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Bionomics of Three Closely Related Species of Contarinia Rond. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Douglas-fir Needles1

  • S. F. Condrashoff (a1)
Extract

Incidence of damage to needles of Douglas fir, Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco, by larvae of gall midges has been noted in British Columbia since 1935. In 1953 severe midge damage to Douglas fir occurred in sections of British Columbia, Washington, Idaho and Montana. Outside of brief and general reference to these gall midges in literature and in unpublished notes, almost nothing was known of their biology, and the species remained undescribed. Relatively little interest has been shown these insects until recent years, when severe infestations in southeastern British Columbia affected the sale of Douglas fir for use as Christmas trees.

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References
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Barnes, H. F. 1956. Gall Midges of Economic Importance. Vol. VII, Crosby Lockwood and Sons Ltd., London, 261 pp.
Bovien, P. 1930. Paeregalmyggen (Contarinia pyrivora). Haven, Copenhagen.
Condrashoff, S. F. 1955. Notes on the biology of a Douglas-fir needle miner, Contarinia sp. Bi-Mon. Prog. Rept., Div. For. Biol., Dept. Agric. Can. 16 (2).
Condrashoff, S. F. 1961a. Three new species of Contarinia Rond. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Douglas-fir needles. Can. Ent. 93: 123130.
Condrashoff, S. F. 1961b. Description and morphology of the immature stages of three closely related species of Contarinia Rond. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from galls on Douglas fir needles. Can. Ent. 93: 833851.
Denton, R. E. 1954. Midge damage affects Christmas-tree production in the Inland Empire. U.S. For. Serv. Intermountain For. & Range Expt. Sta. Res. Note 7: 14.
Hedlin, A. F. 1959. The effect of moisture and temperature on the emergence of the larva of the Douglas-fir cone midge, Contarinia oregonensis Foote from cone scales. Bi-mon. Prog. Rept., Div. For. Biol., Dept. Agric. Can. 15 (2).
Marchal, P. 1906. Recherches sur la Biologie et le Développement des Hyménoptères Parasites. II. Les Platygasters. Arch. de Zool. Exper. et Gén. 4: 485640.
Morris, W. G., Silen, R. R., and Irgens-Moller, H.. 1957. Consistency of bud bursting in Douglas-fir. J. For., 55: 208210.
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The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
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