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Debating the Cause of Health Disparities: Implications for Bioethics and Racial Equality

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11. LaViest T, Pollack K, Thorpe R Jr, Fesahazion R, Gaskin D. Place, not race: Disparities dissipate in southwest Baltimore when blacks and whites live under similar conditions. Health Affairs 2011;30:18801887.

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14. Stamilio DM, Gross GA, Shanks A, DeFranco E, Chang JJ. Discussion: “Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth” by Kistka et al. . American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 2007;196:e1e5.

15. Bakalar N. Study points to genetics in disparities in preterm births. New York Times 2007 Feb 27:F5.

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17. See note 12, Cooper, Kaufman 1998, at 813.

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26. Taylor AL, Ziesche S, Yancy C, Carson P, D’Agostino R, Ferdinand K, et al. . Combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine in blacks with heart failure. New England Journal of Medicine 2004;351:20492057, at 2049.

27. See note 26, Taylor et al. 2004, at 2049.

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30. Kahn J. How a drug becomes ethnic: Law, commerce, and the production of racial categories in medicine. Yale Journal of Health Law, Policy & Ethics 2004;4:146;Sankar P, Kahn J. BiDil: Race medicine or race marketing? Health Affairs 2005;24:455463; Kahn J. Race in a bottle. Scientific American 2007;297:40–45.

31. Roberts DE. Is race-based medicine good for us? African-American approaches to race, biotechnology, and equality. Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 2008;36:537545.

32. Washington H. Medical Apartheid. New York: Random House; 2006.

33. See note 31, Roberts 2008, at 537.

34. Puckrein G. BiDil: From another vantage point. Health Affairs 2006;25:w368w374, at w372

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36. See note 35, Ferdinand 2008, at 458.

37. See note 35, Ferdinand 2008, at 459.

38. Wilkinson R, Pickett K. The Spirit Level: Why Greater Equality Makes Societies Stronger. New York: Bloomsbury Press; 2009; Kawachi I, Kennedy BP. The Health of Nations: Why Inequality Is Harmful to Your Health. New York: New Press; 2002.

39. See note 38, Wilkinson, Pickett 2009, at 19–20.

40. See note 38, Wilkinson, Pickett 2009, at 20.

41. See note 38, Wilkinson, Pickett 2009.

42. de Vries J, Bull SJ, Doumbo O, Ibrahim M, Mercereau-Puijalon O, Kwiatkowski D, et al. . Ethical issues in human genomics research in developing countries. BMC Medical Ethics 2011;12:5; available at (last accessed 15 Apr 2012).

43. Washington HA. Deadly Monopolies: The Shocking Corporate Takeover of Life Itself—And the Consequences for Your Health and Our Medical Future. New York: Doubleday; 2011.

44. Hammonds EM. Straw men and their followers: The return of biological race. Is Race Real?; 2006 June 7; available at (last accessed 15 Apr 2012).

45. Pear R. Gap in life expectancy widens for the nation. New York Times 2008 Mar 23:A19.

46. Bonilla-Silva E. Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield; 2003; Brown MK, Carnoy M, Currie E, Duster T, Oppenheimer DB, Shultz M, et al. . White-Washing Race: The Myth of a Color-Blind Society. Berkeley: University of California Press; 2003. See also, for example, Thernstrom S, Thernstrom A. America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible. New York: Simon & Schuster; 1999.

This article is based on material in Dorothy Roberts, Fatal Invention: How Science, Politics, and Big Business Re-Create Race in the Twenty-First Century (New York: New Press, 2011) and was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0551869, an RWJF Investigator Award in Health Policy Research from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation in Princeton, New Jersey, and the Kirkland & Ellis Fund. I thank S.J. Chapman for assistance in preparing this article and Lundy Braun, Annette Dula, and John R. Stone for comments on an earlier draft.

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Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics
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