley Povitch in Milwaukee Journal, 9 July 1964; Lowenfish, Lee Elihu, “A Tale of Many Cities: The Westward Expansion of Major League Baseball in the 1950s,” Journal of the West 17 (1978): 7182.

45 Warren Giles, “National League President's Report,” 13 May 1953, copy in SRRH Records; Wall Street Journal, 3 April 1957; Sullivan, Neil J., The Dodgers Move West (New York, 1987), 4344; Smith in Milwaukee Journal, 12 June 1964; Roger Angell, “Two Strikes on the Image,” New Yorker (24 Oct. 1964): 225–226; Young quoted in Wall Street Journal, 22 March 1966.

46 Editorial in Wall Street Journal, 1 April 1966; Letter to Milwaukee Journal, 23 July 1965; Leonard Koppett, “The Ex-National Sport Looks at Its Image,” New York Times Magazine (20 Dec. 1964): 48; “Who Says Baseball is Like Ballet?” Forbes (1 April 1971): 24; Henry S. Reuss telegram to Warren C. Giles, 10 July 1964, Wisconsin v Braves, Exhibit #88, in SRRH Records; Zablocki, Clement J., “Should Professional Baseball Be Put Under Antitrust Laws?American Legion Magazine 80 (March 1966): 22. On baseball's decline in the 1960s, see Andreano, Ralph, No Joy in Mudville: The Dilemma of Major League Baseball (Cambridge, Mass., 1965).

47 Wall Street Journal, 27 Aug. 1965; Flood v Kuhn, 407 U.S. 258 (1972); Miller, Marvin, A Whole Different Ball Game: The Sport and Business of Baseball (New York, 1991); Daley in New York Times, 15 April 1966, 24; Whitford, David, Playing Hardball: The High-Stakes Battle for Baseball's New Franchises (New York, 1993), 74; Johnson, Arthur T., “Congress and Professional Sports, 1951–1978,” Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences 445 (1979): 102115; A League of Their Own,” Common Cause Magazine 19 (1993): 10. On the politics of expansion, see Steven V. Roberts, “Baseball's Free Pass,” U.S. News is World Report, 24 June 1991, 28; Cooper, Matthew, “Squeeze Play: How Congress Got Baseball to Cough Up Two More Teams,” Washington Monthly 25 (June 1993): 5053; Murray Chass, “Halls of Congress Fill With New Lobbyists,” New York Times, 8 Jan. 1995, 24; Eric Lipton and Mark Maske, “Aide Says Warner Cut Deal for Baseball Team,” Washington Post, 23 Feb. 1995, Bl.

48 “Have Team, May Travel,” Business Week (1 July 1991): 36; Scully, Business of Major League Baseball, 193; Richard Sandomir, “Networks Back Out of TV Deal with Baseball,” New York Times, 23 June 1995, B3; Bob Nightengale, “Pay Millions for a Chance to Go Broke? Yeah, Right,” The Sporting News (20 March 1995): 14; Osterland, Andrew, “Field of Nightmares,” Financial World 164 (14 Feb. 1995): 105107; Crothers, “The Shakedown.”

49 Hope, Bob, We Could've Finished Last Without You: An Irreverent Look at the Atlanta Braves (Atlanta, 1991), 1; Scully, Business of Baseball, 108–109; Zimbalist, Baseball and Billions, 50; Selig quoted in Feinstein, John, Play Ball: The Life and Troubled Times of Major League Baseball (New York, 1993), 177; Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel, 21 Aug. 1995, 6A. See also Selig's remarks before the National Press Club in Washington, D.C., on 13 July 1994, and on ABC's “This Week with David Brinkley” on 31 July 1994, defending the salary cap as the only way to preserve small-market franchises.

50 “Brewers Press Plans for New Stadium,” Sports Industry News (21 Aug. 1992): 261; Bruce Murphy, “Trade Secrets,” Milwaukee Magazine (April 1994): 21; Prieb quoted in Boston Globe, 16 June 1995; Hackett quoted in Milwaukee Journal, 3 Nov. 1991; Selig quoted in Chicago Tribune, 4 Nov. 1991; Assemblyman Peter Brock quoted in Murphy, “Trade Secrets,” 26; Thompson quoted in Wisconsin State Journal, 20 Aug. 1995, 1A.

51 Frick, Ford C., Games, Asterisks, and People: Memoirs of a Lucky Fan (New York, 1973), 123; Kantor, Paul, “The Political Economy of Business Politics in U.S. Cities: Developmental Perspective,” Studies in American Political Development, Vol. IV (New Haven, 1990), 261; Watson, New Civil War, 59. For a summary critique, see Wilson, Roger, State Business Incentives and Economic Growth: Are They Effective? A Review of the Literature (Lexington, Kent., 1989).

52 Robert A. Baade, “Stadiums, Professional Sports, and Economic Development: Assessing the Reality,” Heartland Policy Study, No. 62 (28 Mar. 1994); “Is Buying a Ball Club a Fool's Game?” Business Week (17 Aug. 1992): 106; Lane, “Bread and Circuses,” 62–64; Cosell, Howard, with Bonventre, Peter, I Never Played the Game (New York, 1985), 5960; “Bottom of the Ninth in the City by the Bay?” Business Week (24 Aug. 1992): 69.

Competitive Boosterism: How Milwaukee Lost the Braves

  • Glen Gendzel (a1)

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