Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Contribution of DNA barcoding to the study of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Canada: progress to date

  • Cory S. Sheffield (a1), Jennifer Heron (a2), Jason Gibbs (a3), Thomas M. Onuferko (a4), Ryan Oram (a1) (a5), Lincoln Best (a6), Nicholai deSilva (a4), Sheila Dumesh (a4), Alana Pindar (a7) and Genevieve Rowe (a4)...
Abstract

Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) are taxonomically and ecologically diverse, with a wide range of social complexity, nesting preferences, floral associations, and biogeographic restrictions. A Canadian bee checklist, greatly assisted by the gene-assisted approach of DNA barcoding, is nearing completion. Previous evaluation of bee diversity in Canada, assisted by DNA barcoding, was restricted to Nova Scotia, which contains about 25% of the bee species in the country. Here, we summarise efforts to date to build a comprehensive DNA barcode library supporting bee taxonomic studies in Canada, consisting of more than 12 500 barcode-compliant sequences yielding 811 distinct barcode index numbers (BINs). This appears to represent ~95% of the 856 bee species presently recorded from Canada, but comparison with known morphological species in each genus shows that some genera are still under-sampled or may contain cryptic taxa, with much taxonomic work still to be done on bees in Canada. This is particularly true within the taxonomically difficult genera Andrena Fabricius (Andrenidae), Hylaeus Fabricius (Colletidae), Melissodes Latreille (Apidae), Nomada Scopoli (Apidae), Osmia Panzer (Megachilidae), and Sphecodes Latreille (Halictidae). DNA analysis will likely be a key asset in resolving bee taxonomic issues in Canada in the future, and to date has even assisted studies of well-known bee taxa. Here we present summaries of our results, and discuss the use of DNA barcoding to assist future taxonomic work, faunal lists, and ecological studies.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Contribution of DNA barcoding to the study of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Canada: progress to date
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Contribution of DNA barcoding to the study of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Canada: progress to date
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Contribution of DNA barcoding to the study of the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Canada: progress to date
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
1 Corresponding author (e-mail: Cory.Sheffield@gov.sk.ca)
Footnotes
Hide All

Subject editor: Donna Giberson.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Ascher, J.S. and Pickering, J. 2017. Discover life bee species guide and world checklist [online]. Available from www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Apoidea_species&flags=HAS [accessed 15 February 2017].
Bergsten, J., Bilton, D.T., Fujisawa, T., Elliott, M., Monaghan, M.T., Balke, M., et al. 2012. The effect of geographical scale of sampling on DNA barcoding. Systematic Biology, 61: 851869.
Brown, M.J. and Paxton, R.J. 2009. The conservation of bees: a global perspective. Apidologie, 40: 410416.
Bzdyk, E. 2012. A revision of the Megachile subgenus Litomegachile Mitchell with an illustrated key and description of a new species (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae, Megachilini). ZooKeys, 221: 3161.
Canadian Endangered Species Conservation Council. 2016. Wild species 2015: the general status of species in Canada. National General Status Working Group, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Carman, G.M. and Packer, L. 1996. A cryptic species allied to Halictus ligatus Say (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) detected by allozyme electrophoresis. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 69: 168176.
Carolan, J.C., Murray, T.E., Fitzpatrick, Ú., Crossley, J., Schmidt, H., Cederberg, B., et al. 2012. Colour patterns do not diagnose species: quantitative evaluation of a DNA barcoded cryptic bumblebee complex. Public Library of Science One, 7: e29251.
Carvalho, M.R., Ebach, M.C., Williams, D.M., Nihei, S.S., Trefaut Rodrigues, M., Grant, T., et al. 2014. Does counting species count as taxonomy? On misrepresenting systematics, yet again. Cladistics, 30: 322329.
Coelho, B.W.T. 2004. A review of the bee genus Augochlorella (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Augochlorini). Systematic Entomology, 29: 282323.
Collins, R.A. and Cruickshank, R.H. 2013. The seven deadly sins of DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13: 969975.
Collins, R.A. and Cruickshank, R.H. 2014. Known knowns, known unknowns, unknown unknowns and unknown knowns in DNA barcoding: a comment on Dowton et al . Systematic Biology, 63: 10051009.
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. 2014. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the western Bumble Bee Bombus occidentalis, occidentalis subspecies (Bombus occidentalis occidentalis) and the mckayi subspecies (Bombus occidentalis mckayi) in Canada. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Available from www.registrelep-sararegistry.gc.ca/document/default_e.cfm?documentID=969 [accessed 23 August 2017].
Committee on the Status of Pollinators in North America. 2007. Status of pollinators in North America. National Academic Press, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America.
Danforth, B.N., Mitchell, P.L., and Packer, L. 1998. Mitochondrial DNA differentiation between two cryptic Halictus (Hymenoptera: Halictidae) species. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 91: 387391.
Danks, H.V. (editor) 1979. Canada and its insect fauna: an overview. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 108: 1573.
Danks, H.V. 2016. The Biological Survey of Canada: a personal history. Biological Survey of Canada Monograph Series, 8: 1180.
Dolan, A.C., Delphia, C.M., O’Neill, K.M., and Ivie, M.A. 2017. Bumble bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Montana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 110: 129144.
Dowton, M., Meiklejohn, K., Cameron, S.L., and Wallman, J. 2014. A preliminary framework for DNA barcoding, incorporating the multispecies coalescent. Systematic Biology, 63: 639644.
Droege, S., Rightmyer, M.G., Sheffield, C.S., and Brady, S.G. 2010. New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Zootaxa, 2661: 132.
Dumesh, S. and Sheffield, C.S. 2012. Bees of the genus Dufourea LePeletier (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Rophitinae) of Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, 20: 136.
Francoso, E. and Arias, M.C. 2013. Cytochrome c oxidase I primers for corbiculate bees: DNA barcode and mini‐barcode. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13: 844850.
Galimberti, A., De Mattia, F., Bruni, I., Scaccabarozzi, D., Sandionigi, A., Barbuto, M., et al. 2014. A DNA barcoding approach to characterize pollen collected by honeybees. Public Library of Science One, 9: p.e109363.
Gibbs, J. 2009. Integrative taxonomy identifies new (and old) species in the Lasioglossum (Dialictus) tegulare (Robertson) species group (Hymenoptera, Halictidae). Zootaxa, 2032: 138.
Gibbs, J. 2010. Revision of the metallic species of Lasioglossum (Dialictus) in Canada (Hymenoptera, Halictidae, Halictini). Zootaxa, 2591: 1382.
Gibbs, J. 2011. Revision of the metallic Lasioglossum (Dialictus) of eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Halictidae: Halictini). Zootaxa, 3073: 1216.
Gibbs, J. and Dathe, H.H. 2017. First records of Hylaeus (Paraprosopis) pictipes Nylander, 1852 (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) in North America. Check List, 13: 16.
Gibbs, J., Packer, L., Dumesh, S., and Danforth, B.N. 2013. Revision and reclassification of Lasioglossum (Evylaeus), L. (Hemihalictus) and L. (Sphecodogastra) in eastern North America (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Halictidae). Zootaxa, 3672: 1117.
Goldstein, P.Z. and DeSalle, R. 2011. Integrating DNA barcode data and taxonomic practice: determination, discovery, and description. Bioessays, 33: 135147.
Hajibabaei, M., Ivanova, N.V., Ratnasingham, S., Dooh, R.T., Kirk, S.L., Mackie, P.M., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2005. Critical factors for assembling a high volume of DNA barcodes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 360: 19591967.
Hajibabaei, M., Singer, G.A., Hebert, P.D.N., and Hickey, D.A. 2007. DNA barcoding: how it complements taxonomy, molecular phylogenetics and population genetics. TRENDS in Genetics, 23: 167172.
Hajibabaei, M., Smith, M., Janzen, D.H., Rodriguez, J.J., Whitfield, J.B., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2006. A minimalist barcode can identify a specimen whose DNA is degraded. Molecular Ecology Notes, 6: 959964.
Hebert, P.D.N., Cywinska, A., Ball, S.L., and deWaard, J.R. 2003a. Biological identifications through DNA barcodes. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 270: 313322.
Hebert, P.D.N. and Humble, L.M. 2011. A comprehensive DNA barcode library for the looper moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) of British Columbia, Canada. Public Library of Science One, 6: e18290.
Hebert, P.D.N. and Landry, J.F. 2010. DNA barcodes for 1/1000 of the animal kingdom. Biology Letters, 6: 359362.
Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S., and de Waard, J.R. 2003b. Barcoding animal life: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 divergences among closely related species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 270(Supplement 1): S96S99.
Hebert, P.D.N., Ratnasingham, S., Zakharov, E.V., Telfer, A.C., Levesque-Beaudin, V., Milton, M.A., et al. 2016. Counting animal species with DNA barcodes: Canadian insects. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Series B, 371: 20150333.
Hicks, B. 2009. Observations of nest structure of Osmia inermis (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) from Newfoundland, Canada. Journal of the Acadian Entomological Society, 5: 1218.
Hollingsworth, P.M., Graham, S.W., and Little, D.P. 2011. Choosing and using a plant DNA barcode. Public Library of Science One, 6: e19254.
Hurd, P.D. 1979. Superfamily Apoidea. In Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico. Edited by K.V. Krombein, P.D. Hurd, D.R. Smith, and R.D. Burks. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, District of Columbia, United States of America. Pp. 17412209.
Köhler, F. 2007. From DNA taxonomy to barcoding – how a vague idea evolved into a biosystematic tool. Mitteilungen aus dem Museum für Naturkunde in Berlin, Zoologische Reihe, 83: 4451.
Kress, W.J. and Erickson, D.L. 2007. A two-locus global DNA barcode for land plants: the coding rbcL gene complements the non-coding trnH-psbA spacer region. Public Library of Science One, 2: e508.
Kress, W.J., García-Robledo, C., Uriarte, M., and Erickson, D.L. 2015. DNA barcodes for ecology, evolution, and conservation. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 30: 2535.
Kress, W.J., Wurdack, K.J., Zimmer, E.A., Weigt, L.A., and Janzen, D.H. 2005. Use of DNA barcodes to identify flowering plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102: 83698374.
Kumar, S., Stecher, G., and Tamura, K. 2016. MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33: 18701874.
Li, X., Yang, Y., Henry, R.J., Rossetto, M., Wang, Y., and Chen, S. 2015. Plant DNA barcoding: from gene to genome. Biological Reviews, 90: 157166.
Lim, G.S., Balke, M., and Meier, R. 2012. Determining species boundaries in a world full of rarity: singletons, species delimitation methods. Systematic Biology, 61: 165169.
MacIvor, J.S. 2016. DNA barcoding to identify leaf preference of leafcutting bees. Royal Society Open Science, 3: 150623. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150623.
Magnacca, K.N. and Brown, M.J. 2009. Tissue segregation of mitochondrial haplotypes in heteroplasmic Hawaiian bees: implications for DNA barcoding. Molecular Ecology Resources, 10: 6068.
Magnacca, K.N. and Brown, M.J. 2010. Mitochondrial heteroplasmy and DNA barcoding in Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) bees (Hymenoptera: Colletidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10: 116.
Magnacca, K.N. and Brown, M.J. 2012. DNA barcoding a regional fauna: Irish solitary bees. Molecular Ecology Resources, 12: 990998.
Martins, K.T., Normandin, É., and Ascher, J.S. 2017. Hylaeus communis (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), a new exotic bee for North America with generalist foraging and habitat preferences. The Canadian Entomologist, 149: 377390.
Maurer, D. 2000. The dark side of taxonomic sufficiency (TS). Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 98101.
Meier, R. and Dikow, T. 2004. Significance of specimen databases from taxonomic revisions for estimating and mapping the global species diversity of invertebrates and repatriating reliable specimen data. Conservation Biology, 18: 478488.
Michener, C.D. 2007. The bees of the world, 2nd edition, Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America.
Mitchell, T.B. 1960. Bees of the eastern United States. Volume I. North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin, 141: 1538.
Onuferko, T.M. 2017. Cleptoparasitic bees of the genus Epeolus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, 30: 162. https://doi.org/10.3752/cjai.2017.30.
Ordway, E. 1966. Systematics of the genus Augochlorella (Hymenoptera, Halictidae) north of Mexico. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin, 46: 509624.
Packer, L., Gibbs, J., Sheffield, C., and Hanner, R. 2009a. DNA Barcoding and the mediocrity of morphology. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 4250.
Packer, L., Gibbs, J., Sheffield, C., and Kevan, P. 2008. Barcoding the bees of the world. In Anais do VIII Encontro sobre Abelhas, Biodiversidade e Uso Sustentado de Abelhas. Edited by D. De Jong, T.M. Francoy, and W.C. Santana. Fundação de Pesquisas Científicas de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. Pp. 276282.
Packer, L., Grixti, J.C., Roughley, R.E., and Hanner, R. 2009a. The status of taxonomy in Canada and the impact of DNA barcoding. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 87: 10971110.
Packer, L., Sheffield, C.S., Gibbs, J., de Silva, N., Best, L.R., Ascher, J., et al. 2009b. The campaign to barcode the bees of the world: progress, problems, prognosis. In Memorias VI Congreso Mesoamericano sobre Abejas Nativas. Edited by C.L.Y. Obiols. Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala – Centro de Estudios Conservacionistas, Antigua, Guatemala. Pp. 180182.
Ratnasingham, S. and Hebert, P.D.N. 2007. BOLD: The barcode of life data system (http://www.barcodinglife.org). Molecular Ecology Notes, 7: 355364.
Ratnasingham, S. and Hebert, P.D.N. 2013. A DNA-based registry for all animal species: the barcode index number (BIN) system. Public Library of Science One, 8: e66213.
Rehan, S.M. and Sheffield, C.S. 2011. Morphological and molecular delineation of a new species in the Ceratina dupla species-group (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of eastern North America. Zootaxa, 2873: 3550.
Romankova, T. 2004. Ontario bees of the tribe Epeolini: Epeolus Latreille and Triepeolus Robertson (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Nomadinae). Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 135: 8799.
Rosenmeier, L. and Packer, L. 1993. A comparison of genetic variation in two sibling species pairs of haplodiploid insects. Biochemical Genetics, 31: 185200.
Schmidt, S., Schmid‐Egger, C., Morinière, J., Haszprunar, G., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2015. DNA barcoding largely supports 250 years of classical taxonomy: identifications for Central European bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea partim). Molecular Ecology Resources, 15: 9851000.
Sheffield, C.S., Dumesh, S., and Cheryomina, M. 2011a. Hylaeus punctatus (Hymenoptera: Colletidae), a bee species new to Canada with a review of other non-native species. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 142: 2943.
Sheffield, C.S., Frier, S.D., and Dumesh, S. 2014. The bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) of the Prairies Ecozone, with comparisons to other grasslands of Canada. In Arthropods of Canadian grasslands (volume 4): biodiversity and systematics, part 2. Edited by D.J. Giberson and H.A. Cárcamo. Biological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Pp. 427467.
Sheffield, C.S. and Genaro, J.A. 2013. A new species of Megachile (Litomegachile) from Cuba, the Antilles (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of Melittology, 19: 117.
Sheffield, C.S., Hebert, P.D., Kevan, P.G., and Packer, L. 2009. DNA barcoding a regional bee (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) fauna and its potential for ecological studies. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 196207.
Sheffield, C.S., Kevan, P.G., Smith, R.F., Rigby, S.M., and Rogers, R.E.L. 2003. Bee species of Nova Scotia, Canada, with new records and notes on bionomics and floral relations (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, 76: 357384.
Sheffield, C.S., Kevan, P.G., Westby, S.M., and Smith, R.F. 2008. Diversity of cavity-nesting bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) within apple orchards and wild habitats in the Annapolis Valley, Nova Scotia, Canada. The Canadian Entomologist, 140: 235249.
Sheffield, C.S. and Perron, J.-M. 2014. Annotated catalogue of the bees described by Léon Provancher (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apiformes). The Canadian Entomologist, 146: 117169.
Sheffield, C.S., Pindar, A., Packer, L., and Kevan, P.G. 2013. The potential of cleptoparasitic bees as indicator taxa for assessing bee communities. Apidologie, 44: 501510.
Sheffield, C.S., Ratti, C., Packer, L., and Griswold, T. 2011b. Leafcutter and mason bees of the genus Megachile Latreille (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in Canada and Alaska. Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, 18: 1107.
Sheffield, C.S., Richards, M., and Griswold, T. 2010. Discovery of the Old World bee, Megachile (Pseudomegachile) ericetorum (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), in Ontario, Canada. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 141: 8592.
Sheffield, C.S., Richardson, L., Cannings, S., Ngo, H., Heron, J., and Williams, P.H. 2016. Biogeography and designatable units of Bombus occidentalis Greene and B. terricola Kirby (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with implications for conservation status assessments. Journal of Insect Conservation, 20: 189199. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10841-016-9853-2.
Sheffield, C.S. and Westby, S.M. 2007. The male of Megachile nivalis Friese, with an updated key to members of the subgenus Megachile s. str. (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in North America. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 16: 178191.
Sheffield, C.S. and Williams, P.H. 2011. Discovery of Bombus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in continental North America. Journal of the Entomological Society of Ontario, 142: 5356.
Shokralla, S., Zhou, X., Janzen, D.H., Hallwachs, W., Landry, J.F., Jacobus, L.M., and Hajibabaei, M. 2011. Pyrosequencing for mini-barcoding of fresh and old museum specimens. Public Library of Science One, 6: e21252.
Slowik, J. and Blagoev, G.A. 2012. A survey of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of Prince of Wales Island, Alaska; combining morphological and DNA barcode identification techniques. Insecta Mundi, 251: 112.
Smith, M.A., Fernandez-Triana, J., Roughley, R., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2009. DNA barcode accumulation curves for understudied taxa and areas. Molecular Ecology Resources, 9: 208216.
Smith, M.A., Fisher, B.L., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2005. DNA barcoding for effective biodiversity assessment of a hyperdiverse arthropod group: the ants of Madagascar. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 360: 18251834.
Soltis, P.S. and Gitzendanner, M.A. 1999. Molecular systematics and the conservation of rare species. Conservation Biology, 13: 471483.
Spooner, D.M. 2009. DNA barcoding will frequently fail in complicated groups: an example in wild potatoes. American Journal of Botany, 96: 11771189.
Stahlhut, J.K., Fernández-Triana, J., Adamowicz, S.J., Buck, M., Goulet, H., Hebert, P.D.N., et al. 2013. DNA barcoding reveals diversity of Hymenoptera and the dominance of parasitoids in a sub-Arctic environment. BMC Ecology, 13: 2. Available from www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6785/13/2 [accessed 23 August 2017].
Trunz, V., Packer, L., Vieu, J., Arrigo, N., and Praz, C.J. 2016. Comprehensive phylogeny, biogeography and new classification of the diverse bee tribe Megachilini: can we use DNA barcodes in phylogenies of large genera? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 103: 245259.
Valentini, A., Miquel, C., and Taberlet, P. 2010. DNA barcoding for honey biodiversity. Diversity, 2: 610617.
Valentini, A., Pompanon, F., and Taberlet, P. 2009. DNA barcoding for ecologists. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24: 110117.
Vamosi, J.C., Gong, Y.B., Adamowicz, S.J., and Packer, L. 2016. Forecasting pollination declines through DNA barcoding: the potential contributions of macroecological and macroevolutionary scales of inquiry. New Phytologist, 213: 1118. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.14356.
Vickruck, J.L., Rehan, S.M., Sheffield, C.S., and Richards, M.H. 2011. Nesting biology and barcode analysis of two cryptic species within Ceratina dupla, with comparisons to C. calcarata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae). The Canadian Entomologist, 143: 254262.
Williams, P.H., Brown, M.J.F., Carolan, J.C., An, J., Goulson, D., Aytekin, A.M., et al. 2012. Unveiling cryptic species of the bumblebee subgenus Bombus s. str. world-wide with COI barcodes (Hymenoptera: Apidae). Systematics and Biodiversity, 10: 2156.
Williams, P.H., Byvaltsev, A.M., Cederberg, B., Berezin, M.V., Ødegaard, F., Rasmussen, C., et al. 2015. Genes suggest arctic bumblebees combine morphologically cryptic species with ancestral colour polymorphisms that cut across species. Public Library of Science One, 10: e0144544. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144544.
Williams, P.H., Cannings, S.G., and Sheffield, C.S. 2016. Cryptic subarctic diversity: a new bumblebee species from the Yukon and Alaska (Hymenoptera, Apidae). Journal of Natural History, 50: 4546.
Williams, P.H., Thorp, R.W., Richardson, L.L., and Colla, S.R. 2014. Bumble bees of North America: an identification guide. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America.
Zahiri, R., Lafontaine, J.D., Schmidt, B.C., Zakharov, E.V., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2014. A transcontinental challenge – a test of DNA barcode performance for 1,541 species of Canadian Noctuoidea (Lepidoptera). Public Library of Science One, 9: e92797.
Zahiri, R., Lafontaine, J.D., Schmidt, B.C., Zakharov, E.V., and Hebert, P.D.N. 2017. Probing planetary biodiversity with DNA barcodes: the Noctuoidea of North America. Public Library of Science One, 12: e0178548.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

The Canadian Entomologist
  • ISSN: 0008-347X
  • EISSN: 1918-3240
  • URL: /core/journals/canadian-entomologist
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 90
Total number of PDF views: 333 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 802 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 6th October 2017 - 21st August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.