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Published online by Cambridge University Press:  31 May 2012

George E. Ball
Department of Entomology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3
Danny Shpeley
Department of Entomology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3
Douglas C. Currie
Department of Entomology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E3


Analysis of structural features of adults (legs, proportions of prothorax, male genitalia, and ovipositor) establishes the hypothesis that Anisocnemus Chaudoir, Trichopselaphus Chaudoir, and Stenomorphus Dejean comprise a monophyletic assemblage, named the Stenomorphus genus-group, with Anisocnemus the adelphotaxon of Trichopselaphus + Stenomorphus. Analysis of form of median lobe, armature of the internal sac, allometric trends in proportions of the prothorax and hind tibia, and chorological considerations, provide the basis for recognition of six species of Stenomorphus and postulation of their phylogenetic relationships, as follows: S. convexior Notman {[S. penicillatus Darlington + S. sinaloae Darlington] + [S. cubanus Darlington + (S. angustatus Dejean + S. californicus Ménétries)]}. Three monophyletic species-groups are recognized: S. convexior, including S. convexior; S. sinaloae, including S. penicillatus and S. sinaloae; and S. angustatus, including S. cubanus, S. angustatus, and S. californicus. The names Stenomorphus dentifemoratus Chaudoir, 1844 and Stenomorphus alius Darlington, 1936 are synonymized, and S. dentifemoratus Darlington, 1936 (not Chaudoir) is renamed S. darlingtoni. Morphometric and chorological features provide evidence for subspecific recognition, each taxon representing a new combination: for S. angustatus, S. a. angustatus, S. a. braziliensis Darlington, and S. a. dentifemoratus Chaudoir; for S. californicus, S. c. californicus, S. c. rufipes LeConte, S. c. manni Darlington, and S. c. darlingtoni Ball and Shpeley. Evolutionary trends postulated include development of allometry with respect to form of the prothorax and hind tibiae, correlated with sexual dimorphism. Driving forces are postulated to be associated with sexual selection and burrowing. The geographical history of Stenomorphus is reconstructed as follows, using the reconstructed phylogeny and chorological affinities interpreted against a background of geological and climatic events in Middle America, during the Late Cretaceous, and Tertiary and Quaternary Epochs: isolation in Middle America from its South American adelphotaxon of the ancestral stock of Stenomorphus; specialization for life in drier tropical forests and savannas; isolation and differentiation of taxa in response to cyclical climatic changes and mountain building; and over-water dispersal to, and isolation and differentiation in, the Greater Antilles. A key, figures of diagnostic features, descriptions of structural features and of geographical ranges (supplemented with maps) provide means of recognition of taxa.


L’analyse des caractéristiques structurales adultes (pattes, proportions du prothorax, pièces génitales mâles et oviscapte) a permis d’établir l’hypothèse qu’Anisocnemus Chaudoir, Trichopselaphus Chaudoir et Stenomorphus Dejean constituent un assemblage monophylétique, appelé ici groupe générique Stenomorphus, dans lequel Anisocnemus est l’adelphotaxon de Trichopselaphus + Stenomorphus. L’analyse de la forme du lobe médian et de l’armature de la poche interne, les tendances allométriques des proportions du prothorax et des tibias postérieurs de même que des considérations chorologiques établissent la diagnose de six espèces de Stenomorphus et permettent de poser des hypothèses quant à leurs relations phylogénétiques : S. convexior Notman{[S. penicillatus Darlington + S. sinaloae Darlington] + [S. cubanus Darlington + (S. angustatus Dejean + S. californicus Ménétries)]}. Trois groupes d’espèces monophylétiques sont reconnus : S. convexior, qui comprend S. Convexior; S. sinaloae, qui comprend S. penicillatus et S. sinaloae; et S. angustatus, qui comprend S. cubanus, S. angustatus et S. californicus. Les caractéristiques morphométriques et chorologiques mettent en lumière l’existence de sous-espèces et chacun des taxons suivants représente une nouvelle combinaison : chez l’espèce S. angustatus, S. a. angustatus, S. a. braziliensis Darlington et S. a. dentifemoratus Chaudoir; chez l’espèce S. californicus, S. c. californicus, S. c. rufipes LeConte, S. c. manni Darlington et S. c. darlingtoni Bail et Shpeley. Les tendances évolutives qui ressortent de l’analyse semblent avoir affecté surtout l’allométrie de la forme du prothorax et des tibias postérieurs de même que le dimorphisme sexuel; les forces motrices sous-jacentes à ces tendances semblent avoir été associées à la sélection sexuelle et aux moeurs fouisseuses. L’histoire géographique de Stenomorphus a été reconstituée comme suit après examen de la phylogénie proposée et des affinités chorologiques interprétées à la lumière des événements géologiques et climatiques qui ont eu lieu en Amérique moyenne au cours de la fin du Crétacé, du Tertiaire et du Quaternaire : isolement en Amérique moyenne de la souche ancestrale de Stenomorphus et séparation de son adelphotaxon sud-américain; spécialisation vers un mode de vie en forêts tropicales plus sèches et en savanes; isolement et différenciation des taxons en réaction à des changements climatiques cycliques et à l’apparition des montagnes; dispersion au-dessus de la mer vers les Grandes Antilles, puis isolement et différenciation. Une clé illustrée des caractéristiques diagnostiques de même que des descriptions des caractéristiques structurales et des répartitions géographiques (accompagnées de cartes) faciliteront l’identification des taxons.

[Traduit par la rédaction]

Copyright © Entomological Society of Canada 1991

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