Aikens, K.R.Buddle, C.M. 2012. Small-scale heterogeneity in temperate forest canopy arthropods: stratification of spider and beetle assemblages. The Canadian Entomologist, 144: 526–537. doi:10.4039/tce.2012.51.
Anderson, M.J. 2001. A new method for non-parametric multivariate analysis of variance. Austral Ecology, 26: 32–46.
Anderson, M.J. 2005. PERMANOVA: a Fortran computer program for permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Department of Statistics, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
Basset, Y., Aberlenc, H.P., Barrios, H., Curletti, G., Berenger, J.M., Vesco, J.P., et al. 2001. Stratification and diel activity of arthropods in a lowland rainforest in Gabon. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 72: 585–607.
Basset, Y., Aberlenc, H.P., Delvare, G. 1992. Abundance and stratification of foliage arthropods in a lowland rain-forest of Cameroon. Ecological Entomology, 17: 310–318.
Basset, Y., Hammond, P.H., Barrios, H., Holloway, J.D., Miller, S.E. 2003. Vertical stratification of arthropod assemblages. In Arthropods of tropical forests: spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Edited by Y. Basset, V. Novotny, S.E. Miller and R.L. Kitching. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 17–27.
Bernard, E. 2001. Vertical stratification of bat communities in primary forests of central Amazonia, Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 17: 115–126.
Bolker, B.M., Brooks, M.E., Clark, C.J., Geange, S.W., Poulsen, J.R., Stevens, M.H.H., et al. 2009. Generalized linear mixed models: a practical guide for ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 24: 127–135.
Buddle, C.M.Draney, M.L. 2004. Phenology of linyphiids in an old-growth deciduous forest in central Alberta, Canada. Journal of Arachnology, 32: 221–230.
Buddle, C.M.Shorthouse, D.P. 2008. Effects of experimental harvesting on spider (Araneae) assemblages in boreal deciduous forests. The Canadian Entomologist, 140: 437–452.
Buddle, C.M., Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W. 2000. Succession of boreal forest spider assemblages following wildfire and harvesting. Ecography, 23: 424–436.
Castilho, A.C.D., Marques, M., Adis, J., Brescovit, A.D. 2005. Seasonal and vertical distribution of Araneae in an area with predominance of Attalea phalerata MART. (Arecaceae), in the Pantanal of Pocone, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Amazoniana-Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systemae Fluminis Amazonas, 18: 215–239.
Chao, A. 1987. Estimating the population size for capture–recapture data with unequal catchability. Biometrics, 43: 783–791.
Chen, H.Popadiouk, R. 2002. Dynamics of North American boreal mixedwoods. Environmental Reviews, 10: 137–166.
DeVries, P.J., Murray, D., Lande, R. 1997. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal, and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 62: 343–364.
Docherty, M.Leather, S.R. 1997. Structure and abundance of arachnid communities in Scots and Lodgepole pine plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 95: 197–207.
Elliott, F.R. 1930. An ecological study of the spiders of the beech-maple forest. Ohio Journal of Science, 30: 1–22.
Enders, F. 1974. Vertical stratification in orb-web spiders (Araneidae-Araneae) and a consideration of other methods of coexistence. Ecology, 55: 317–328.
Esseen, P.A., Ehnstrom, B., Ericson, L., Sjoberg, K. 1997. Boreal forests. Ecological Bulletins, 46: 16–47.
Farjon, A.Page, C.N. (eds) 1999. Conifers: status survey and conservation action plan. IUCN/SSC, Conifer Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.
Fisher, R.A., Corbet, A.S., Williams, C.B. 1943. The relation between the number of species and the number of individuals in a random sample of an animal population. Journal of Animal Ecology, 12: 42–58.
Fox, J. 2002. An R and S-Plus companion to applied regression. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, California, United States of America.
Greenslade, P.J.M. 1964. Pitfall trapping as a method for studying populations of Carabidae (Coleoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology, 33: 301–310.
Greenstone, M.H. 1984. Determinants of web spider species-diversity – vegetation structural diversity vs prey availability. Oecologia, 62: 299–304.
Gunnarsson, B. 1988. Spruce-living spiders and forest decline – the importance of needle-loss. Biological Conservation, 43: 309–319.
Gunnarsson, B. 1990. Vegetation structure and the abundance and size distribution of spruce-living spiders. Journal of Animal Ecology, 59: 743–752.
Gunnarsson, B. 2007. Predation on spiders: ecological mechanisms and evolutionary consequences. Journal of Arachnology, 35: 509–529.
Gunnarsson, B., Hake, M., Hultengren, S. 2004. A functional relationship between species richness of spiders and lichens in spruce. Biodiversity and Conservation, 13: 685–693.
Halaj, J., Ross, D.W., Mason, R.R., Torgersen, T.R., Moldenke, A.R. 1996. Geographic variation in arboreal spider (Araneae) communities on Douglas-fir in western Oregon. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 72: 17–26.
Halaj, J., Ross, D.W., Moldenke, A.R. 1998. Habitat structure and prey availability as predictors of the abundance and community organization of spiders in western Oregon forest canopies. Journal of Arachnology, 26: 203–220.
Halaj, J., Ross, D.W., Moldenke, A.R. 2000. Importance of habitat structure to the arthropod food-web in Douglas-fir canopies. Oikos, 90: 139–152.
Hayek, L.-A.C.Buzas, M.A. 1997. Surveying natural populations. Columbia University Press, New York, United States of America.
Højsgaard, S., Halekoh, U., Yan, J. 2012. The R Package geepack for generalized estimating equations. Journal of Statistical Software, 15: 1–11.
Horvath, R., Lengyel, S., Szinetar, C., Jakab, L. 2005. The effect of prey availability on spider assemblages on European black pine (Pinus nigra) bark: spatial patterns and guild structure. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83: 324–335.
Huhta, V. 1965. Ecology of spiders in the soil and litter of Finnish forests. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 2: 260–301.
Huhta, V. 1971. Succession in the spider communities of the forest floor after clear-cutting and prescribed burning. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 8: 483–542.
Jennings, D.T.Collins, J.A. 1987a. Coniferous-habitat associations of spiders (Araneae) on red spruce foliage. Journal of Arachnology, 14: 315–326.
Jennings, D.T.Collins, J.A. 1987b. Spiders on red spruce foliage in Maine. Journal of Arachnology, 14: 303–314.
Jennings, D.T.Dimond, J.B. 1988. Arboreal spiders (Araneae) on balsam fir and spruces in east-central Maine. Journal of Arachnology, 16: 223–235.
Jennings, D.T., Houseweart, M.W., Dondale, C.D., Redner, J.H. 1988. Spiders (Araneae) associated with strip-clearcut and dense spruce-fir forests of Maine. Journal of Arachnology, 16: 55–70.
Juutinen, A. 2008. Old-growth boreal forests: worth protecting for biodiversity? Journal of Forest Economics, 14: 242–267.
Kempton, R.A.Taylor, L.R. 1974. Log-series and log-normal parameters as diversity discriminants for Lepidoptera. Journal of Animal Ecology, 43: 381–399.
Kempton, R.A.Taylor, L.R. 1976. Models and statistics for species diversity. Nature, 262: 818–820.
Koleff, P., Gaston, K.J., Lennon, J.J. 2003. Measuring beta diversity for presence–absence data. Journal of Animal Ecology, 72: 367–382.
Koop, H.Sterck, F.J. 1994. Light penetration through strcuturally complex canopies: an example of a lowland tropical rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 69: 111–122.
Krebs, C.J. 1999. Ecological methodology. Addison-Wesley, California, United States of America.
Lang, A. 2000. The pitfalls of pitfalls: a comparison of pitfall trap catches and absolute density estimates of epigeal invertebrate predators in arable land. Anzeiger Fur Schadlingskunde-Journal of Pest Science, 73: 99–106.
Larrivée, M.Buddle, C.M. 2009. Diversity of canopy and understorey spiders in north-temperate hardwood forests. Agricultural and Environmental Entomology, 11: 225–237.
Legendre, P.Gallagher, E.D. 2001. Ecologically meaningful transformations for ordination of species data. Oecologia, 129: 271–280.
Liang, K.Y.Zeger, S.L. 1986. Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika, 73: 13–22.
Luff, M.L. 1996. Use of carabids as environmental indicators in grasslands and cereals. Annales Zoologici Fennici, 33: 185–195.
Madigosky, S.R. 2004. Tropical microclimatic considerations. In Forest canopies. Edited by M.D. Lowman and H.B. Rinker. Elsevier Academic Press, Burlington,Massachusetts, United States of America. pp. 24–48.
Maechler, M., Rousseeuw, P., Struyf, A., Hubert, M., Hornik, K. 2012. Cluster: cluster analysis basics and extensions [online]. R package version 1.14.3. Available from http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/cluster [accessed 18 November 2012].
Magurran, A.E. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, Massachussets, United States of America.
Mason, R.R. 1992. Populations of arboreal spiders (Araneae) on Douglas-firs and true firs in the interior Pacific-Northwest. Environmental Entomology, 21: 75–80.
McCune, B., Rosentreter, R., Ponzetti, J.M., Shaw, D.C. 2000. Epiphyte habitats in an old conifer forest in western Washington, U.S.A. The Bryologist, 103: 417–427.
Niemelä, J., Pajunen, T., Haila, Y., Punttila, P., Halme, E. 1994. Seasonal activity of boreal forest floor spiders (Araneae). Journal of Arachnology, 22: 23–31.
Oksanen, J., Blanchet, F.G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., Minchin, P.R., O'Hara, B., et al. 2012. Vegan: community ecology package [online]. R Package version 2.0-5. Available from: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/vegan/index.html [accessed 18 November 2012].
Paquin, P., Buckle, D.J., Dupérré, N., Dondale, C.D. 2010. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) from Alaska and Canada. Zootaxa, 2461: 1–170.
Pearson, D.L. 1971. Vertical stratification of birds in a tropical dry forest. The Condor, 73: 46–55.
Pekár, S. 2005. Horizontal and vertical distribution of spiders (Araneae) in sunflowers. Journal of Arachnology, 33: 197–204.
Pettersson, R.B. 1996. Effect of forestry on the abundance and diversity of arboreal spiders in the boreal spruce forest. Ecography, 19: 221–228.
Pinzon, J.Spence, J.R. 2010. Bark-dwelling spider assemblages (Araneae) in the boreal forest: dominance, diversity, composition and life-histories. Journal of Insect Conservation, 14: 439–458.
Pinzon, J., Spence, J.R., Langor, D.W. 2011. Spider assembalges in the overstory, understory and ground layers of managed stands in the western boreal mixedwood forest of Canada. Environmental Entomology, 40: 797–808.
R Development Core Team. 2012. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Schaefer, H.M., Schmidt, V., Wesenberg, J. 2002. Vertical stratification and caloric content of the standing forest crop in a tropical lowland forest. Biotropica, 34: 244–253.
Schoonmaker, P.McKee, A. 1988. Species composition and diversity during secondary succession of coniferous forests in the Western Cascade Mountains of Oregon. Forest Science, 34: 960–979.
Schowalter, T.D. 1995. Canopy arthropod communities in relation to forest age and alternative harvest practices in western Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management, 78: 115–125.
Schowalter, T.D.Ganio, L.M. 1998. Vertical and seasonal variation in canopy arthropod communities in an old-growth conifer forest in southwestern Washington, USA. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 88: 633–640.
Schowalter, T.D., Stafford, S.G., Slagle, R.L. 1988. Arboreal arthropod community structure in an early successional coniferous forest ecosystem in western Oregon. Great Basin Naturalist, 48: 327–333.
Schowalter, T.D.Zhang, Y.L. 2005. Canopy arthropod assemblages in four overstory and three understory plant species in a mixed-conifer old-growth forest in California. Forest Science, 51: 233–242.
Schulze, C.H.Fiedler, K. 2003. Vertical and temporal diversity of a species-rich moth taxon in Borneo. In Arthropods of tropical forests: spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Edited by Y. Basset, P.H. Hammond, H. Barrios, J.D. Holloway and S.E. Miller. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 69–85.
Shanahan, M.Compton, S.G. 2001. Vertical stratification of figs and fig-eaters in a Bornean lowland rain forest: how is canopy different? Plant Ecology, 153: 121–132.
Shaw, D.C. 2004. Vertical organization of canopy biota. In Forest canopies. Edited by M.D. Lowman and H.B. Rinker. Elsevier Accademic Press, Burlington, Massachussets, United States of America. pp. 73–101.
Simon, U. 1993. Spider and harvestment fauna (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones) of pine trees (Pinus silvestris L.) and its stratification. Bollettino dell'Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali, 26: 323–334.
Smith, A.P. 1973. Stratification of temperate and tropical forests. The American Naturalist, 107: 671–683.
Sørensen, L.L. 2003. Stratification of spider fauna in a Tanzanian forest. In Arthropods of tropical forests: spatio-temporal dynamics and resource use in the canopy. Edited by Y. Basset, V. Novotny, S.E. Miller and R.L. Kitching. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom. pp. 92–101.
Spence, J.R.Niemelä, J.K. 1994. Sampling carabid assemblages with pitfall traps – the madness and the method. The Canadian Entomologist, 126: 881–894.
Stratton, G.E., Uetz, G.W., Dillery, D.G. 1979. Comparison of the spiders of three coniferous tree species. Journal of Arachnology, 6: 219–226.
Topping, C.J.Sunderland, K.D. 1992. Limitations to the use of pitfall traps in ecological studies exemplified by a study of spiders in a field of winter wheat. Journal of Applied Ecology, 29: 485–491.
Turnbull, A.L. 1960. The spider population of a stand of oak (Quercus robus L.) in Wytham Wood, Berks., England. The Canadian Entomologist, 92: 110–124.
Turnbull, A.L. 1973. Ecology of true spiders (Araneomorphae). Annual Review of Entomology, 18: 305–348.
Uetz, G.W. 1991. Habitat structure and spider foraging. In Habitat structure: the physical arrangement of objects in space. Edited by S.S. Bell, E.D. McCoy and H.R. Mushinsky. Chapman & Hall, London, United kingdom. pp. 325–348.
Wagner, J.D., Toft, S., Wise, D.H. 2003. Spatial stratification in litter depth by forest-floor spiders. Journal of Arachnology, 31: 28–39.
Walther, B.A. 2002. Vertical stratification and use of vegetation and light habitats by Neotropical forest birds. Journal of Ornithology, 143: 63–81.
Whittaker, R.H. 1960. Vegetation of the Siskiyou Mountains, Oregon and California. Ecological Monographs, 30: 280–338.
Work, T.T., Shorthouse, D.P., Spence, J.R., Volney, W.J.A., Langor, D.W. 2004. Stand composition and structure of the boreal mixedwood and epigaeic arthropods of the Ecosystem Management Emulating Natural Disturbance (EMEND) landbase in northwestern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 34: 417–430.