This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
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PB Bach , HH Pham , D Schrag , RC Tate , JL. Hargraves Primary care physicians who treat blacks and whites. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351:575–584;
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NE Adler , DH. Rehkopf U.S. disparities in health: Descriptions, causes, and mechanisms. Annual Review of Public Health 2008;29:235–252;
MG Marmot , M Kogevinas , MA. Elston Social/economic status and disease. Annual Review of Public Health 1987;8:111–135.
MG Marmot , MJ Shipley , PJ. Hamilton Employment grade and coronary heart disease in British civil servants. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 1978;32:244–249
MG Marmot , MJ Shipley , G. Rose Inequalities in death: Specific explanations of a general pattern? Lancet 1984;323:1003–1006.
CC. Gravlee How race becomes biology: Embodiment of social inequality. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 2009;139:47–57, at 52
DR Williams , C. Collins Racial residential segregation: A fundamental cause of racial disparities in health. Public Health Reports 2001;116:404–416;
CW Kuzawa , E. Sweet Epigenetics and the embodiment of race: Developmental origins of US racial disparities in cardiovascular health. American Journal of Human Biology 2008; 21:2–15.
T LaViest , K Pollack , R Thorpe Jr, R Fesahazion , D. Gaskin Place, not race: Disparities dissipate in southwest Baltimore when blacks and whites live under similar conditions. Health Affairs 2011;30:1880–1887.
RS Cooper , JS. Kaufman Race and hypertension. Hypertension 1998;32:813–816;
RS Cooper , JS Kaufman , R. Ward Race and genomics. New England Journal of Medicine 2003;348:1166–1170
H Shanawani , L Dame , DA Schwartz , R. Cook-Deegan Non-reporting and inconsistent reporting of race and ethnicity in articles that claim association among genotype, outcome and race or ethnicity. Journal of Medical Ethics 2006;32:724–728.
ZA-F Kistka , L Palomar , KA Lee , SE Boslaugh , MF Wangler , FS Cole , . Racial disparity in the frequency of recurrence of preterm births. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;196:131. e1–e6.
DM Stamilio , GA Gross , A Shanks , E DeFranco , JJ. Chang Discussion: “Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth” by Kistka . American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;196:e1–e5.
LM Brewster , JF Clark , GA. van Montfrans Is greater tissue activity of creatine kinase the genetic factor increasing hypertension risk in black people of sub-Saharan African descent? Journal of Hypertension 2000;18:1537–1544.
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JS Kaufman , RS Cooper , DL. McGee Socioeconomic status and health in blacks and whites: The problem of residual confounding and the resiliency of race. Epidemiology 1997;8:621–628
JS. Kaufman Epidemiologic analysis of racial/ethnic disparities: Some fundamental issues and a cautionary example. Social Science & Medicine 2008;66:1659–1669.
TA. LaViest On the study of race, racism, and health: A shift from description to explanation. International Journal of Human Services 2000;30:217–219, at 218.
P Ossorio , T. Duster Controversies in biomedical, behavioral, and forensic sciences. American Psychologist 2005;60:115–128.
AL Taylor , S Ziesche , C Yancy , P Carson , R D’Agostino , K Ferdinand , . Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine in blacks with heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351:2049–2057, at 2049.
R Temple , NL. Stockbridge BiDil for heart failure in black patients: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration perspective. Annals of Internal Medicine 2007;146:57–62.
DE. Roberts Is race-based medicine good for us? African-American approaches to race, biotechnology, and equality. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 2008;36:537–545.
G. Puckrein BiDil: From another vantage point. Health Affairs 2006;25:w368–w374, at w372
KC. Ferdinand Fixed-dose isosorbide dinitrate-hydralazine: Race-based cardiovascular medicine benefit or mirage? Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 2008;36:458–463, at 458.