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Distribution patterns of Macrodasyceras hirsutum (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) eggs among Ilex integra (Aquifoliaceae) seeds and berries

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  10 September 2013

Etsuro Takagi*
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Forest Zoology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
Katsumi Togashi
Affiliation:
Laboratory of Forest Zoology, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
*
1Corresponding author (e-mail: takagi@sugadaira.tsukuba.ac.jp).

Abstract

Preference-performance hypothesis in host selection by herbivorous insects predicts selective oviposition on plant on which the offspring maximise fitness. The seed parasitoid wasp, Macrodasyceras hirsutum Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae) selectively lays the eggs into the fertilised seeds of Ilex integra Thunberg (Aquifoliaceae). Only one larva develops in a seed. Therefore, the hypothesis predicts a uniform distribution pattern of wasp eggs among fertilised seeds. Dissection of 531 berries showed that M. hirsutum deposited one to five eggs into a fertilised seed. Iwao's patchiness regression suggested a uniform distribution pattern of M. hirsutum eggs among fertilised seeds at the scales of tree and berry and their random distribution pattern among berries at the tree scale. Destroying the connection of seeds within berries revealed that female wasps randomly selected berries for oviposition in most trees. Generalised linear mixed models showed that the number of fertilised seeds in a berry could not explain the number of eggs in a seed but could explain the number of eggs in a berry. Therefore, this study shows that the wasp females do not distinguish between berries with different numbers of fertilised seeds but distinguish between seeds harbouring different numbers of eggs, which supports the hypothesis.

Résumé

L'hypothèse de préférence/performance dans la sélection d'hôtes par les insectes herbivores prédit que la ponte se fera de façon préférentielle sur les plantes sur lesquelles les rejetons pourront maximiser leur valeur adaptative (fitness). La guêpe parasitoïde des graines, Macrodasyceras hirsutum Kamijo (Hymenoptera: Torymidae), pond ses œufs de façon sélective dans les graines fécondées d’Ilex integra Thunberg (Aquifoliaceae). Une seule larve peut se développer dans chaque graine. C'est pourquoi, l'hypothèse prédit un patron de distribution uniforme des œufs de guêpes parmi les graines fécondées. La dissection de 531 fruits révèle que M. hirsutum dépose 1–5 œufs par graine fécondée. Une régression de contagion d'Iwao laisse croire qu'il existe un patron de distribution uniforme des œufs de M. hirsutum au sein des graines fécondées à l’échelle des arbres et des fruits, mais un patron de distribution aléatoire parmi les fruits à l’échelle de l'arbre. Si on élimine la connexion entre les graines au sein des fruits, il apparaît que les guêpes femelles sélectionnent les fruits au hasard pour la ponte sur la plupart des arbres. Des modèles généralisés linéaires mixtes montrent que le nombre de graines fécondées dans un fruit ne peut expliquer le nombre d’œufs par graine, mais pourrait expliquer le nombre d’œufs par fruit. Ainsi, notre étude montre que les guêpes femelles ne peuvent distinguer entre les fruits contenant différentes quantités de graines fécondées, mais peuvent distinguer entre les graines qui contiennent différentes quantités d’œufs, ce qui appuie l'hypothèse.

Type
Behaviour & Ecology
Copyright
Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 2013 

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Footnotes

Subject editor: Keith Summerville

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